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REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



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House erected and occupied b\ the Kc\ |»cob I oh n son 
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occupied by Dr. c. F. ingkai 
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€oxt Publication jfnno. 



PROCEEDINGS 



COLLECTIONS 



WYOMING HISTORI CAL ^JD GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 



For the Year 19 10. 



V^ /I 



EDITED BY 

Rev. Horace Edwin Havden, II. A.. 

Corresponding Secretary arn.1 Librarian. 




VOLUME XI. 



Wll.KK^-PARRfe, PA. 

PRINTED FOR THK. SOOHY. 

I9IO. 



16'7G07i 



Printed by The E. B. Yordy Co. 
WUkcs-Barr*. Pa. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/proceedingscolle11wyom_0 



PREFACE. 



The Publishing Committee is glad to be able to report the 
increase of the "Coxe Publication Fund" during thc 
year to $10,000, thus insuring the financial ability of the 
Society to issue an annual volume. 

The presentation of the "Reminiscences of Rev. Jacob 
Johnson, M. A.," full of Wyoming interest, will doul 
please the historical readers. They throw much light on the 
effort of Mr. Johnson and others to establish a school 
among the Indians of the Six Nations, as well as upon the 
history of the early church in Wilkes-Barre and part- adja- 
cent. 

The promise made in volume X to publish in the present 
volume a part of the "Westmoreland Records" in the p sse- 
sion of the Society, was dependent upon the is<ue of the 
third volume of the fine history of Wilke-Barre, by O. J. 
Harvey, Esq. As that volume has been necessarily delayed. 
it was thought best to await its issue rather than to antici- 
pate Mr. Harvey's work. The Westmoreland Records will 
probably be a feature of volume XII for 191 1. 

The Committee is indebted to Mr. Harvey for the ti- 
the plate of the old Jacob Johnson house used as our fr 

piece. 

Rev. Horace Edwin IIaydex. 

Miss Myra Poland. 

George Frederick Godding 

Publishing ComwdNi 



CONTENTS. 



Preface 



a 



Contents 5-6 

Proceedings 

Reports : 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN 10-19,21-26 

Curator of Archaeology 21-J6 

Treasurer, and Special Funds 28-30 

Glacial Erosion in the San Juan* Mount ah 
Colorado, by Prof. Thomas Cramer Hopkins, 
Ph. D. Illustrated 31-44 

Charles Darwin, Centennial Address, 

by Miss Anne Dorrance. A. B. Portrait 

Influence of the Iroquois on the History and 
Archaeology of the Wyoming Valley, 
by Arthur C. Parker. Illustrated 65-102 

Reminiscences of Rev. Jacob Johnson, M. A.. 

1722-1790, by Frederick C. Johnson. M. D. 

Frontispiece i ( "\ 

The Pennsylvania Germans, 

by Granville Henry, Esq 101-210 

Marriage Record of Rev. William I\. Mott, 18; 

1885, by Arthur U. Dean 91 

Vital Statistics of the Wyoming SECTION, 

The Ross Family 

Revolutionary Pension Rons OF PlKl S 

hanna and Wayne CoUNTIl 5, Pa., 1835 



6 



CO VI ENTS. 



Obituaries ,231-230 

Samuel Li-: Roi Brown. 

Lt. Joseph Wright Graeme, U. S. X. 

Col. Elisha Atiif.kton Hancock, 
roeert baur. 
Edward Sterling Loop. 
Theodore Strong. 
William Glassell Eno. 
Gustav AnoLPH Baur. 
William Lord Conyngham. 
Mrs. Esther Taylor Wadhams. 

Members Deceased Since Volume X 240 

Officers for the Year 19 10 241 

Members of the Society 24 a 

Publications of the Society 249-254 

Index : - : . 



Proceedings and Collections 

OF TBI 

lUyoming historical anb (Ecological Sorictn. 

Volume XI. \vilkes-barr£, fa. i.i 

PROCEEDINGS. 



December ii, 1908. The quarterly meeting was held this 
evening to take action on a proposed amendment to the By- 
laws, approved by the Trustees October 13. The Librarian 
moved to amendBy-law sixth, page 18, by substituting the 
following for lines seventeen to twenty-one: "The Fund 
called the Harrison Wright Fund, and every other such 
special fund that has been or may be given by an indivio 
or individuals for a specific purpose, and accepted thus 1 
the Trustees, such as the 'Sheldon Reynolds Fund/ the 
'Coxe Publication Fund/ the 'Laning Historical 
the 'Butler Ethnological Fund.' the 'Hayden ical 

Fund/ the Tngham Geological Fund/ and the X 
Paleozoic Fund/ and not designated for general pur] 
shall bear the respective name given by tlv 
securely invested separatelv from the 'General Fund', at 
the Treasurer shall pav the interest oi sue- fund 

semi-annuallv to the Librarian, who shall r 
same, expend it under the direction of the Cabinet 
tee (see Bv-law 16), keep an accurate a 
penditures 'and render an annual report 
fund to the Trustees. Every fund of $1,000 
whether special or general, shall bear the r. 
the donors and shall be published annually by 
in his report. The Trustees shall pay to the 
nually, or semi-annuallv. the accrued interest 01 - 

Funds, or add the same to the Funds as they dean fee 

the Society." 






7 



8 PROCEEDINGS. 

January 8, 19x9. The January meeting was held to-night 
to listen to the annual Geological Lecture, which was deliv- 
ered by Prof. Thomas C. Hopkins, Ph. D., Professor of 
Geology, Syracuse University, N. Y., on ''Glacial Erosion in 
San Juan Mountains, Colorado." The lecture was illus- 
trated with stereoptican views and was referred, with a vote 
of thanks, to the Publishing Committee. A brief discussion 
of the subject followed. This was the first lecture under the 
"Horace E. Hayden Geological Fund." 

February ii, 1909. The fifty-first annual meeting was 
held this evening. JThe following annual members were 
elected: Col. Lewis A. YVatres and J. Benjamin Dimmock, 
Esq., both of Scranton. The officers of the previous year 
were re-elected without change. The annual reports of the 
Corresponding Secretary and Librarian, the Treasurer, and 
the Curator of Archaeology, were read and approved and 
unanimously referred to the Publishing Committee. This 
being the centennial of Charles Darwin, the eminent scientist. 
the day was celebrated by an admirable paper on this distin- 
guished scholar by our member, Miss Anne Dorrance, A. B. 
(Vassar). A vote of thanks was passed to Miss Dorrance 
and her paper was referred to the Publishing Committee. 
The Librarian reported the gift to the Society of the manu- 
scripts and business books of Col. Matthias Hollenback. cov- 
ering the years from 1773 to 1830, presented by his heir-. 
Also twelve volumes of Biographical Annals from the Lewis 
Publishing Company, N. Y., all of which was acknowledged 
by a vote of thanks. 

May 14, 1909. Quarterly meeting was held at 8 p. m. at 
the Rooms. The amendment to the By-law proposed and laid 
over at the quarterly meeting. December. tqoS, was presented 
and unanimously adopted. The Rev. Dr. Ferdinand von 
Krug read an address prepared by Granville Henry. Esq.. a 
corresponding member, entitled the "Pennsylvania German. 
His Personal Characteristics, etc." Mr. Henry was unable 
to be present. A vote of thanks was extended to Mr. Henry 
for his paper, to Dr. von Krug for reading it. and the address 
was referred to the Publishing Committee. After the dis- 
cussion of the paper the President re-appointed for the pres- 
ent year the Publishing Committee: Messrs. Hayden. Cod- 
dington and Miss Poland. 



PROCEEDINGS. 9 

The following persons were elected honorary members : 
Thomas L. Montgomery, Esq., State Librarian, and Lyon 
Gardiner Tyler, LL. D., President William and Mary's Col- 
lege, Virginia. 

December io, 1909. The regular quarterly meeting of the 
Society was held at 8 p. m. The attendance was so large 
that many had to be turned away. 

Mr. Arthur C. Parker, an Indian of the Seneca Tribe, 
New York, and Archaeologist of the State, being introduced, 
delivered a most interesting address on ''The Aboriginal 
Occupation of Wyoming Valley from the Standpoint of 
Primitive Culture." The speaker illustrated his lecture with 
stereopticon views of various things of Indian life and man- 
ufacture, especially of specimens belonging to this Society. 
After the lecture a vote of thanks was unanimously passed, 
and his. valuable paper was referred to the Publishing Com- 
mittee. This lecture was the first under the "Augustus C. 
Laning Fund." The Society was indebted to the Rev. Dr. 
C. E. Mogg for the use of his stereopticon. 

February ii, 1910. The fifty-second annual meeting of 
the Society was held this evening. After prayer by the Rev. 
Dr. Jones the reports of the Corresponding Secretary and 
Librarian, of the Curator of Archaeology, and of the Treas- 
urer were read, approved, and referred to the Publishing 
Committee. The Nominating Committee presented the names 
of the officers o.f last year for re-election, without change, 
except the substitution of Mr. William H. Conyngham as 
Vice President to succeed Dr. Levi I. Shoemaker, lately de- 
ceased. The following persons were duly elected to annual 
membership: Miss Cornelia M. Starke, Miss Caroline Ives 
Harrower, Arthur Hillman and Oscar J. Harvey. E.-quires. 
The address of the evening was read by the Librarian, being 
a portion of an extended paper by Dr. F. C. Johnson, upon 
the experience of Rev. Jacob Johnson, the first pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church, W'ilkes-Barre, covering the years 
1 762- 1 772, as a missionary among the Pequot Indians, and 
the Six Nations. The whole of this very interesting | 
was on motion referred to the Publishing Committee, with a 
vote of thanks to the author. It was rich with incidents of 
pre-revolutionary life and excited a great deal of interest. 
Dr. Johnson was prevented by his ill-health from reading 
the paper. 



REPORTS. 



Report of the Corresponding Secretary and Librarian for the 
Year ending February 11, 1S09. 



To the President and Members of the Wyoming Historical 
and Geological Society, Wilkes-Barre, Penn'a: 

Gentlemen — It is my privilege to present to you the 
fifty-first annual report of the Society for the year ending to- 
day, February n, 1909. With pardonable pride and sincere 
gratification I am able to state that the Society is now in a 
far more prosperous condition than ever before in its his- 
tory. 

When on the death of the late honored and able Presi- 
dent, Sheldon Reynolds. Esq.. in 1895, you selected me to 
take charge of these rooms with their treasures, it became 
my personal determination. Providence permitting, to spare 
no effort for the advancement of this Society until its endow- 
ment should reach the sum of $50,000. 

No one who has not essayed it can ever know the difficulty 
of attaining such a purpose. Xot even those who most 
appreciate the success can measure the patient self-denial 
and persistent endeavors of those who are really interested. 
in the face of indifference and lack of public spirit. 

In our appeal to the members and the public, made one 
year ago, we sought to secure by responsible pledges what 
would place the Society beyond the probability of failure. 
Toward the amount we aimed to secure, we have now at- 
tained in cash and in responsible pledges the sum oi 547.000. 
or $22,000 in addition to what we had last February. Mr. 
George S. Bennett and Mr. Abram Xesbitt having each sub- 
scribed $1,000 since the last report. Of this amount only 
$6,500 is still unpaid but due December. 1000. This larg 
sum includes our eight (8) Special Funds created fof s 
cial purposes. Excluding the "Coxe Publication Fun I 
$6,000, and the "Laning Historical Fund" of $1,000. 
Special Funds have been secured by small gifts, and the - 
of many of our publications, and indicate what can bo 
by persistent and energetic action. There still remains to be 
secured the sum of $3,000. toward which we have already 
received assurance of a part, if not the whole amount When 
this addition comes to us the entire amount will be suffic 

jo 



REPORTS. 1 1 

if wisely invested, to establish permanently the Wyoming 
flistorical and Geological Society. 

But the population of Wilkes-Barre alone has trebled 
within the past thirty years. It was 20,000 when the librarian 
first became a member of this Society in 1881. It is 60,000 
to-day, and the territory whose history is covered and pre- 
served by this Society — the county of Luzerne — with its 
daughters, the counties of Lackawanna and Wyoming, con- 
tains a population of 500,000 people, contrasted with 238,000 
thirty years ago. Everything else in this section advances 
on broad lines of improvement, and education keeps pace 
with the very best interests. In the property valuation of 
Wilkes-Barre alone the increase in these thirty years has 
been from $3,500,000 to $46,180,000. The production of 
coal in the Wyoming section alone has grown in thirty years 
from 12,000,000 to 125,000,000 tons. So we cannot more 
than speculate on the demands which this Historical and 
Geological Society must meet in the way of historical and 
scientific knowledge in the near future. It must keep pace 
with those demands. 

In these Rooms the evolution of the public school system 
in this city is shown by the photographs of three dilapidated 
frame buildings, which in 1864 would not hold over 150 
pupils, as compared with our present handsome buildings 
with our average attendance of 9,000 pupils. I say this 
Society must keep pace with the highest march of historic 
and scientific research. Two decades ago — only twenty 
years — there were no public libraries in Wilkes-Barre and 
Scranton, while now the Albright at Scranton, the Osterhout. 
and the Historical Library in Wilkes-Barre. contain over 
100,000 volumes, to which the general public of this entire 
section has access. So what this Society now needs is more 
energy and enthusiasm in pursuing the lines of education 
which it covers. 

Thirty years from now none of these three libraries will 
meet the public demand if no proportionate increase in 
books, material and methods is made. 

This Society now compares finely with other societies 
where work appears to be more effective. We have more than 
doubled the endowment of older and more active associa- 
tions, such as the Connecticut Historical Society, eighty- 
three years old, or the Maryland Historical Society, sixty- 
four years old ; the Virginia Historical Society, seventy-seven 
years old, none of which have over $25,000 endowment. 



12 REPORTS. 

But note the contrast : Take for example the Maryland 
Historical Society, now sixty- four years old, but far ex- 
ceeding us in art — her gallery full of rare and masterful old 
family and historic portraits and paintings known all over 
the United States. Her history illustrated by 50.000 books. 
Her literature by many rich volumes annually issued from 
her press, her endowment only $25,000. She is insured for 
$66,000. But her home is a large building worth $60,000. 
Her State gives her an annual appropriation of near $3,000, 
equal to our entire income, and she has an interested public 
whose pride in its Historical Society compels generosity. 

We rejoice in a fund of $47,000. A few years ago when 
the valuable Lord Calvert Papers were offered for sale in 
Maryland for $45,000, more than double her endowment, the 
members of the Maryland Society, and the non-members of 
Baltimore, promptly donated $45,000 as a gift and secured 
those valuable manuscripts. 

It is the public spirit that shows its appreciation oi its 
Historical Society to which this fact especially directs your 
attention. I think we are fortunate that the appeal we made 
to our Legislature two years ago for any sum less than 
$20,000 for the benefit of this Society failed. Though your 
librarian initiated and pressed the claim until $5,000 was 
really approved, he rejoices that it failed, and that an awak- 
ened public spirit in its members has made up to us what 
we had asked for from the State. The success of our 
efforts to secure an endowment has also increased our life 
members from 141 in 1907 to 200 in 1909, thus increasing 
the life membership fund from $14,000 to $20,000, which 
will all be paid in by December, 1909. 

For three years the members of this Society have patiently 
and promptly paid their annual dues of $5.00 without having 
received in that time any tangible return, except the small 
pamphlet issued last spring. We are now issuing to mem- 
bers Volume X of our Proceedings and Collections. Three 
years ago, in January, 1906, Volume IX was issued, rich 
ethnology and local history. But the Publishing Commitl 
felt too keenly the burden of ''making bricks without straw" 
to venture on another volume with "no visible means of sup- 
port" to meet the necessary expense. 

The "Coxe Publication Fund," given to us by two Hi 
bers of the Coxe family of Drifton and Philadelph 
this year placed this work within our power. The fund oi 
$6,000 does not quite cover the cost of such a work. : 



REPORTS. 13 

when we prove ourselves worthy of an increase it may yet 
reach the $10,000 limit. And Volume X, containing all the 
proceedings of the centennial of Judge Fell's successful ex- 
periment with Wyoming coal, making this one of the richest 
valleys in the world, and the semi-centennial of our organ- 
ization, will prove one of great interest to all who may re- 
ceive a copy. It is a volume richly illustrated and of great 
credit to the Society and to old Luzerne county. 

It is the purpose of the Publishing Committee, knowing 
that an Historical Society lives only so long as it publishes 
what is worth reading, to make sure the issue of our annual 
volume hereafter. 

In Volume XI we will probably begin the publication of 
that portion of the rare original "Records of the Town oi 
Westmoreland," 1773, now in the possession of this Society. 

It is really a question of justice and public duty whether 
original manuscripts or papers in the hands of Wyoming 
families or individuals ought not to be preserved in this 
Society rather than to run the risk of their loss by fire or 
neglect. And whether historical papers that pertain to this 
section of the State, and are thought worthy of publication 
in the ephemeral form of newspaper articles, ought not to be 
reserved for issue by this Society, with the wide circulation 
of its volumes in all similar societies and public libraries. 
From Maine to California, from Canada to the Gulf of 
Mexico, the volumes of this Society are exchanged with, or 
sold to such institutions. 

When the librarian first came to Wilkes-Barre he saw- 
four or five flour barrels packed full of the papers and cor- 
respondence of one of the most eminent judges of the State 
in the hands of a junk dealer, sold to him for old paper. 
When it is known that the only complete riles of Luzerne 
county and Wyoming newspapers extant, from 1797 to 190S, 
are in the library of this Society, many of which the librarian 
rescued from being thrown into the river. o\\q can realize 
how little permanent value the thousand of historical papers 
published in them are to the general public. Xo one but our 
honored historiographer, Dr. F. C. Johnson, ever appre- 
ciated the importance of these newspaper articles until he 
began to re-print and preserve them from the "Daily 
Record," in his most valuable "Historical Record of the 
Wyoming Valley/' fourteen volumes of which he has isstu I 
Owing to the failure of his health. Dr. Johnson had had to 
discontinue this valuable "Historical Record,"' but he has 






/ 

14 REPORTS. 

wisely donated the entire remainder to this Society within 
the past few months, to be sold to public libraries, and 
others, the proceeds to create a permanent "Rev. Jacob 
Johnson Fund," the interest of which will, when completed, 
be annually added to the current or general fund of the 
Society. Fully $1,000 worth of this "Record" are on sale 
in this Society. It is gratifying, also, to record that Mr. 
John Welles Hollenback has just given to the Society all 
the account books and letters of the late .Matthias Hollen- 
back's estates, covering the years from 1773 to 1830, and 
pertaining to his business in the Wyoming section. This is 
a gift which future generations will value and use. The 
Society now has, besides these papers, which fill a large place 
in the fireproof safe, the papers of Volney L. Maxwell, Esq.. 
and Mr. Ebenezer Bowman, many of the papers of Judge 
John N. Conyngham, Col. Zebulon Butler, General Lord 
Butler, Isaac Chapman, etc. 

The librarian has already begun the "Jacob Johnson 
Fund" by the sale of nearlv $100 worth of the "Historical 
Record." 

Four meetings of the Society were held during the past 
year. 

The fiftieth annual meeting, February 11, 1908. commem- 
orated the founding of this Society, February 11, 185S, and 
the successful experiment, one hundred years ago, oi the 
burning of Wyoming anthracite coal in a domestic grate. 
by a citizen of Wilkes-Barre, Judge Jesse Fell. This semi- 
centennial and centennial were both largely celebrated by 
the Society, and also by the Wilkes-Barre Board of Trade, 
on this, and the following day. In the morning of the day 
the annual meeting listened to the annual reports of officers, 
elected officers for the ensuing year, together with nhn 
annual and life members; and in the evening, in the auditor- 
ium of the Y.'M. C. A. building, a large audience listened to 
two most interesting addresses ; the first, by John \Y. Jordan. 
LL. D., Librarian of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
on the "Importance and Scope of Historical Societies, and 
This Society in Particular" ; the second, by William Griffith. 
C. E., the Curator of Paleobotany, on "Some of the Bene- 
ficial Results of Judge Jesse Fell's Experiment with Wyo- 
ming Coal." 

Mr. Griffith's paper was followed by his valuable "Re- 
marks" on the subject, illustrated with stereoptieon views. 



REPORTS. 15 

These addresses are published in Volume X. On the fol- 
lowing night the Wilkes-Barre Board of Trade held a ban- 
quet to commemorate Judge Jesse Fell's experiment, at 
which 600 citizens listened to eloquent addresses by leading 
speakers, Mayor Fred C. Kirkendall, of our city; Hon. Ben- 
jamin J. Dimmick, Mayor of Scranton ; C. LaRue Munson, 
Esq., of Williamsport ; Bradley W. Lewis, Esq., of Tunk- 
hannock, and Rev. Edward G. Fullerton, Ph. D., of Wilkes- 
Barre. 

The quarterly meeting of October 13, 1908, was held by 
the Trustees to receive and accept the report of the Celebra- 
tion Committee, and to arrange for the investment of the 
special funds. It was unanimously resolved at this meeting 
that "all special funds given and accepted for special depart- 
ment purposes, such as the Butler or "Ethnological Fund", 
the Lacoe, Ingham and Hayden or "Geological Funds", etc.. 
shall be invested separately from the general fund, and the 
interest of such special funds shall be paid semi-annually to 
the librarian, who shall expend it under the direction of the 
Cabinet Committee, as per By-law 16, and make an annual 
report of the same to the Trustees. This resolution will be 
before the Society to-day for action as an amendment to 
By-law 6. It will protect the special funds from suffering 
through any depreciation of the general investments. 

The quarterly meeting, December 11, 1908, took action on 
the proposed amendment to By-law 6 (supra, p. 8). 

The January meeting, held on the 8th of last month, was 
called to hear the annual geological lecture, which was de- 
livered by Thomas Cramer Hopkins, Ph. D., professor oi 
geology, in Syracuse University, Syracuse, X. Y. The sub- 
ject was "Glacial Erosion in the San Juan Mountains. Col- 
orado," illuminated by many fine stereopticon views from 
photographs taken by the speaker. The purpose of the lec- 
ture was to prove by examples that glacial action does erode 
the rocks and surface of the earth, as against a theory to the 
contrary, lately advanced by some scientific writers. 

This was the first geological address on the "Hayden 
Geological Fund" foundation. It will be published in Vol- 
ume XI, and will be followed annually by addresses from 
eminent geologists from other educational institutions, in- 
tended to be a marked feature of every annual volume. 
Arrangements are being made by which we hope to have 
one or two historical papers read before the Society this 



l6 REPORTS. 

year by prominent writers on the "JLaning Historical Lec- 
ture" foundation. These will be worthy of the attention of 
the best scholars and will add eclat to our Society. The 
centennial medal to commemorate Judge Fell's experiment, 
and issued by this Society in February last, was a financial 
success as well as a work of art. Copies enough were sold 
to cover the expense of issue and to have on hand a small 
number for exchange with other societies. 

Among the gifts of interesting relics to the Society is the 
old cornerstone of Joseph Slocum's house on the Public 
Square, late Brown's book store, now the site of the First 
National Bank Building, that institution having presented it 
to the Society. It is marked "J. S., 1807". 

The attendance of visitors at the rooms during the past 
year has not quite equaled that of the three previous years. 
when an average of about 6,500 persons were registered. 

The Trustees two years ago authorized the plan of having 
especial days and hours for children who desired to visit 
the collections, but this was not put into practical use unil 
September last. It was found that the admission of children 
all through the week greatly hindered the work of the 
librarian and assistant librarian, requiring so much attention 
from pressing duties. The change has been found very satis- 
factory. Children unaccompanied by parents or teacher are 
admitted only on Fridays from 1 to 5 p. m. and Saturdays 
from 10 a. m. to 5 p. m. This has brought the children visi- 
tors down to 2,500, without decreasing the number oi adult 
visitors or schools accompanied by teachers. The number 
registered during the past year is over 5,500 — 2.S50 adults, 
2,670 children. The number of students who came to exam- 
ine books and geological collections about as usual — fully 
600. Eleven public schools, numbering from ten to sixty 
pupils, in charge of teacher, from Dunmore, West Pittston. 
Dallas and Kingston, and elsewhere, to the number oi 350, 
have attended. 

But it is really disheartening to your librarian, in spite of 
the prosperity that has marked the past year, to note how 
very few members of the Society enter its doors. It is cer- 
tain that of the 308 living members of the Society not ten 
per cent., including the officers of the Society, have visited 
the rooms during the past year except to attend the four 
regular meetings — less than thirty of our members have 
been so much interested as even to call and inquire as to the 
progress made, or the books received, etc., etc. 






REPORTS. 17 

The Society has received during the past year the gift of a 
portrait of the late Major Jacob Ridgway Wright, B. A., a 
member for twenty years; recording secretary, 1885-1886; 
librarian, 1887-1899; life member, 1898, and vice president, 
1900-1905, presented by Mrs. Wright. 

During the year the library has received from every 
source 550 books and 1,100 pamphlets. They were divided 
thus: 

Books. Pamphlets. 

U. S. Depository 240 832 

Purchase 64 — 

Gifts 100 360 

Exchange 109 93 

State of Pennsylvania 35 — 

548 1,285 

548 

Total 1,733 

From the Lewis Publishing Co., N. Y., twelve handsome 
quarto volumes of Genealogical History, New Hampshire, 
New York, Vermont, Pennsylvania and ■Maryland. 

Among the most valuable gifts to the library are the full 
files of the daily newspapers of this section : 

Wilkes-Barre Daily Record 6 

Wilkes-Barre Weekly 1 

Leader 4 

Times-Leader 4 

News 3 

Pittston Gazette 4 

Scranton Republican 4 

Newport News, R. I., with genealogical column. 1 

Board of Trade Journal 1 

Industrial Gazette 1 

Total 29 

Among the gifts to the library, those most noticeable are 
from the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, six 
volumes of Franklin Papers, also gifts from Col. R. Bract 
Ricketts, Mrs. William DeW. Kennedy, Dr. F. C. Johnson. 
and the Librarian. 

The Corresponding Secretary has found his work much in- 
terferred with by duties outside of his correspondence, thus 



1 8 REPORTS. 

much reducing the addition of books, etc. He has received 
about 550 letters and communications, and has written 400 
letters, issued card notices of two meetings, besides acknowl- 
edging gifts, exchanges, and expressing publications; his 
mail numbering fully 1,200 pieces. 

The membership of the Society reported in Volume IX, 
1905, was : 

Life members 123 

Annual members 19- 

3i8 
1907: 

Life members 141 

Annual members 205 

346 

In 1908-9 the life members numbered 178, including four 
Founder and eleven Benefactors, with twenty-five unpaid 
subscriptions due December 31, 1909, which will increase the 
life list to 203. 

In 1908-9 the annual members were 205 

Reduced by death 8 

l 97 

From this will be deducted December 31, 1909, 

by life members subscriptions 15 

182 
Add to this the life members 203 

Total 3S5 

You will recall the fact that in 1903, rive years ago. Mr. 
Christopher Wren, now our curator of archaeology, pre- 
sented to this Society his splendid collection of Indian relics, 
10,000 in number, all from the Susquehanna water shed. In 
accepting this collection, which has been an important and 
very attractive factor in the development of the Society. 
we advised Mr. Wren that when the finances of the Society 
would warrant it, a special case would be made to hold this 
collection. To this day the Society has been unable to i 
this promise. Mr. Wren still has in his hands 2.000 tine 
specimens of Indian art which he desires to add to his col- 
lection, but will not do so until some assurance is given him 



REPORTS. 19 

of the preparation of the promised case, which will cost 
about $100. I urgently recommend some action on the part 
of the Society in this matter. 

The only shadow that has fallen upon the Society during 
its semi-centennial year, with its wealth of light and promise, 
has been the "Shadow of Death." The silent reaper has cut 
a broad swathe through the list of members during the past 
five years — thirty-four of our members having passed into 
eternity since February, 1904 ; ten since the last annual meet- 
ing. Of these fourteen are memorialized in Volume X and 
twenty still remain to be noticed in the next volume, as will 
be seen on page 242. Those not already reported are : Mrs. 
Esther T. F. Wadhams, Dr. Frederick Corss, Edwin E. 
Hoyt, Esq., Mr. A. H. VanHorn, Mrs. Josephine W. Hill- 
man, Mr. Burton Voorhis, Dr. William G. Weaver, of the 
resident members, and Mr. George W. Fish and Prof. Otis 
T. Mason, Ph. D., LL. D., of the corresponding mmbers. 

In conclusion I beg to report that the income of the Society 
last year was about $2,500; during the present year it will be 
$3,000. In 1910 it will reach $3,500. Then we will hope to 
be able to begin the long neglected work of binding our vol- 
umes of magazines and other unbound books, of which over 
500 volumes are still waiting the binder. In 1907 we had the 
misfortune to lose our skilled cataloguer. Miss Susan C. 
Foote, from lack of funds to continue her work. One bless- 
ing that has come to us during the past year was the ability 
of taking up again this important work, for which Miss 
Ernestine M. Kaehlin, our assistant librarian, was secured in 
February, 1908, and who continues to do very satisfactory 
work in her department. 

RESUME. 

In 1886 the Society had no reserve fund. 
• In 1893 it was $4,500; 1909, $47,000. 

In 1893 the library had 10,000 volumes; 1909. 20.000 
volumes. 

In 1893 ethnology had 10.000 pieces; 1909, 25,000 pieces. 

The life membership began 1886. 

Life membership 1886, 4; in 1909, 203. 

Annual members, 1886. 120; of these seventy-five are 
dead and thirty are now members. 

The four life members have grown to 203. 

The thirty annual members to 184. 

In 1893 we had one portrait ; in 1909 we have 150. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Horace Edwin Haypex. 



20 REPORTS. 

Report of the Curator of Archaeology for the Year ending 
February 11, 1909. 

Wilkes-Barre, Penn'a., February n, 1909. 
To the Officers and Members of the Wyoming Historical 
and Geological Society, Wilkes-Barre, Penn'a: 

Gentleman — In presenting my report of the Archeologi- 
cal Department of our Society for the year ending February 
II, 1909, I would say that there is not much of special 
importance to report. 

During the year the Society purchased from J. E. Town- 
send, of Berwick, Penn'a., an unusually fine lot of flint or 
jasper blades, consisting of forty-eight pieces from three to 
four inches long each. As Mr. Townsend says, he found all 
of these specimens buried in a single cache ; they seem to me 
to be unique for this locality. Warren K. Moorehead, of 
Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., found a collection of 
similar implements in a cache at Flint Ridge, Ohio, number- 
ing somewhat over five thousand pieces some years ago. 
but such finds, up to this time, in the Susquehanna River 
region have been extremely rare and are worthy of special 
mention. 

The study of ethnology from the artifacts of the peoples 
who left no other recorded history, continues to command 
increased attention both in the United States and Europe. 
It may be of interest to remark that the University of Penn- 
sylvania, at Philadelphia, during the year 1908, established a 
department for the study of archeology, in which the stu- 
dents will be equipped to be curators in this field of knowl- 
edge. Being the first University in the United States to 
make archeology a distinct branch in its curriculum, the Uni- 
versity thus becomes the pioneer. 

Members of the Coxe family, of Drifton, Penn'a, who are 
also members of our Society, have sent an expedition to 
Egypt, whose explorations of buried ruins during the year 
1908 have resulted in the securing of unusually valuable 
information about early Egyptian history and have been the 
subject of comment among the leading professional archeol- 
ogists. 

As indicated by the number of visitors to the rooms during 
the year 1908, the interest of the public in the general col- 
lections and the reference works of the Society seems to 
continue. Respectfully submitted. 

Christopher Wren. 

Curator. 



TT 



REPORTS. 21 



Report of the Corresponding Secretary and Librarian for the 
Year ending February 11, 1910. 



Mr. President, and Members of the Society: 

I have very great pleasure in presenting to you the annual 
report of this Society covering the year from February u, 
1909, to February ir, 1910. To-day is the fifty-second birth- 
day of our Society and the report is a source of unusual 
gratification and rejoicing. We have realized the dreams 
which were excited in us by our semi-centennial. We aimed 
to increase our endowment fund to $50,000. Last year the 
subscriptions reached $47,000. To-day they exceed $50,000. 
That "nothing succeeds like success" is a proverb that is 
rich in hope. When public spirited men see that their gifts 
bear fruit, and success follows endeavor, they are stimulated 
to even more generous benefactions, so that we may yet see 
the permanancy of this institution more fully guaranteed in 
the future. 

We have now twenty special and individual funds ; the 
minimum of each will be, in time $1,000, and the aggregated 
fund now invested is $47,000. Of these, the special funds 
are: 

Zebulon Butler Fund, for Ethnology $ 1,000.00 

Coxe Publication Fund, for the Annual Volume. . 10,000.00 

Andrew Hunlock Fund, for Binding Books 1,000.00 

Horace E. Hayden Fund, for Geological Lectures 1,500.00 

Ralph D. Lacoe Fund, for Paleozoology 1,000.00 

Charles F. Ingham Fund, for Geology, now .... 530.00 
Augustus C. Laning Fund, for Historical Ad- 
dresses 1 .000.00 

Sheldon Reynolds Fund, for Rare American 

History . ." 1 .000.00 

Stanley Woodward Fund for Historical Addresses 555-0O 
Harrison Wright Fund, for Heraldry 1. 000.00 

A full list of the funds of the Society will be annually 
published in every volume. The list of Benefactors, which 
includes the names of all who contribute a fund of not less 
than $1,000, now numbers sixteen names. The other ten 
funds, which are for general purposes, will aggregate 
$33,000. 



22 REPORTS. 

At the quarterly meeting in May, 1909, the By-laws were 
unanimously amended, requiring all funds given, and ac- 
cepted, for special purposes, like the "Harrison Wright 
Fund" for Books on Heraldry; the "Sheldon Reynolds 
Fund," for Rare Books on American History, etc., and bear- 
ing the donor's name, to be separately invested, and the in- 
terest semi-annually paid by the Treasurer to the Librarian, 
to be expended under the direction of the Cabinet Commit- 
tee, as per By-law 16, and annually accounted for. 

To the Coxe Fund, which was $6,000 in 1909, Mrs. Alex- 
ander B. Coxe has added $4,000, making the Publication 
Fund $10,000. 

Of the four regular meetings held during the past year, 
the annual meeting of February 11 was made the occasion 
of celebrating the centennial of the birth of Charles Darwin, 
the eminent scientist, who was born February 12. An 
admirable paper was read by our member, Miss Anne Dor- 
rance, A. B. (Vassar), which elicited great interest, and a 
hearty vote of thanks. It was referred to the Publishing 
Committee and will appear in our next volume. 

At the quarterly meeting, May 14, a paper by our cor- 
responding member, Granville Henry, Esq., of Bethlehem, 
was presented, on the "Pennsylvania German and His Per- 
sonal Characteristics." In the absence of Mr. Henry the 
paper was kindly read by Rev. Ferdinand von Krug. D. D. 
It was also referred to the Publishing Committee with 
thanks. 

At the quarterly meeting of December 10, an ethnological 
paper was read and illustrated with stereopticon views, on 
"The Aboriginal Occupation of the Wyoming Valley from 
the Standpoint of Primitive Culture." This paper was 
unusual, being prepared and read by Mr. Arthur C. Parker. 
New York State archeologist ; a Seneca Indian, whose tribe 
invaded this valley in 1778, and whose two great-grand- 
fathers had both participated in the Massacre of Wyoming. 
The speaker and the subject of the lecture were both objects 
of great interest, so that the audience more than filled the 
room, and many were compelled to go away. The illustra- 
tions were, in part, of objects from the collection of this 
Society. The paper, with a vote of thanks, was also referred 
to the Publishing Committee and will appear in Volume XI. 

The Society has received during the year many interest- 
ing and valuable gifts worthy of mention. Mrs. Louis 



REPORTS. 23 

Emory, one of our active members, in response to the request 
of the Librarian in the last annual volume, generously pre- 
sented to the Society, at the cost of $122.00, a large and 
handsome case for the collection of 10.000 Indian relics 
from the Susquehanna River, given by Mr. Christopher 
Wren in 19 — . 

From Col. R. Bruce Ricketts, another member, we have 
received, among other things, forty bound volumes of 
"Science," and forty bound volumes of "Transactions of the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers." 

From the estates of the late Charles Edward Butler, and 
his father, Steuben Butler, the son of Col. Zebulon Butler, 
we have received the following gifts : A portrait of the late 
Judge Warren J. Woodward; two spinning wheels that 
belonged to the family of Col. Butler ; six large kitchen uten- 
sils of the "long ago"; also forty volumes of books and 125 
pamphlets, which have been added to the library. Among 
these there is a bound volume of the Wyoming Herald, of 
which Steuben Butler was the founder and editor. It covers 
the years of 1824 to 1831, when the paper was sold to Asher 
Miner. Among the pamphlets the most desirable is a clean 
copy, the only one possessed by the Society, of Abraham 
Bradley's work, entitled : "A Xew Theory | of the | Earth | 
or I the present World created on the | Ruins of an Old 
World: | Wherein it is Shown from various Phenomena j 
That the Earth was first Created at a | Period of the Highest 
Antiquity: | That it was afterwards destroyed by | a Deluge, 
it was re-peopled by New | Creation | of Men and other Ani- 
mals. I By Abraham Bradley, Esq., Wilkes-Barre. Penn- 
sylvania. I Printed for Joseph Wright, 1801." The pamphlet 
is an 8vo. of 63 pages. 

Abraham Bradley, Esq., was for years a resident of Wyo- 
ming Valley. He was the father of Abraham Bradley, Esq., 
of the Luzerne County Bar, from 1788 to 1799; Associate 
Judge of the county 1791 to 1799, when he removed to 
Washington, D. C, and was Assistant Postmaster General 
until 1829. His descendants still reside in that city. 

The above pamphlet of sixty-three pages was followed by 
a second and an enlarged edition of 198 pages. 12 mo., 
printed by Charles Miner, 1808, with a different title, which 
is to be found noted in Mr. Hayden's Bibliography of the 
Wyoming Valley, Vol. II, "Proceedings of this Society," 



24 REPORTS. 

p. 69. Both titles are now among the treasures of this 
Society. 

From Dr. Frederick C. Johnson we have received a num- 
ber of pamphlets and the author's copy of "Pearce's Annals 
of Luzerne County", with Mr. Pearce's corrections prepared 
for a third edition, which was never issued. 

From Mr. Francis A. Phelps a set of the "Phelps Geneal- 
ogy" in two volumes. 

From the librarian, 100 miscellaneous pamphlets. 

From Miss Josephine G. Murray, Miss Ellen Butler Mur- 
ray and Steuben Butler Murray, Jr., of Trenton, N. J., the 
heirs of Col. Zebulon Butler, we have received the valuable 
gift of Col. Butler's camp "bed, used by him, according to 
family tradition, while in the field during the "French and 
Indian War", as well as in the "Revolutionary War". 1763 
to 1783. It is made of a strong flax "sacking bottom", 
stretched on a folding frame of a kind used in those days. 
It has been hung in a conspicuous place on the wall of the 
archaeological room and well marked. 

From the County Commissioners we have received the 
pew r ter box which was placed in the cornerstone of the 
Luzerne county court house in 1856. with its contents, a 
list of which was published in the Wilkes-Barre Record of 
December 28, 1909. 

From Miss Martha Maffet and Mrs. Horace See. we have 
received the gift of a crayon portrait of Gen. William Ross. 
a survivor of the massacre. It is a copy of the oil portrait 
by Jacob Eicholst, 181 5, now in Miss Maffet's possession. 
This gives us the portrait of seven of the early settlers of 
Wyoming from 1769 to 1780, a most valuable historical 
collection, which shows the very strong character of the 
men and women who braved the dangers of a pioneer section 
to dwell in and cultivate this magnificent valley of Wyoming. 

From the estate of our late President. Hon. Stanley 
Woodward, we have received sixty volumes, of which thirty 
have been added to the library. Our late life member. Mr. 
George Slocum Bennett, whose death at the Christmas tide 
was a great loss to the city, left to the Society by his will. 
a most valuable and desirable legacy, i. e.. the large oil por- 
trait, by George Winter, of Frances Slocum, "The Lost 
Sister" and "the romance of Wyoming History ;" also the oil 
painting of her home in Indiana, portraits of her two daugh- 
ters, a pair of her moccasions, and the manuscript of the 
diary of Miss Harriet E. Slocum, kept in 1830. when she 



yU. 



On page 24, last line, for Miss Harriet E. Slocum, read 
Mrs. Hannah Slocum Bennett. 



REPORTS. 2 



visited her aunt Frances. These relics will be conspicuously 
placed and will form most attractive objects in the Society. 

From Mr. Harry \V. Townsend, of Plymouth, we have 
received the gift of 230 Indian relics, mainly from Plymouth 
and its neighborhood, some of which are fine and rare. 

One of the most valuable gifts made to the Society is yet 
to be mentioned. In April, 1909, the Society received from 
the hands of Arthur Hillman, Esq., as executor of the estate 
of Dr. Harrison Wright, M. A., Ph. D., our most highly 
valued and versatile secretary, to whose energy, enthusiasm, 
distinguished ability, and devoted interest, the Society owes 
a debt that cannot be estimated, a rare volume prepared by 
Dr. Wright by years of labor, and entitled, "Patriots of 
Wyoming". It is a quarto scrap book, containing eighty-five 
autographs of eighty-five patriots of Wyoming of July 3. 
1778, slain and survived, beginning with Col. Zebulon Butler 
and ending with one who was not a patriot, Col. John Butler, 
leader of the Tories and Indians in that day. This valuable 
historical work was presented to this Society by the sisters 
of Dr. Wright — Mrs. Josephine W. Hillman, Mrs. George 
W. Guthrie, and the heirs of Mrs. Harrison Wright. Sr. 

During the year the corresponding secretary has written 
with his own pen 600 letters, copies of which are preserved, 
beside acknowledging all gifts and books, sending out Vol- 
ume X, and expressing books sold. The express packages 
sent out since the last annual meeting were 200, against sixty 
of 1908. We have exchanged with 100 societies, receiving in 
return 200 titles. The Society has received 900 books and 
2,762 pamphlets, from the following sources : 

Books. Pamphlets. 

United States 443 2 -°°° 

Pennsylvania 30 30 

Exchange 120 82 

Purchase 50 — 

Gift 257 650 

L900 2.;62 

Of these books and pamphlets fully one-half have been 
added to the library. 

The membership of the Society has been increased by six. 
In 1909 we had, life members, 17S ; annual members, I v ; 
total, 376. The present membership is 384; annual. 184; 
life, 200. 



26 REPORTS. 

From the annual list of members, 1909 198 

Deduct those 

Lost by death 7 

By transfer to life list 7 

By resignation 4 

— 18 

Total 180 

Elected 6 

Total 186 

To the life member list, 1909 178 

There have been added 20 

Total 384 

Since February 11, 1909. we have lost by death the fol- 
lowing members, obituary notices of whom will appear in 
later issues of the annual volume: Mr. Samuel H. Lynch. 
Mr. John Laning. Mrs. Maud Baldwin Raub, Col. George 
Nicholas Reichard, Mrs. Stella Mercer Shoemaker Ricketts, 
Mr. George Shoemaker. Mrs. Augusta Dorrance Farnham. 
annual members; Mr. George Slocum Bennett, life member 
and Benefactor; Hon. Charles Dorrance Foster, life mem- 
ber; Air. Horace See, of New York City, corresponding 
member. 

Horace Edwin Haydex, 
Corresponding Secretary and Librarian. 



Report of the Curator of Archaeology for the Year ending 
February 11, 1910. 



Plymouth, Penna, February u. 1910. 
To the Officers and Members of the Wyoming Historical 
and Geological Society, Wilkes-Barre, Penn'a: 

In making my report of the Archeological Department of 
the Society for the year 1909, I would say: 

The year just closed has been one in which the department 
has been reasonably active, and there has been distinct pro- 
gress both in the way of accessions to the Society's collec- 
tions and the notice they have received in archeological cir- 
cles throughout the country. It is coming to be gen- 
erally appreciated that the Society has one oi the most 
numerous and complete collections of the Algonquins of the 



REPORTS. 27 

northern Appalachian region to be found anywhere. It is 
consequently the source to which students of those people 
will come for study of the eastern Algonquin. Especially is 
the collection of Algonquin pottery among the finest in the 
country. Mr. Arthur C. Parker, in a visit to the rooms dur- 
ing the year, reiterated the opinion of Mr. Stewart Culin, 
expressed several years ago, that our collection of Algonquin 
pottery is the most numerous of which he has any knowl- 
edge. 

Perhaps the most notable happening in this department 
during the year was the visit of Mr. Arthur C. Parker, of 
Albany, New York, State archeologist, who read a paper be- 
fore the Society on December 10, 1909, on "Aboriginal Oc- 
cupation of Wyoming Valley from the Viewpoint of Primi- 
tive Culture," using the collections of our Society and his 
knowledge of the Iroquois country of Xew York in his 
study of the subject. 

The Society received the following accessions to its col- 
lections during the year which are worthy of special men- 
tion : 

Mrs. Louis Emory, of Wilkes-Barre, Penn'a, has very 
generously provided a large new case to contain the Wren 
collection, which has been installed in it. 

One complete steatite bowl from Virginia. 

A number of local stone implements and an Indian bow 
and four arrows, from Mr. Benjamin Tubbs, of Kingston, 
Penn'a. 

Two hundred and fifty specimens, principally from Plym- 
outh and vicinity, including four copper beads and two bone 
needles, from Harry W. Townsend, of Scranton, Penn'a. 

Five large blades, being part of a cache of eighty-four 
specimens found by Mr. Charles Brighthaupts, near Drums. 
Penn'a, in October, 1909. 

The Society has loaned its half-tone of large notched net 
sinkers, peculiar to the North Branch of the Susquehanna 
River, first illustrated in Volume VIII of "Proceedings and 
Collections", to Prof. Warren K. Moorehead, of Phillips 
Academy, Andover, Mass., for use in his new work on the 
"Stone Age", which will be issued early next summer. 

We hope that the department will continue to grow in size 
and importance, as it will surely do. if it continues to receive 
new accessions in the manner it has during a number of 
years past. Respectfully submitted, 

Christopher Wren, 
Curator of Archeology. 



28 REPORTS. 

Treasurer's Report. 



RECEIPTS. 
January 1, 1908, to January 1, 1909. 

Cash balance, January i, 1908 $ 540.56 

Dues of members 895.00 

Income from investments 1,403.81 

Commissioners of Luzerne county 200.00 

Fell memorial medals 332.00 

Subscriptions to investment funds 9,500.00 

Interest on savings account 4369 

Life memberships 3,080.00 

Total $15,995.06 

PAYMENTS. 

Salaries $ 1,699.24 

Incidentals 70.00 

Telephone 30.00 

Insurance 50.00 

Books 100.00 

Binding account 150.00 

Printing account : 200.00 

Fell memorial medals 300.00 

Expenses of semi-centennial 50.00 

Address at semi-centennial 50.00 

Sundry expenses 1 10.05 

Interest on special funds 418.00 

Amount invested 10,135.00 

Cash balance January 1, 1909 2,632.77 

Total $15,995.06 

SECURITIES IN HANDS OF TREASURER, JANUARY 1, 1909. 

RONDS. 

2 bonds Westmoreland Club, 3 per cent $ 200.00 

6 bonds Plymouth Bridge Co., 5 per cent 6.000.00 

8 bonds Spring Brook Water Supply Co., 5 per cent 8,000.00 

5 bonds Webster Coal & Coke Co., 5 per cent 5,000.00 

3 bonds Miner-Hillard Milling Co., 5 per cent 1,500.00 

1 bond People's Telephone Co., 5 per cent 1,000.00 

1 bond United Gas & Electric Co., 5 per cent 1,000.00 

6 bonds Wilkes-Barre Water Co., 5 per cent 3,000.00 

2 bonds Sheldon Axle Co., 5 per cent 1,000.00 

I bond Frontier Telephone Co., 5 per cent 1,000.00 

5 bonds Scranton Gas & Water Co., 5 per cent 5,000.00 

MORTGAGES. 

3 mortgages, 6 per cent 2.900.00 

Total $35,600.00. . 

Charles W. Bixby, 
Treasurer. 



Treasurer's Report. 



3? 



RECEIPTS. 
From January 1, 1909, to Januaoy 1, 1910. 

Cash balance, January i, 1909 $ 2,632.77 

Membership dues 930. 00 

Income from investments 1,902.51 

Investments paid 2,900.00 

Subscriptions to endowment funds 5,500.00 

Interest on savings account 28.43 

Life memberships 920.00 

From County Commissioners 200.00 

Total $15,013.71 

PAYMENTS. 

Amount invested $10,500.00 

Salaries 1,816.00 

Incidentals 122.74 

Telephone 30.00 

Insurance 50.00 

Interest on special funds 600.50 

Books 50.00 

j Binding account 50.00 

Sundry expenses 125.82 

Printing 108.28 

Address 25.00 

Balance in bank, January 1, 1910 1.535-27 



Total $15,013 



SECURITIES IN HANDS OF TREASURER JANUARY 1, 1910. 

RONDS. 

Wilkes-Barre Water Co., 5 per cent $ 3,000.00 

People's Telephone Co., 5 per cent 1,000.00 

Frontier Telephone Co., 5 per cent 1,000.00 

Scranton Gas & Water Co., 5 per cent 5,000.00 

Muncie and Union City Traction Co., 5 per cent 1,000.00 

United Gas & Electric Co., 5 per cent 1,000.00 

Webster Coal & Coke Co., 5 per cent 4,000.00 

Spring Brook Water Supply Co., 5 per cent 8,000.00 

Plymouth Bridge Co., 5 per cent 6,000.00 

Westmoreland Club, 3 per cent 200.00 

Sheldon Axle Co., 5 per cent 1,000.00 

Columbia Power, Light & Railways Co., 5 per cent 1,000.00 

Total bonds $32,200.00 

MORTGAGES. 

Zabrisky (Orotz), 6 per cent $ 500.00 

Gorewicz, 6 per cent 1,200.00 

Masters ( Pembleton) , 6 per cent 800.00 

Kamor, 6 per cent 2,300.00 

Corbett, 6 per cent 500.00 

P'inney, 6 per cent 1,000.00 

Ratib, 6 per cent 900.00 

Barrett, s l / 2 per cent 4,800.00 

Total mortgages $12,000.00 

Grand total of investments $44,200.00 

Respectfully 

Charles W. Bixby, 
Treasurer. 



30 REPORTS. 

Funds Participating in the Income and Investment*. 



1. Colonel Zebulon Butler Fund, Ethnology $ 1,000.00 

2. Coxe Family Publication Fund 10,000.00 

3. Horace E. Hay den Fund, Geological Lectures 1,500.00 

4. Colonel Matthias Hollenback Fund, General 2,000.00 

5. Andrew Hunlock Fund, Binding 1,000.00 

6. Dr. Charles F. Ingham Fund, Geology 557-50 

(Minimum $1,000.) 

7. Rev. Jacob Johnson Fund, General 256.88 

(Minimum $1,000.) 

8. Fred Morgan Kirby Fund, General 1,000.00 

9. Ralph D. Lacoe Fund, Paleozoology 1,000.00 

10. Augustus C. Laning Fund, Historical Lectures 1,000.00 

11. Abram Nesbitt Fund, General 1,000.00 

12. Sheldon Reynolds Fund, American History 1,000.00 

13. Captain L. Denison Stearns Fund, General 1,000.00 

14. Dr. Lewis H. Taylor Fund, General 1,000.00 

15. Edward Welles Fund, General 1,000.00 

16. Hon. Stanley Woodward Fund, Historical Lectures.. 602.50 

(Minimum $1,000.) 

17. Dr. Harrison Wright Fund, Heraldry 1,000.00 

18. Life Membership Fund 20,000.00 

19. General Fund 4,300.00 

$50,216.88 

Nos. 6 and 16 will be completed by the sale of the Society's Pub- 
lications, and No. 7 by sale of Johnson's "Historical Record of 
Wyoming." 



While these pages are going through the press the following addi- 
tional funds have been secured : 

20. Hon. Charles Abbott Miner Fund $ 1,000.00 

21. George Slocum Bennett Fund 1,000.00 

Total $52,2i6.S8 









■ 



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m 



sS^fe 



r 






^V 



i -*1 

'4 



* 






tix&>&-xL*l-'iZ i 






- ■ Si 5 

-■ ■ • i : J., 






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Figure i. Cliff Glacier Cirque on Camp Bird Mountain. 




- .-.. 



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: i«ure .'. Revenue Mountain Glacier Cirques. 



GLACIAL EROSION IN THE SAN JUAN MOUN- 
TAINS, COLORADO. 
by Professor Thomas Cramer Hopkins, Ph. D., 

of Syracuse University, N. Y. 

READ BEFORE THE WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY JANUARY 8, 1909. 



(haydcn geological lecture fund.) 



ICE EROSION THEORY NOT A FALLACY. 

Glaciers are active agents of erosion of the rock surface 
over which they pass. There is some difference of opinion 
on this subject. Some persons would deny the statement. 
A prominent glaciologist of this country recently published 
a paper on "Ice Erosion Theory a Fallacy' 3 in which the 
statement is made that "to-day most students of living 
glaciers and glacial work deny that glaciers possess great 
erosive powers".* 

The author referred to gives some data in support of 
the last part of the quotation but very little in support 
of the first. So far as the work of the ice is concerned 
it makes no difference whether the present writer is in the 
majority or minority, as the glaciers are not influenced one 
way or another by human belief, and it is a reasonable 
assumption to think that the same thing was true ages ago 
when possibly the men of that time took much less interest 
in the movement and work of glaciers than they do to-day. 

The writer of this paper while differing from the author 
referred to in this one particular, has great respect for him 
and his conclusions, based, as they are, on many years of 
study and active work. The object of this paper is not to 
debate the question, but to present some features of glacial 
work in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado, as additional 
data to that already available, from which the reader can 

*"Ice Erosion Theory a Fallacy," by H. L. Fairchild. Bulletin of 
the Geological Society of America. Vol. 16, pp. 13-/4. IQ 05- 



31 



32 GLACIAL EROSION IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 

draw his own conclusion. It may not be amiss to state that 
the writer was a firm believer in the glacier as a powerful 
agent of erosion before he visited the San Juan Mountains. 

One reason why these observations are given to the 
American readers under this heading, is that the region 
shows so many and marked evidences of glacial work which 
are as well preserved as if they were produced but yester- 
day. In some respects it is a connecting link between the 
extensive glaciated areas of North America and Europe 
from which the glacier disappeared thousands of years ago, 
and hence the deposits and markings have been modified to 
some extent by the weathering agencies, and the Alpine 
glaciers of the present day where the cirques and the upper 
valleys are still occupied by snow and ice. In the San Juan 
Mountains the work of the glaciers is so recent and the 
markings so well preserved that one actually sees what he 
imagines is taking place underneath the living Alpine gla- 
ciers. 

Periods of Glaciation. It is quite probable that there have 
been two, possibly three, periods of glaciation in this region. 
The larger and longer glaciers which mark the earliest period 
were not greatly different in size from the glaciers of the 
Swiss Alps to-day. The smaller glaciers of the San Juan 
region may have been but the lingering remnants of the 
waning first glaciers, or the first glaciers may have entirely 
disappeared before another period began. That phase of 
the problem is not considered in this paper, as it does not 
affect the burden of the thesis to any marked degree. 

Cliff Glaciers. The last glaciers to occupy the region were 
cliff glaciers that occupied cirques on the steep mountain- 
sides, and whether any or all of them were in existence 
during the time the larger glaciers occupied the upper fifteen 
or twenty miles of the larger valleys does not effect the 
amount of erosion work done by them, as the object of this 
paper is to show that they did erode, not when the erosion 
was done. 






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Figure 4. Pieraon Rasin Moraine, Lower EihI. 



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GLACIAL EROSION IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 33 



The work of the larger glaciers will be considered, but 
emphasis will be laid on that of the cliff glaciers because the 
results are less obscure. 

Camp Bird Basin. Figure I is a photograph which shows 
some of the results accomplished by one of the smaller cliff 
glaciers. It is on the mountain side south of the Camp Bird 
Mill and was taken from near the base of the opposite hill, 
hence the bottom of the cirque does not appear in the view. 
The cirque which lies immediately above (i) is partly filled 
by the talus (2) which has been formed there by the weath- 
ering agencies acting on the surrounding cliffs since the dis- 
appearance of the glacier. It may be noticed that between 
the ridge (3) and the slope (4) there is a considerable basin 
that is only partly filled by the talus (2). The bottom of the 
slope (2) does not extend as far as the ridge (1) which is 
the terminal moraine of the cliff glacier that formed the 
cirque. The great alluvial cone below (1) is formed of the 
material carried down by gravity from the moraine (1). 
That is, it was all worn from the mountain side between (3) 
and (4) by the snow and ice which carried it out to (1) 
where by the melting of the ice and possibly the breaking off 
of portions of it the material was deposited or tumbled down 
the mountain side, building the great cone. Some idea of the 
dimensions of the cone can be obtained by comparing it with 
the wagon road across the middle of it and the large building 
at (5) which is a mill for working the ores taken from the 
mountain. The fragmental material at the left of the mill 
is the waste material from the mine. 

The above is only one of numerous cliff glaciers that 
formed cirques in this region. Many are larger and some 
are smaller than the one described. It differs from most of 
the others in having the large cone below the moraine, 
indicating that the cliff glacier was in existence after the 
melting of the larger glacier in the valley at the base of the 
mountain, otherwise the talus cone would have been carried 
away by the valley glacier. 



34 GLACIAL EROSION IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 

On Revenue Mountain. In figure 2 a view of Revenue 
Mountain, taken from Mt. Potosi, portions of several cliff 
cirques are partly shown. At the extreme right at (4) the 
top of one is visible, the bottom is concealed by the moun- 
tain. Near the middle of the upper half at (1) is a cirque a 
great many times larger than the one in figure 1. A morainal 
ridge appears at (2) at the outer edge of the cirque. The 
greater part of the material carried out of the cirque was 
carried away by the valley glacier at the foot of the moun- 
tain. Considerable talus has accumulated around the inner 
edge of the cirque since the glacier disappeared. There is a 
much smaller cirque at (3) and the top of a much larger one 
appears at the extreme left of the view and is separated 
from (3) by a very narrow sharp-crested ridge. 

Pierson Basin. Figures 3 and 4 are two views in Pierson 
Basin, one of the cliff glacier cirques of a still different char- 
acter. Both views are taken from near the same spot on 
the side of the cirque near the bottom. Figure 3 is a view 
looking towards the source of the glacier and shows nearly 
all of the surrounding wall bounding the basin. All the 
broken rock at the middle and left of the picture is morainal 
material that has been carried forward from the cliff by 
the ice. 

Figure 4 is a view looking in the opposite direction from 
that in figure 3 and shows the lower end of the moraine. 
This terminates in a steep slope, as steep as the fragmental 
material will lie. It is evident that all this mass of material, 
some 200 feet thick in places, has been moved forward by 
the ice and not by gravity alone, since between the moraine 
material and the bordering mountain side is a depression 
(occupied by snow in figure 3) not yet filled by talus from 
the bordering cliffs. The trace of glacial milk in the stream 
flowing from the lower end of this moraine would suggest 
the possibility of this glacier not being entirely extinct. 

Silver Lake Basin. Silver Lake Basin lies directly west 
of the Pierson Basin just described and separated from it 



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Figure 5. Lower Lake in Silver Basin. 










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Figure 6. -Upper Lake, behind second Moraine in Silver ftasin. 



GLACIAL EROSION IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS., COLO. 35 

by an exceedingly steep, narrow ridge. The basin is a quar- 
ter to a half mile wide and a little more than a mile long. It 
is one of the large cirques of the cliff glaciers, if it can be 
properly so called. During part of its history it was con- 
nected with the main valley glacier and formed one of its 
smaller tributaries. After the waning of the valley glacier 
the ice remained in the Silver Basin for a considerable 
period and formed two rather prominent terminal moraines 
during its recession. There is a small lake in the depression 
behind each of these moraines. L676075 

Figure 5 is a view from the lower moraine looking 
towards the head of the cirque across the lower lake in the 
immediate foreground. The dark ridge near the middle of 
the picture is the second moraine behind which is another 
small lake. A near view of this second moraine and lake is 
shown in figure 6. In the middle, left of the picture, is 
another huge mass of morainal material similar to that 
shown in the Pierson Basin. 

All or nearly all the material that was carried from the 
mountain to form this great basin was taken away by the 
valley glacier. That it was not carried out by the water is 
shown by the surface over which the present stream from 
the basin is flowing. It runs down the steep mountain in a 
series of cascades to the creek more than 1,000 feet below 
the edge of the cirque. If the water had carried the rock 
material from the basin it would have worn its channel way 
down into a deep narrow valley. The material was taken 
out before or during the time that the large glacier occurred 
in the main valley, otherwise the bulk of the material would 
be on the mountain side in a huge alluvial cone, as in figure 7. 

The morainal ridges and the mass at the head of the 
cirque were formed by the glacier during its final stages 
when it occupied only a portion of the basin. Talus material 
due to weathering occurs in many places on the rock ter- 
races of the bordering mountainside. 

The photographs in all the different views were taken 






36 GLACIAL EROSION IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 

during the last week in July. Part of the snow in the views 
has fallen during the month and part of it is the residue 
from the preceeding winter. The winter snow melts before 
the end of summer, yet the mountains are seldom free from 
snow long at a time owing to the numerous snow showers 
during the summer. 

Figure 7 shows nearly the entire moraine at the head of 
the Camp Bird cirque in a basin larger than any of the pre- 
ceeding. The fresh appearance of the rock in this moraine 
is in strong contrast to the weathered and soil-covered 
slopes on either side. It is probable that this moraine along 
with the upper one in figure 6 and those in figures 3 and 4 
were formed by a revival of the glaciers much more recent 
than the time of the larger ones which formed the valleys. 

The above are only a few of the scores of cirques or snow 
basins that occur in the San Juan Mountains. (See Silver- 
ton Telluride and Ouray Folios of the United States Geo- 
logical atlas, in which the cirques may be located by the 
contour lines.) Some of these never contained other than 
cliff glaciers, while from others glacial streams extended 
for many miles down the larger valleys. The glaciers from 
Silver and Pierson basins at one time united and probably 
joined the larger glacier that flowed down Canyon Creek, 
which was joined a mile below by a still larger tributary 
from the Camp Bird Basin. 

The relations of some of the snow basins described are 
better shown in figure 8 than in any of the preceeding views. 
(1) is the Camp Bird Valley (see figure 9) ; (2) is the Pier- 
son Basin, the bottom of which is covered with the moraine 
shown in figures 3 and 4; (3) is the Silver Basin, shown in 
figures 5 and 6, the lakes and the greater part of the basin 
being concealed behind the ridge in the foreground: (4) is 
the basin marked (1) in figure 2; (5) is the place where 
the Pierson and Silver glaciers joined and probably is near 
or just above the point where the two combined joined the 
larger one, which moved down the main valley from right to 









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Figure q. Upper eml of Camp Itird I'all 



GLACIAL EROSION IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 37 

left in the foreground of the picture. The photograph was 
taken from a point on the opposite mountain (Mt. Potosi) 
nearly 2,000 feet above the valley. The buildings at (6) are 
in the valley and hence nearly 2,000 feet below the camera. 

On Cany on Creek near Sneffels. It is along Canyon 
Creek and the lower end of the tributary glaciers that direct 
evidence may be seen of the wearing action of the ice. Fig- 
ure 9 is a view of the upper end of the Camp Bird Valley, 
showing some of the higher cirques at the head and the 
broad U-shaped valley below. The white streak to the left 
of the center of the view is the stream which now drains the 
basin. It has a fairly direct course, numerous falls, no 
flood plain and most of the way flowing over the bare rocks. 
It descends about 1,500 feet in two miles. The improba- 
bility of this stream having cut down this valley to its pres- 
ent shape and size is at once apparent. Xot only is the 
glacier the manifest agent that formed a large part of the 
valley, but the grooved, striated, and rounded rock surface 
is further evidence of the fact, if any were needed. 

Figure 10 is a view from the side of Mt. Potosi. at an 
elevation of about 1,000 feet above the creek, looking down 
Canyon Creek. Several cirques are visible on Hayden 
Mountain in the background. The streaks down the moun- 
tainside, through the forests, are the paths of snow-slides or 
avalanches. Canyon Creek is visible for a short distance 
near the lower right hand corner, between the two roadways. 
It soon disappears into the head of a deep, narrow gorge, 
which extends to the middle of the view, where it is joined 
by the stream from the Camp Bird Basin. This canyon, 
which is several hundred feet deep, was undoubtedly cut by 
the stream during and since the time the glacier was in 
the valley. The remainder of the valley, excepting the 
canyon, is thought to have been eroded largely by the ice. 
The surface of the bottom is mostly bare rock, with the 
peculiar rounding irregularities, the grooves and striae char- 
acteristic of ice work. 



38 GLACIAL EROSION IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 

The configuration of the valley surface is better seen in 
figure 11, in which the camera was in the bottom of the val- 
ley instead of a thousand feet above it, as in figure 10. The 
bottom of the valley is about a quarter of a mile in width at 
this place. 

More details of the surface are shown in figure 12, taken 
near the same point as figure 11. The glacial groovings and 
smooth rounded ice-worn surfaces are here clearly shown. 
These views are not on the bordering cliffs, as might be sus- 
pected, but are on the inequalities in the floor of the valley. 
The surface has been slightly disintegrated by the weather 
since glaciation, but it has not been water worn. The stream 
is several hundred feet lower in a canyon at the left. 

Figure 13 is a view taken from the top of the ice- worn 
bluff at the junction of Canyon Creek and the Camp Bird 
tributary, looking down the valley. The bench on the top 
of the cliffs on either side is the continuation of the ice-worn 
rock floor shown in figures 10 and 12. The Y-shaped 
depression of the bottom of the valley was probably formed 
in part by the erosion of the water, yet the shape of it, its 
relation to the upper valley, and especially the terminal 
moraine, a few miles down the valley, are very suggestive of 
considerable ice erosion even here. 

Figure 14 is a view looking up the valley from near the 
same point as that from which the last view was taken. The 
wooded hill on the left cuts off the view of the bottom and 
one side of the valley, making it appear narrower than it 
really is. The mountain peak (1) in the middle, known as 
Stony Mountain, is ice-worn on all sides, and hence must 
have been a nunatak or rock island in the glacial sea during 
at least part of the period. It is possible that during the last 
stages it formed the crowning point on the dividing ridge 
between two basins. 

There is no evidence that the mountain on the right. Mt. 
Potosi. has ever had a glacier on it. The only apparent rea- 
son for the absence of even the cliff glaciers from this 









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Figure to. Canyon Creek and Hayden Mountain seen from Mt. PotosL 
The streaks on the mountain side are the paths of snovvslides through the forest. 




Figure ii. Xearer view of Canyon Creek and ll.iydcn Mountain. 












GLACIAL EROSION IX SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 39 

mountain side is that it is a south slope and the greater per 
cent, of sunshine was sufficient to melt the snows. At the 
present time the snow disappears from this mountain some 
weeks before it does from the opposite mountain, on which 
occurs the numerous cirques described on the preceeding 
pages. 

Figure 15 is taken from the side of Mt. Potosi, looking 
southwest across Stony Mountain. This north-facing moun- 
tain is scarred with many snow basins, while there are none 
on Mt. Potosi. It is noticeable, also, that the snow basins 
are at three different levels. The lowest one (No. 3) is 
about 1,000 feet above the bottom of the main valley, into 
which the little stream flowing from three now empties. 
While water may have been an important agent in carrying 
away the material between (3) and the main valley, it 
seems more likely that snow and ice, which must have 
formed cirques at (3). (2) and (1), were the chief agents 
also in wearing the lower valley. The amount of material 
eroded from the head of Canyon Creek Valley would form 
a wedge-shaped mass varying from 2,000 feet to 5,000 feet 
deep in the middle, from two to three miles wide and many 
miles in length. The insignificant amount of work done by 
running water since the disappearance of the glacier and the 
numerous distinct markings of glacial wear, along with the 
numerous cirques and the shapes of the valleys, leads to the 
conclusion that a large part of the erosion in the area was 
done by snow and ice, and the glaciers have been much more 
active agents than the running water. 

The evidence regarding the extent of erosion in the val- 
leys here before the beginning of glaciation is not very 
definite so far as the main valley is concerned, but in the 
cirques the evidence is in favor of all the erosion having 
been done by ice and snow, except so far as it was aided by 
weathering agencies. The grade, the rock bottom, and the 
shape of the tributarv valleys all indicate that most, if not 



— 



40 GLACIAL EROSION IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 

all, of the erosion in such valleys was by ice rather than 
by water. 

Moraines. As already explained, there are extensive 
moraines in the cirques about the head of Canyon Creek 
valley. Some of them, as shown in figures 3, 4 and 7, are 
nearly continuous masses of debris, while others, as figures 
2, 5 and 6, form ridges, typical terminal moraines, near the 
starting point of the glacier. Those of the first class, extend- 
ing from the surrounding cliff into and sometimes nearly 
through the cirque, the writer believes to have been formed 
much more recently than the others and during a much 
shorter interval. The reasons for thinking so are, (1) the 
difference in the material, which shows little evidence of 
weathering and is free from vegetation, while the other 
moraines are covered with soil and vegetation, and (2) they 
are continuous from the cliff to the end of the moraine and 
lack the grass or forest-covered areas separating the older 
moraines. 

Those of the first class are designated "Rock Streams" in 
the United States Geologic Atlas and are supposed to be due 
in part to landslides and talus from the surrounding cliffs. 
part of which has rolled down over the snowdrifts at the 
base of the cliff, and part in some of the streams having 
been carried forward by the ice. There is no doubt but that 
much of the material in these rock stream moraines has 
fallen from the bordering cliffs, and this is sometimes also 
cited as evidence that the action of weather and gravity are 
the active agents which form the cirques, while the snow 
and ice of the glaciers simply serve as carriers to remove 
the debris. But there will be no crumbling from the top 
unless there is erosion at the base, and, likewise, the e: 5 
at the base must more than equal the crumbling from the 
top, or the basin would never be formed, and if formed. 
would fill up and the landslides would cease. 

The largest one of the valley moraines is about two miles 
south of Ouray, at the upper end of Box Canyon. The 



v. • 









Figure u. Glacial Grooves and Roche Moutonnees in Canyon Creek Canyon. 






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Figttra 13. Canyon Creek view down the valley From Camp Hint >fTTC 



GLACIAL EROSIOX IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 41 

mass of the moraine forms a great dam across the valley. 
The stream has cut a narrow channel-way through the 
morainal hill, which rises abruptly from the creek banks to 
a hundred feet or more in height. The material in this 
moraine appears to consist almost entirely of the broken and 
ground-up remains of red sandstone similar to that on the 
neighboring hillside underlying the volcanic rocks. 

Figure 16 shows a view of a portion of the moraine above 
mentioned. This portion of it consists mostly of tine mate- 
rial with occasional angular boulders. In other portions of 
the same moraine the large boulders form the bulk of the 
deposit. Some of the boulders are quite large, as much as 
fifteen to twenty feet in diameter. The indiscriminate mix- 
ture of coarse and fine material proves the glacial origin of 
this material, or, more properly, proves its non-fluviatile 
origin, as it shows no lamination or sorting by water. Part 
of this mass of material may be due to landslides, but even 
so it would still be true that the landslides, if there were 
such, would be caused by the glacier eroding the base of the 
bordering mountain side, since there has been no shifting of 
the stream channel on its rock bed to undermine the border- 
ing clifT r 

Tht query arises, why are there not more of these valley 
moraines? The same question may be asked in almost any 
glacial valley. The answer is, that where the melting of the 
glacier is regular and continuous, or nearly so, no morainal 
hill will be formed. It is only where the end of the g - 
remains at or near the same point for a long time that the 
moraine becomes conspicuous. 

Since the glacier extended at one time some ten miles fur- 
ther down the valley, and formed a terminal moraine near 
the village of Ridgeway, the moraine above mentioned, just 
south of Ouray, must be either a terminal moraine oi reces- 
sion or the terminal moraine of a subsequent glacier. The 
latter is thought to be true by the writer, although the evi- 
dence is not verv conclusive. 



1 



42 GLACIAL EROSION IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 

The Amphitheatre. Around the town of Ouray there has 
been deep erosion in both the overlying volcanic rocks and 
the underlying sedimentary series. The Amphitheatre lying 
on he southeast side of the town is larger and deeper than 
many of those illustrated above. It is a large glacial cirque, 
but not that of a cliff glacier, as were most of the ones above 
mentioned. It was a tributary to the large Alpine glacier 
that formerly occupied the Uncompaghre Valley. It joined 
the main glacier at the confluence of the Canyon Creek and 
Uncompaghre Creek branches at Ouray. There is a very 
abrupt change in the grade of the valley floor at Ouray, and 
the city is built at the head of the low or flood-plain portion 
of the valley at the foot of the glacial falls. There is an 
abrupt ascent in the valley floor of about 800 feet at the city 
and a continuous steep grade on southward in both creek- 
valleys. The creeks in both valleys have cut deep canyons 
in the upper valley floor in the attempt to grade the course 
from the upper to the lower level. 

The floor of the Amphitheatre is at and above the upper 
level or 800 feet or more above Ouray. How much of the 
lower valley below the confluence was worn by ice and how 
much by water is problematical. There can be little ques- 
tion that on the upper level, at and near the confluence, the 
ice has done a great deal of erosion, as indicated by the 
width of the valley above the walls of the narrow creek can- 
yons, and the rounded, ice-worn character of the rock sur- 
face on the upper level. 

Almost all of the material was carried out of the Amphi- 
theatre by the ice and a considerable portion of it was worn 
from the solid rock. The floor of the Amphitheatre is now 
covered with a huge mass of debris from landslides and it is 
possible that there have been many landslides in its past his- 
tory. But there must first be a depression into which the land 
could slide, and if the material of the earlier slides had not 
been removed the depression would have been tilled up and 
no longer in existence. Ice and snow were the agents that 












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Figure is. View from Mi. PotASt, 



ihowing Snow lUsins at different levels. 



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Figure if>. Box Canyon Moraine, where it is cut through by Sneffels Creek. 



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Figure i7i View in [lox Canyon, ikmi Ouray. 






GLACIAL EROSION IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 43 

wore away the bottom and sides of the great basin and car- 
ried away the masses' of rock that fell from the surrounding 
mountain sides. The last great rock fall that tumbled into 
the basin since the glacier disappeared remains, covering the 
floor of the cirque because there is no glacier to remove it. 

Unless there is another glacier formed in the Amphi- 
theatre before that time, the material will continue to 
accumulate on the floor of the basin until the slope is more 
or less regular from the top of the mountain to the outer 
edge of the Amphitheatre basin. Thus the occurrence of 
such amphitheatres or basins in the mountains is evidence in 
itself of great erosive work by the glaciers. 

The Box Canyon at Ouray on Canyon Creek and the deep 
rock canyon of the Uncompaghre at its junction with Can- 
yon Creek were cut by the respective streams underneath 
the glacier and since the melting of the ice. Box Canyon 
corresponds in depth and appearance to the canyon in which 
the stream is now flowing at the end of the lower Grindle- 
wald glacier in the Alps, and if one could go directly from 
that glacier to Box Canyon, his first impulse would be to get 
to the top of the canyon and see if the glacier was there as in 
the Swiss locality. The accompanying view (figure 17) in 
Box Canyon shows only a portion of it. The bridge is about 
sixty feet above the bottom and several hundred feet below 
the top of the canyon. 

It was in the comparison of the narrowness and great 
depth of these canyons with that of the relatively greater 
dimensions of the ice-worn valleys on top of the canyons 
that the writer was most impressed with the great amount 
of ice work done in these mountains. This is true as well 
of the great rock canyon on Canyon Creek, between the 
Camp Bird and the Revenue Mills, which is a stream-cut 
rock ditch in the ice-worn floor of the great ice-carved valley 
on top of the canyon walls. 

The contour map sheets of other portions of the Rocky 
Mountain area in Colorado and Montana, indicate bv the 



44 GLACIAL EROSION IN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS, COLO. 

numerous cirques and mountain lakes erosion by the glaciers 
of the past on an even greater scale than that described in a 
portion of the San Juan Mountains. 

On an even larger scale is this erosion shown in the Uinta 
and Wasatch mountains in the photographs and maps in the 
recently published Professional Paper, Xo. 61, of the United 
States Geological Survey. These areas show larger snow 
basins and wider valleys with ice-worn floors than in the 
San Juan Mountains. 

Some of the evidence of extensive erosion by glaciers in 
the glaciated area of the northern United States is, (i) the 
presence of numerous hanging valleys tributary to the wide 
U-shaped valleys scoured out by the ice; (2) the numerous 
fresh, rounded, sheep-back surfaces over the areas of crys- 
taline rocks; (3) numerous lakes in rock depressions which 
are not satisfactorily explained by any other agency than 
erosion by the glacier; (4) the vast deposits of ground-up 
fresh rock in the blue and red boulder days of the glaciated 
area. 

The evidence both east and west is sufficient to convince 
the writer that erosion by glaciers is a fact and not a fallacy. 

The more important publications in which the work of the 
glaciers of the San Juan Mountains is discussed are : 

Silverton, Telluride and Ouray Folios of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Atlas. 

Glacial Phenomena of the San Juan Mountains, by E. 
Howe and \V. Cross. Bulletin Geological Society of Amer- 
ica, Vol. 17, pp. 251-274. Illustrated. 

Extinct Glaciers of the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. 
by R. C. Hills, Proceedings Colorado Scientific Society, Vol. 
I, pp. 39-46. 

The Las Animas Glaciers, by G. H. Stone, Jour, of Geol.. 
Vol. 1, 1893, pp. 4/1-475- 




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From "Harper's Magaziue. 



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Copyright, 1697, by Harper i Brothers 

CHARLES ROBERT DAKW1N. 
From a photograph by Elliott ami Fry. London. 



Kindly loaned by Harper & Brothers. 



THE DARWIN CENTENNIAL ADDRESS. 

■ 

CHARLES DARWIN, 1809-1S09. 

by Miss Anne Dorrance, A. B. (Vassar). 
Member of the Society. 

READ BEFORE THE WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
FEBRUARY II, 1909. 





Charles Robert Darwin, better known as Charles Darwin, 
was born in Shrewsbury on the twelfth of February, 1809; 
he died at Down in Kent, the nineteenth of April, 1882. He 
came of a long line of Englishmen of education, following 
the so-called learned professions and bearing himself with 
dignity, having the esteem of their communities. The earl- 
iest known Darwin lived at Marton, near Gainsborough, 
about 1500. Through the different members of this family 
ran a keen love of nature and a strong poetical feeling. 
Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles, was a physician 
and naturalist to whom the world owes a remarkably able 
statement of the idea of evolution, that subject which his 
grandson was so to elucidate and put upon foundations such 
that the whole face of the world's thought would have to 
change to come into accord with it. Robert Waring Darwin, 
son of Erasmus and father of Charles, was himself a physi- 
cian of note and ability, whose lucrative and large practice 
at Shrewsbury made that fortune which took from his son 
the worry and care of financial matters and left his mind 
free for the development of his ideas and theories. Charles 
Darwin's mother was a daughter of Josiah Wedgwood. She 
died when her son was eight years old. 

Charles Darwin is the most famous member oi his family, 
but had they not been overshadowed by his magnitude there 
were many who would have stood in the first rank of tne 
world's scientists and who do stand very high. One uncle. 
Sir Francis Darwin, was an able observer of animals ; 
another uncle, Charles, died from blood poisoning, following 



46 CHARLES DARWIN. 

a dissection at the age of twenty-one, leaving behind an 
essay which has put his name in biographical dictionaries. 
His cousins, Mr. Hensleigh Wedgwood, Sir Henry Holland 
and Mr. Francis Galton, each lead in their lines of work. 
Two of his sons, Francis and George, have done work which 
has put them in the front ranks of botanical and astronomi- 
cal work to-day. 

There is but little to be said of Charles Darwin's early 
school life, for the education of his day, with its classical 
leanings, had small attractions for a boy whose heart was 
with nature and whose spare moments went into the col- 
lecting and naming of plants and animals and minerals. An 
older brother, preparing to study medicine, fitted up a chem- 
ical laboratory in the tool house in his father's garden. 
Charles helped his brother, and the two boys worked there. 
often far into the night. When this unusual entertainment 
became known at school, the lad was nicknamed ''Gas" and 
severely reprimanded by his headmaster. In his autobiog- 
raphy Mr. Darwin says : "This was the best part of my 
education at school, for it showed me practically the mean- 
ing of experimental science." 1 

Realizing the futility of keeping him longer at work which 
was so distasteful to him, he was sent, at the age of sixteen. 
with this same older brother to the Universiy of Edinburgh 
to study medicine. The round of lectures was most uncon- 
genial to him and he soon became convinced that medicine 
was not the profession for him to make his own. Finally 
his father was brought to see things in the same light and 
it was decided that he prepare for the church. With this in 
view he went up to Cambridge, matriculated at Christ Col- 
lege, and took his bachelor's degree in 1831. This plan was 
never given up definitely, but simply set aside, unconscious*. y 
as the days and weeks and months of the voyage of the 
Beagle spent themselves and so showed him what his true 

1 Darwin F Ed. "The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. 
I. p. 32. 



CHARLES DARWIN. 47 

vocation was. The autobiography says concerning this 
phase: "Considering how fiercely I have been attacked by 
the orthodox, it seems ludicrous that I once intended to 
become a clergyman. Xor was this intention and my father's 
wish ever formally given up, but died a natural death, when, 
on leaving Cambridge, I joined the Beagle as naturalist. If 
the phrenologists are to be trusted, I was well fitted in one 
respect to be a clergyman. A few years ago the secretaries 
of a German psychological society asked me earnestly by 
letter for a photograph of myself, and sometime afterwards 
I received the proceedings of one of their meetings, in which 
it seemed that the shape of my head had been the subject of 
a public discussion, and one of the speakers declared that I 
had the bump of reverence developed enough for ten 
priests." 2 

At Cambridge his friends were Henslow, the botanist, 
under whom he did much work, Whewell, the philosopher, 
and, later, Sedgwick, the geologist. He was known as the 
man who walked with Henslow, and those walks bore much 
fruit, for they gave the older man an insight into the charac- 
ter of the younger. It was through Henslow that he went 
on a long and important geological expedition with Sedg- 
wick, and also through him that the invitation to join the 
Beagle came. H. M. S. Beagle, with Captain Fitzroy com- 
manding, was about to start on a voyage into unknown 
waters for purposes of surveying, mapping, etc.. and a nat- 
uralist was wanted for the expedition. This position appealed 
strongly to Darwin when Captain Fitzroy offered it to 
him; he saw its possibilities and its opportunities, and he 
desired greatly to go. Dr. Darwin objected for many rea- 
sons, and not seeing the bearing of a five years' voyage 
around the world on the study for the ministry. At the 
intervention and urgent solicitation of his brother-in-law, 
Josiah Wedgwood, Dr. Darwin consented. On the twenty- 
seventh of December, 1831, Charles Darwin sailed on the 

'Darwin F. ed. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. 189S. 
*• PP- 39-40- 



48 CHARLES DARWIN. 

Beagle as naturalist, beginning a circumnavigation of the 
world, which ended supposedly on the second of October, 
1836, but whose influence will be felt while man questions 
the world in which he lives, and while he would read the his- 
tory of that world, showing him his development from the 
brute and his assumption of the indwelling divine; and with 
that assumption he would read the story of the future of 
which he alone of the world's inhabitants appears to take 
cognizance and whose uncertainty he fears and dreads. For 
Mr. Darwin it furnished the work of his life, in whose exe- 
cution he gave out that wonderful series of books and papers 
which have revolutionized thought in science and knowledge 
and in life. But to do this he sacrificed his health, and in 
after years his working ability was greatly curtailed. In 
1838 he married his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and in 1S42 
he settled at Down in Kent, whence came those scources of 
inspiration which filled his colleagues with wonder and 
which have been the inspiration of countless younger stu- 
dents of the world. For to him was granted that boon 
which few men have, — not only did he live to see his work 
accepted by his peers and co-laborers, but he saw a younger 
generation inspired and led by his work, pushing ahead with 
the vigor of youth and with each step showing more fully 
and clearly the beauty and far reaching qualities of the work 
of the master, an upcoming generation appreciating the labor 
and the difficulties and marvelling at the will power of the 
man whose physical condition was such that he could work 
but a few hours in each day, and those few hours separated 
by long intervals of rest. 

In closing his reminiscences in the two volumes of the 
"Life and Letters", his son Francis writes: "If the charac- 
ter of my father's working life is to be understood, the con- 
ditions of ill-health, under which he worked, must be con- 
stantly borne in mind. He bore his illness with such uncom- 
plaining patience that even his children can hardly, I believe. 
realize the extent of his habitual suffering. In their case the 



CHARLES DARWIN. 49 

difficulty is heightened by the fact that, from the days of 
their earliest recollections, they saw him in constant ill- 
health, — and saw him, in spite of it, full of pleasure in what 
pleased them. Thus, in later life, their perception of what 
he endured had to be disentangled from impressions pro- 
duced in childhood by constant genial kindness under condi- 
tions of unrecognized difficulty. No one, indeed, except my 
mother, knows the full amount of suffering he endured, or 
the full amount of his wonderful patience. For all the latter 
years of his life she never left him for a night, and her days 
were so planned that all his resting hours might be shared 
with her. She shielded him from every avoidable annoy- 
ance and omitted nothing that might save him trouble or 
prevent his becoming overtired, or that might alleviate the 
many discomforts of his ill-health. I hesitate to speak thus 
freely of a thing so sacred as the life-long devotion which 
prompted all this constant and tender care. But it is, I re- 
peat, a principal feature of his life, that that for nearly forty 
years he never knew the health of ordinary men. and that 
thus his life was one long struggle against the weariness and 
strain of sickness. And this cannot be told without speaking 
of the one condition which enabled him to bear the strain 
and fight out the struggle to the end." 3 

Under such conditions did he labor and complete his 
work, dividing his day into periods for work and periods for 
rest. The former were three in number and were from 
8 to 9:30, 10:30 to 12:15, and from 4:30 to 6; less than two 
hours duration each. The following quotation from the 
"Power of Movement in Plants'' will show what the charac- 
ter of that work was and what it meant to lay it aside so 
often. His son Francis worked with him in the preparation 
of this book. "The movements, sometimes very small and 
sometimes considerable in extent, of the various organs 
observed by us, were traced in the manner which, after 
many trials, we found to be best, and which must be de- 

8 Darwin F. ed. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. 1898. 
I- PP. 135-136. 



50 CHARLES DARWIN. 

scribed. Plants growing in pots were protected wholly from 
the light, or had light admitted from above, or on one side, 
as the case might require, and were covered above by a large 
horizontal sheet of glass, and with another vertical sheet on 
one side. A glass filament, not thicker than a horse hair, and 
from a quarter to three-quarters of an inch in length, was 
affixed to the part to be observed by means of shellac dis- 
solved in alcohol. The solution was allowed to evaporate 
until it became so thick that it set hard in two or three 
seconds, and it never injured the tissues, even the tips of 
tender radicles, to which it was applied. To the end of the 
glass filament an excessively minute bead of black sealing 
wax was cemented, below or behind which a bit of card with 
a black dot was fixed to a stick driven into the ground. The 
weight of the filament was so slight that even small leaves 
were not perceptibly pressed down. Another method of 
observation, when much magnification of the movement was 
not required, will presently be described. The bead and the 
dot on the card were viewed through the horizontal or ver- 
tical glass plate (according to the position of the object), and 
when one exactly covered the other, a dot was made on the 
glass plate with a sharply pointed stick dipped in thick 
Indian ink. Other dots were made at short intervals of time 
and these were afterwards joined by straight lines. The 
figures thus traced were therefore angular, but if the dots 
had been made every one or two minutes, the lines would 
have been more curvilinear, as occurred when radicals were 
allowed to trace their own courses on smoked glass plates. 
To make the dots accurately was the sole difficulty and 
required some practice. Nor could this be done quite ac- 
curately, when the movement was much magnified, such as 
thirty times and upwards ; yet even in this case the general 
course may be trusted, to test the accuracy of the above 
method of observation, a filament was fixed to an inanimate 
object which was made to slide along a straight edge and 
dots were repeatedly made on a glass plate ; when these were 



CHARLES DARWIN. 5 1 

joined the result ought to have been a perfectly straight line, 
and the line was very nearly straight. It may be added that 
when the dot on the card was placed half an inch below or 
behind the bead of sealing wax, and when the glass plate 
(supposing it to have been properly curved) stood at a dis- 
tance of seven inches in front (a common distance), then 
the tracing represented the movement of the bead magnified 
fifteen times. 

"Whenever a great increase of the movement was not re- 
quired, another, and in some respects better, method of 
observation was followed. This consisted in fixing two tri- 
angles of thin paper, about one-twentieth inch in height, 
to the two ends of the attached glass filament, and when 
their tips were brought into a line so that they covered one 
another, dots were made as before on the glass plate, etc., 
etc." This extract will show the technique and skill which 
were required to carry out his lines of work. 4 

Nine pages of an appendix 5 to the ''Life and Letters" 
are given over to a chronological list of the books, mono- 
graphs and articles which Mr. Darwin published. A casual 
reading of this list shows the versatility of the man's mind. 
The fact that they are authorities on their subjects shows 
the keenness of his judgment and the breadth of his men- 
tality. It seems almost infantile to attempt a selection of 
any as the "most important" when all are of such vast and 
far-reaching influence in the world. But it is impossible to 
reproduce those nine pages and a selection must be made. 
It would be well to head the list without individual titles, 
those volumes which relate to the story of the voyage of 
the Beagle ranking with similar volumes of Humboldt, the 
inspiration of many a young naturalist. Then follow : 

"The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs." 

"On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, 
or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for 
Life." 

4 Darwin C. "The Power of Movement in Plants." 1000. pp. 5-7. 
•Darwin F. etl. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. 1S08. 
IT - PP. 533-541- 



52 CHARLES DARWIN. 

"On the Various Contrivances by Which Orchids are Fer- 
tilized by Insects." 

"The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domesti- 
cation." 

"The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex." 

"Insectiverous Plants." 

"The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilization in the Vege- 
table Kingdom." 

"The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same 
Species." 

"The Power of Movement in Plants." 

"The Formation of Vegetable Mould, Through the Action 
of Worms, with Observations on Their Habits." 

An instant's thought will show that these few selections 
form a remarkable series on the interpretation of nature, 
and on closer inspection we see that the series can be divided 
into two branches, the one dealing with geology, the hand- 
writing of the aeons which are gone ; the other with biology, 
the study of life and living forms. With a masterly hand 
do they tell the story of the observations and deductions of 
the man whose life work they represent. 

The book on "Coral Reefs" gave in its statement of the 
results of gradual subsidence that clear, beautiful and satis- 
factory explanation of the formation of those little islands 
for which the world was waiting and which no one has yet 
superseded. 

In the botanical and zoological part we find Mr. Darwin 
in his element, and we find him tracing out with a sure and 
unfailing hand that theory of evolution for which his name 
stands and for which the whole thinking world venerates 
and honors him ; and which is bidding that same world halt 
and remember, and is giving those of the younger genera- 
tions an opportunity to express their debt to Charles Dar- 
win. A glance at the program of the various celebrations 
shows what might be done were time and experience in me 
to do it. 



CHARLES DARWIN. 53 

In botany we find, aside from the work on movements in 
plants and on climbing plants, the wonderful explanation of 
the origin, reason and development of the colors, markings 
and forms of plants. Right close at hand did he find mate- 
rial for the explanation of the two and three-formed flowers 
in one species. He found it in the little English primrose, 
which is so associated with the country and which before 
had been 

"A primrose by a river's brim, 

A yellow primrose was to him, 

And it was nothing more." 

Now that primrose tells to him who would read a story of 
law obeyed and destiny fulfilled. 

Darwin's work in zoology, and especially the expression 
of his conclusions in the Origin, have brought him most 
prominently before the public. Many of the same ideas had 
been set forth before. Buffon, Erasmus Darwin, Goethe, 
Lamarck and Herbert Spencer had propounded similar 
theories, but they had not touched the mind of the ordinary 
public nor aroused their ire as did Darwin in the "Origin." 
Perhaps they made no personal appeal, not making so keen 
an application of the theory as to seem to attack long 
adhered to dogmas and prejudice of the human race. But 
the "Origin" was met with a tirade and villification. such, 
perhaps, as no other book has ever had. A few generations 
before and Charles Darwin would have met a fate similar to 
that of Bruno, Copericus, Gallileo and the many others who 
gave their liberty or their lives in setting before an unbe- 
lieving and unwelcome world an interpretation of that world 
which has since been accepted and adopted. But this abuse, 
while hard to endure, bore its fruit. The book was read, 
widely, but not wisely nor too well. The first edition was 
exhausted at once; a second soon followed, and a sixth was 
published in 1872. It has been characterized as the most 
important book of the nineteenth century, because of its 
influence on the world at lar°e and its forms oi thought, so 



54 CHARLES DARWIN. 

great that every form of human knowledge and learning has 
been revolutionized and reorganized in order to adapt it to 
the lines laid down in that statement of evolution it con- 
tained, and which it put upon a firm, workable and satisfy- 
ing basis as no previous statement of the theory had done. 

In July, 1837, Mr. Darwin began a note book on the his- 
tory of species and their development, more than twenty 
years before he published his book. About a year later, in 
reading Malthus' essay on population as entertainment, he 
found therein the clear, strong argument of the struggle 
which all living creatures endure that they may survive. 
then his theory began to take shape and develop on truly 
evolutionary lines. From that moment he worked with the 
enthusiasm and fervor which are part of genius. In 1842 he 
wrote out a brief pencil sketch of thirty-five pages. This 
he enlarged two years later to 230 pages. Soon after this 
the influence of and part played by variation came to him. 
His theory was practically complete. Now came a period 
of trial to see whether it would really hold water, and during 
this probation period there was consultation with Lyell and 
Hooker, and a letter to Asa Gray, the American botanist. A 
book was planned and data were being collected. In 1S58. 
as a bolt out of a clear sky, Alfred Russell Wallace, a young 
naturalist working in the Malay Archipelago, sent to Dar- 
win to read and then pass on to Lyell, an essay entitled "On 
the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the 
Original Type." When he had read this Darwin found, to 
his amazement, that Wallace had reached the same conclu- 
sions that he had. The essay was sent to Sir Charles Lyell, 
with a note signifying Darwin's intention to fulfill his 
friend's request and present it to the Linnean Society ; but 
without mention of his own conclusions, reached long before 
Wallace had put his out. Hooker and Lyell were not will- 
ing that this should be done. Finally they prevailed upon 
Darwin to allow them to send certain parts of his work 
upon the question with Wallace's essay and with the fol- 
lowing letter of transmission : 



- 

CHARLES DARWIN. 55 

London, June 30th, 1858. 

"My Dear Sir: The accompanying papers, which we 
have the honor of communicating to the Linnean Society, 
and which all relate to the same subject, viz : the laws which 
affect the production of varieties, races, and species, contain 
the results of the investigations of two indefatigable natural- 
ists, Mr. Charles Darwin and Mr. Alfred Wallace. 

"These gentlemen having, independently and unknown to 
one another, conceived the same very ingenious theory to 
account for the appearance and perpetuation of varieties 
and of specific forms on our planet, may both fairly claim 
the merit of being original thinkers in this important line of 
inquiry, but neither of them having published his views, 
though Mr. Darwin has for many years past been repeatedly 
urged by us to do so, and both authors having now unre- 
servedly placed their papers in our hands, we think it would 
best promote the interests of science that a selection from 
them should be laid before the Linnean Society. 

"Taken in the order of their dates, they consist of : 

"1. Extracts from a MS. work on species, by Mr. Dar- 
win, which was sketched in 1839 and copied in 1844, when 
the copy was read by Dr. Hooker, and its contents after- 
ward communicated to Sir Charles Lyell. The first part is 
devoted to 'The Variation of Organic Beings under Domes- 
tication and in their natural State,' and the second chapter 
of that part from which we propose to read to the Society 
the extracts referred to, is headed 'On the Variation of 
Organic Beings in a State of Nature ; on the Natural Means 
of Selection ; on the Comparison of Domestic Race and 
True Species.' 

"2. An abstract of a private letter addressed to Professor 
Asa Gray, of Boston, U. S., in October, 1857. by Mr. Dar- 
win, in which he repeats his views, and which shows that 
these remained unaltered from 1839 to 1857. 

"3. An essay by Mr. Wallace, entitled v On the Tendency 
of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type.' 



.*-, r^V 



n 



56 CHARLES DARWIN. 



This was written at Ternate in February, 1858, for the per- 
usal of his friend and correspondent, Mr. Darwin, and sent 
to him with the expressed wish that it should be forwarded 
to Sir Charles Lyell, if Mr. Darwin thought it sufficiently 
novel and interesting. So highly did Mr. Darwin appreciate 
the value of the views therein set forth, that he proposed, 
in a letter to Sir Charles Lyell, to obtain Mr. Wallace's 
consent to allow the essay to be published as soon as possi- 
ble. Of this step we highly approved, provided Mr. Darwin 
did not withhold from the public, as he was strongly in- 
clined to do (in favor of Mr. Wallace), the memoir which 
he had himself written on the same subject, and which, as 
before stated, one of us had perused in 1844, and the con- 
tents of which we had, both of us, been privy to for many 
years. 

"On representing this to Mr. Darwin, he gave us permis- 
sion to make what use we thought proper of his memoir, 
etc., and in adopting our present course, of presenting it to 
the Linnean Society, we have explained to him that we are 
not solely considering the claims of priority of himself and 
his friend, but the interests of science generally, for we feel 
it to be desirable that views founded on a wide deduction 
from facts, and matured by years of reflecting, should con- 
stitute at once a goal from which others may start ; and that, 
while the scientific world is waiting for the appearance of 
Mr. Darwin's complete work, some of the leading results oi 
his labours, as well as those of his able correspondent, 
should together be laid before the public. 

"We have the honor to be yours very obediently. 

"Charles Lyell. 
"jos. d. hooklr." 6 

About one year after the reading of these joint communi- 
cations the "Origin of Species" appeared, in November, 
1859. Charles Darwin was fifty years old and the labors of 
his life had reached a fruition in that book which has 

6 Locy, W*. A. "Biology and Its Makers." 190S. pp. 420-^JJ 



CHARLES DARWIN. 57 

changed thought, history, religion, and all theories of man's 
life, and has furnished him with a statement of truth and 
fact which quieted many of his questions as to the whence, 
the why, and the how. What was its message? Simply 
that species of plants and animals were not created as such, 
separate and distinct, but that they were developed from or 
descended, with modifications, from ancestral forms of 
greater or less complexity ; from forms of less complexity to 
those of greater, when the evolution was in the ascendant 
scale and there was what man calls "advance". From 
greater to less complexity, when the scale was in the de- 
scendant and there was what man calls "degeneracy". In 
other words, the pictorial representation of the races, species 
and varieties of the living world is not linear, as we roughly 
draw our genealogical tables of reigning families, and 
others, but in the form of a tree with its roots in that mys- 
tery of mysteries, which none can penetrate, the origin of 
life, and which, as it grows and develops, puts out branches 
and branchlets, each with a related individual or group of 
individuals on it, all connected by the common source of 
life, protoplasm, flowing on through the living forms of 
earth, as the sap flows through the tree, supplying its leaves 
and fruit with the source of life. As the leaves on the outer- 
most branches of the trees are in a better relation to light, 
air and sunshine, so the individuals at the heads of their 
kind are better able to cope with their environment and sur- 
vive, which is nature's standard of advance. 

Mr. Darwin based his theory upon the facts of variation, 
inheritance and natural selection. 

When Mr. Darwin began to think about this work he 
wished evidence and data. The most available form oi this 
he found in the work of the raisers of plants and animals, 
the work of practical men on flowers, fruits and vegetal 
dogs, horses, sheep, cows, pigeons, poultry, and the host of 
living forms which man has domesticated and put to his own 



58 CHARLES DARWIN. 

uses. In this he saw that individuals varied, that the breed- 
ers made use of certain variations, discarding the others. 
Thus is it possible to raise from the common root stock of 
the rock pigeon, by artificial selection, creatures seemingly so 
far apart as the pouter, the fan-tail and the carrrier pigeon. 
The mastiff and the toy spaniel have a common ancestor, 
likewise the race horse and the draft. If there were this 
variation amongst plants and animals in domestication, what 
was the condition in nature? The answer is "again varia- 
tion". In a herd of deer some are fleet of foot, some slow ; 
in a pack of wolves, some keen of scent and sight, some 
dull. How can species profit from this variation? Only if 
the succeeding generations have the beneficial variation in 
an equal or potentially greater degree. This involves the 
second basal fact of heredity. Indirectly heredity has been 
defined as "likeness to the past". The author of this defini- 
tion adds in a very illuminating way, "Likeness to the past. 
which we call heredity in biology and the conservative policy 
in politics." 7 Directly heredity is that characteristic of liv- 
ing matter by which it tends to reproduce more or less faith- 
fully the form which gave it birth. One does not gather 
figs from thistles nor yet roses from oak trees, nor rear 
chickens from geese, nor horses from cows. 

If heredity be the conservative element in nature, then 
variation may be said to be the radical element. How do 
these two diametrically opposed forces abide in an harmoni- 
ous world and work for law and order and the working out 
of destiny? Charles Darwin found this connecting link in 
the working of natural selection. The seeds of a plant are 
innumerable, the eggs of a fish are not to be counted, the 
generations of a bacterium are beyond the ken oi man. yet 
were the offspring of a single generation of a s ecies 

to survive, all other forms would be driven to the wall and 
from existence. Hence, there ensues a struggle for the 
existence between species and individuals of the 

7 Saleeby, C. YY. "Evolution the Mastcr-Key." 1006. p. 8. 



CHARI.ES DARWIN. 59 

species, the strongest survive. This is the meaning of the 
phrase ''natural selection". The law states that there is a 
struggle for existence in nature and that those individuals 
survive or are selected which have strength to reach matur- 
ity and leave descendants. To the phrase "natural selec- 
tion" has been added Spencer's qualification "the survival of 
the fit," expressive to him who understands but confusing 
to many. It is true that the fit survive, but they survive, 
not because of that fitness, but because of the weakness of 
the other party to the struggle ; that is to say, nature selects 
by destroying the weak and unfit. Exactly opposite to man's 
method, but bearing upon its face the marks of success and 
the promise of future generations of able, strong individuals. 
Man's "best" is a selfish best, which selects its fruit or object 
with a view to his own selfish ends, without thought of the 
vitality of the tree, or bush, or plant, or animal which bore 
it, or making it possible for that variety to carry out its part 
in the economy of the world. Alan selects for comfort, ease 
and selfish satisfaction, a species of exploitation, while 
nature, seemingly heartless, selects or permits to exist those 
qualities of strength and hardiness and economy which 
make for winning and which continually exemplify that 
definition which says that life is a constant adjustment of 
self to environment. The standard of fitness varies, with 
the environment ; on the prairies natural selection has pro- 
duced a long-legged, keen of foot race of wolves, while in 
the forest it has developed a race short of leg and slow of 
foot. 

This theory being based on variation, heredity and selec- 
tion, what are the proofs that these facts will account with 
any degree of satisfaction for the results? Nature was 
appealed to and she told her story from the points of view 
of the past and of the present. The rocks of our hills and 
mountains carry with them the story of the past in the fos- 
sils which are more or less abundant according to the age. 






60 CHARLES DARWIN. 

history and formation of the rock. Geologists have taken 
up the problem and have added their findings to those of 
Mr. Darwin's and with them have added strength to 
strength. The shells of the inland lakes of Europe have been 
found in very complete evolutionary series, from the early 
forms of the deeper deposits to those of the present day. 
But the classic example from geology is that of the horse, 
the most beautiful series of all, because of its completeness, 
and, to Americans, the most interesting, since it was worked 
out to its finish on our own western plains, and by our geolo- 
gists, and because of the wonderful exhibit which is to be 
seen in the Natural History Museum in the city of Xew 
York. This is, perhaps, the most interesting geological 
exhibit extant because of its completeness and size. Other 
evidence has been wrested from the rocks and the story of 
the past is completing itself as man works on and pits his 
handful of grey brain matter against the mighty rocks. 

The evidence of the present falls under several heads. 
The first is that of geographical distribution, which takes 
into consideration the distribution of species in space and 
explains the differences of species in localities somewhat 
near each other, but separated by some physical barrier. It 
takes up the peculiar forms of life extant in isolated places. 
as in the islands of the Australian group, showing their rela- 
tionships evolutionally. 

Following this comes the testimony of morphology or 
anatomy, which through careful dissections compares the 
structures and shows the place, age and use of bones and 
different structures. Comparative anatomy has made the 
whole vertebrate world akin and its careful work has discov- 
ered the little amphioxis, a remarkable little creature related 
almost as nearly to the worms as to the fishes, thus standing 
between the vertebrates and invertebrates and connecting 
the two great divisions of the animal world. Morphology 
has traced the evolutionary series with great completeness 






CHARLES DARWIN. 6 1 

and has substituted a natural classification for the artificial 
systems in use before the days of the ''Origin". Physiology, 
the twin of morphology, has also thrown wonderful light 
upon the theory of evolution. 

Perhaps, the most marvellous testimony of all comes from 
the field of embryology, that wonderful story which each 
individual tells in its own development of the history of its 
ancestors, and which is also the epitome of the history of 
the world, of course, in a very much reduced form and 
shortened period. The phrase "ontogeny repeats phytogeny" 
is expressive of what is known as the recapitulation theory, 
and tells us that in their early development, animals, whether 
high or low, go through very similar stages ; some rudimen- 
tary organs appear during the development of the embryo, 
indicating steps and history of ages gone by. Gill-clefts 
appear and the chick breathes through them, while its blood 
circulates through the gill-arches for a time, then the higher 
vertebrate lungs and heart appear, soon the chick is hatched 
and begins to scratch and work out its life, little thinking 
that it has just gone through and demonstrated one of the 
wonders of the world. 

Probably the most interesting, because coming the most 
closely home of all Mr. Darwin's application of his theory 
of evolution, is his application of it to the human race. 
Testing man's position with the criteria of morphology, 
anatomy, physiology and embryology, man is, as Mr. Dar- 
win said, NOT a creature apart from other animals, but 
physically one of them, the highest animal, who has de- 
scended from an ape-like ancestor, not from an ape ; the two 
had a common ancestor, and then developed by adding 
variation to variation, upon lines running side by side for a 
time, then rapidly diverging, until now man stands at the 
head of the tree, able to cope with his environment, and to 
make that environment amenable to many oi his ways. 
While physically man is "not only a vertebrate, a mammal, 



62 CHARLES DARWIN. 

and a primate, but he belongs, as a genus, to the catarrhine 
family of apes. And just as lions, leopards, and lynxes — 
different genera of the cat family — are descended from a 
common stock of carnivora, back to which we may also trace 
the pedigree of dogs, hyaenas, bears, and seals ; so the vari- 
ous genera of platyrrhine and catarrhine apes, including 
Man, are doubtless descended from a common stock of pri- 
mates, back to which we may also trace the converging pedi- 
grees of monkeys and lemurs, until their ancestry becomes 
indistinguishable from that of rabbits and squirrels/' 3 But 
"with the Darwinian biology, we rise to a higher view of the 
workings of God and of the nature of Man than was ever 
attainable before. So far from degrading Humanity, or 
putting it on a level with the animal world in general, the 
Darwinian theory shows us distinctly for the first time how 
the creation and perfecting of Man is the goal toward which 
Nature's work has all the while been tending. It enlarges 
tenfold the significance of human life, places it upon even a 
loftier eminence than poets or prophets have imagined, and 
makes it seem more than ever the chief object of that crea- 
tive energy which is manifested in the physical universe." 9 

To those who have stood within the walls of England's 
marvelous Westminster Abbey and have pondered upon 
what is stands for in the history of the race which holds it 
dear, and have wandered from the little Chapter House, the 
cradle of that political liberty which the Anglo-Saxon values 
as his chiefest earthly possession, to that spot where, sur- 
rounded by the beautiful and ornate tombs of warriors and 
of statesmen who have moulded the course of the world's 
history, are cut in plain and simple letters the words "Charles 
Darwin"; and stand there spell bound at the simplicity 
which marks the resting place of the man who took his fel- 
lows to the mountain tops and pushed back the horizon. 

8 Fiske, John. "The Destiny of Man in the Light of His Origin." 
1887. pp. 19-20. 
•Ibid. p. 25. 



CHARLES DARWIN. 63 

opening up the past and the future with the chief est heavenly 
possession, mental, moral, and spiritual freedom, no words 
can more fully express the feelings than those of John Fiske, 
written on the day that the tomb was closed: "It is fitting 
that in the great Abbey, where rest the ashes of England's 
noblest heroes, the place of the discoverer of natural selec- 
tion should be near that of Sir Isaac Newton. Since the 
publication of the immortal 'Principia', no single scientific 
book has so widened the mental horizon of mankind as the 
'Origin of the Species.' Mr. Darwin, like Newton, was a 
very young man when his great discovery suggested itself 
to him. Like Newton, he waited many years before pub- 
lishing it to the world. Like Newton, he lived to see it 
become part and parcel of the mental equipment of all men 
of science. The theological objection urged against the 
Newtonian theory by Leibnitz, that it substituted the action 
of natural causes for the immediate action of he Deity, was 
also urged against the Darwinian theory by Agassiz ; and 
the same objection will doubtless continue to be urged 
against scientific explanations of natural phenomena so long 
as there are men who fail to comprehend the profoundly 
theistic and religious truth that the action of natural causes 
is in itself the action of the Deity. It is interesting, however, 
to see that, as theologians are no longer frightened by the 
doctrine of gravitation, so they are already beginning to out- 
grow their dread of the doctrine of natural selection. On 
the Sunday following Mr. Darwin's death, Canon Liddon, 
at St. Paul's Cathedral, and Cannons Barry and Prothero, at 
Westminster Abbey, agreed in referring to the Darwinian 
theory as 'not necessarily hostile to the fundamental truths 
of religion.' The effect of Mr. Darwin's work has been, 
however, to remodel the theological conceptions of the 
origin and destiny of man which were current in former 
times. In this respect it has wrought a revolution as great 
as that which Copernicus inaugurated and Newton com- 



64 CHARLES DARWIN. 

pleted, and of very much the same kind. Again has man 
been rudely unseated from his imaginary throne in the 
centre of the universe, but only that he may learn to see in 
the universe and in human life a richer and deeper meaning 
than he had before suspected. Truly, he who unfolds to us 
the way in which God works through the world of phe- 
nomena may well be called the best of religious teachers. 
In the study of the organic world, no less than in the study 
of the starry heavens, is it true that 'day unto day uttereth 
speech, and night unto night showeth knowledge.' " 10 

10 Fiske, John. "Excursions of an Evolutionist." 1890. pp. 367-369. 



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THE INFLUENCE OF THE IROQUOIS ON THE 

HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE 

WYOMING VALLEY AND THE 

ADJACENT REGION. 

BY ARTHUR C. PARKER. 
Archaeologist of the New York State Museum. 

READ BEFORE THE WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY DEC. IO, 1909. 



(laning historical fund.) 



A year ago this winter, bound on an official errand for the 
New York State Museum, I boarded an express train at 
Albany, the capital city of New York, and sped westward at 
a mile a minute rate through a thriving region of alternating 
town and country to the city of Syracuse. Arriving at that 
busy central city, I hired a horse and galloped off to the 
south over a snow covered road. After six or seven miles 
of brisk riding, in a none too kind wind, I found myself in 
a totally different country. Not that the snow, or rocks, or 
trees were different, or the wind, or roads, or fences were 
different. It was not that — the country itself was different. 
The men and women whom I passed were dressed just the 
same as men and women in any rural district, and even the 
children enjoyed their sleds and laughingly threw snow 
balls, as do children everywhere in our eastern States, but 
even so these people were different. Beneath their coats 
beat hearts that were stirred with emotions and recollections 
unknown to the people in the cities and rural places through 
which I had just passed. They were of another race and of 
another nation. The country in which I found myself had 
belonged to these people ages before the white invasion, ages 
before the landing of the pilgrim fathers or the voyages of 
Columbus and the Cabots. No aliens were the people I 
saw, nor were their ancestors ever so, as yours were, for 
they were Indians, — Onondagas, and only half a mile away 



66 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

was the capitol of the Iroquois League, the capitol of an 
empire which once dictated the policy of tribes and nations. 
I jogged on thoughtfully and passed the long house build- 
ing of the Onondaga Nation, from whose chimney poured 
the smoke of the unextinguished council fire. Turning 
down the bend of the road, I reined my horse in front of a 
neat white farm house, dismounted and rapped on the door. 
A white haired man flung it open and exclaimed : "Gawaso- 
'wanneh !" "Nia'we'ska no Sa'hawhe !" I replied and en- 
tered. I was welcomed into the home of the executive 
officer of the League of the Iroquois, the president of a 
nation older than the United States, and older than many 
an European State as modernly constituted. The hand that 
clasped mine in friendly greeting and the voice that spoke 
the welcome were those of a man of striking appearance, 
neatly dressed in modern clothing, but whose dark, bronzed 
skin and flashing black eyes told of his noble descent, whose 
ancestors had been the lords of all the continent east of the 
Mississippi, told of an Indian whose nation, though 
shrunken, had survived the onslaughts of four mighty 
nations for a period of three centuries. Few nations could 
have so suffered and lived ! Few nations could have so re- 
sisted and not have become absorbed, exterminated or 
demoralized and scattered to lose identity. Little wonder. 
then, that this simple man was proud ; no wonder, though 
as I saw him an hour later clad in blue jeans, his bearing 
was that of a knight that knew the dignity of honest toil. I 
transacted my business with him, and after a splendid din- 
ner, prepared by his good wife, I bade the Chief adieu. 

A few hours later I found myself in the city oi Buffalo. 
and after an hour's run over the Erie Railroad. I got out at 
a small country station that lay on the frontier of another 
country, — my country, the country of the Seneca Nation. 
though the unthoughtful often call it a reservation. Here 
for a week I passed my time with two classes oi Indians, — 
Christians and Adis'toweoa'no', though white men call the 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 6j 

latter pagans. Representatives of both classes entertained 
me. I spoke in the Christian church and I spoke in the 
pagan temple, yet I do not think this inconsistent, for I be- 
lieve in all the good in the ancient teachings of Dagoniwida 
and of Ganiodaio, just as I believe in all the good in the 
teachings of the white man's belief. The time was that of 
the mid-winter thanksgiving, when all the ancient practices 
of my nation were enacted. I sang the old songs and I 
danced the old dances of the forest people, because my heart 
was glad and full of thanksgiving to the Creator who had 
so richly endowed me and my nation with good gifts, — and 
if this is paganism it is nevertheless good religion. This 
type of a pagan is no ingrate at least, and thinks more of 
thanking and of doing than of asking. However, lest I 
make you all pagans by telling of the Indian's religion, I 
refrain, for be it known that no Indian ever created or par- 
ticipated in a religious war. After the Long House cere- 
monies one evening I received a message. A mouth whis- 
pered a word in my ear and I knew it the name of a secret. 
It was the summons to a meeting in the darkness where the 
Little Water Company gathered. All night, where neither 
moon nor star could be seen, the drama of the Kind Hunter 
was enacted, and when gray dawn came, came with it the 
feast of the boars head and the distribution of the feast. 

I continued my travels even to a little nook in Warren 
county, Pennsylvania, and in the out of the way places which 
I knew I found tribes and nations still living, though hard 
pressed by white men, living outwardly clothed and domi- 
ciled as white men, but at heart red men still with pride of 
ancestry, love of ancient ritual and affection for the mother 
tongue. Yet where are the other tribes and nations that 
lived in the east, or which have even a few representatives 
not under the wing of the wounded, but yet living League? 

When I returned to Albany a few days later, I carried 
with me a host of thoughts, and some of them are these: 
The League of the Five Nations had been an empire long 



68 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

before the Empire State as such existed. That league, to 
metaphorically describe its peaceful purpose, called itself 
the "Great Peace," and described its dominion as "the Long 
House." Its western door was to open out on the Genesee 
River, and the Senecas were to dwell there and guard that 
door against the invasion of the treacherous foe to the west. 
The Onondagas were to keep the council fire and guard the 
place of national assembly. The Mohawks at the east were 
to guard the eastern door and collect the tribute from the 
tribes and nations to the south and east. In this great Long 
House, dedicated to peace and fraternity, the brother 
nations, the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Onondaga, the Cayuga 
and the Seneca were to dwell in peace and harmony. The 
Long House Confederacy has been the result of Dekanah- 
wideh's untiring labor and its laws had been formulated by 
Hiawatha. Its aim was to prevent international and inter- 
tribal warfare and bring about a beneficent reign of peace. 
It desired all the nations of the continent to unite with it 
and live under its guidance. Those nations which were 
jealous of its power or hostile to its purposes were warned 
and then destroyed, the broken remnants of the resisting 
tribes gathered into small bands and scattered among the 
Iroquois villages. The Iroquois languages were taught, and 
as the children of the captives forgot their fathers' tongue. 
the captives were absorbed to forget their ancestry. Just 
as many tribes and nations to-day unite here under one gov- 
ernment to forget, as time goes by, the ties on the other side 
of the oceans, so the captives of the Iroquois became ab- 
sorbed to give new blood and vigor to the Confederacy. The 
truth of history is this, and I know of no other writer who 
has thus put it : The Iroquois, as a people, were not a race 
or stock, they were a system, a composite of all the finest 
tribes and finest individuals of the Indians of eastern Xorth 
America. The fittest of the Sioux, the Muskhogean, Huron- 
ian and Algonquin stock, with their numerous sub-tribes, 
absorbed by the original Iroquois unit, coalesced into a com- 
posite Indian nation, the Iroquois, — a people whose racial 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 



69 



vitality as a result of their system, has no parallel in history. 
They were the fittest and the offspring of the fittest, and the 
fittest once adopted were treated as the fittest. The loyalty 
of the adopted tribes to the Iroquois, though once bitter 
enemies, is one of the anomalies of ethnology. The Iroquois 
system and Iroquois law swept into the Iroquois Nation 
irresistably thousands of hostile men and women who once 
in the system became its enthusiastic champions, and neither 
history or tradition mention a traitor among them. 

In the history of the Iroquois League there came an epoch. 
The white invaders came, came as supplicants humbly ask- 
ing favors, and their demeanor was not that of a dominant 
people. When crossed in their wishes some of the invaders 
made war and some of these wars were fatal to the pale 
invaders. The French, under Champlain, in 1609, fired a 
volley of bullets at Ticonderoga and the Mohawk-Iroquois 
tasted the lead. The French repented in bitter defeats for 
more than a hundred years those few ounces of lead, for 
they came back a thousand fold and French dreams of 
colonization were crushed, and French power in America 
became weak and weaker, until it expired totally. Becom- 
ing the allies of the English, the Iroquois adhered staunchly 
to their compacts and fought in the front line of the fight 
which preserved for an English speaking people the coast 
and middle Atlantic region, to say nothing of the territory 
which grew from it. Sir William Johnson, to whom Ameri- 
cans owe much, — and have forgotten the debt, said : "The 
Iroquois are the tower and bulwark of defense between us 
and the French." Nor was Sir William ever slow to 
acknowledge what the Iroquois had done for England. 

In their heroic effort to secure peace, even at the price oi 
war, the Iroquois conquered nearly all the Indian nations 
north of the Gulf States and east of the Mississippi River 
and held as their dominion a territory greater in extent than 
the Roman Emperors ever boasted. Yet these people have 
been called savages. In the culture scale this is true, but 



JO ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

when compared with people calling themselves civilized the 
Iroquois were not savages. Civilized men of the colonial 
period were guilty of crimes in their warfare far more 
revolting than the Iroquois ever perpetrated. The inflamed 
white man burst his thin veneer of civilization and became 
the savage Gaul or Saxon all too easily to be a just judge of 
the Indian. The story has only half been told, and that half 
is the white man's, which lor the most part has described the 
patriotic desperate struggle of the natives of America as 
savagery, while the same accounts praise the white man's 
brutal, vengeful depredations and heartless onslaughts as 
punitive measures necessary for the protection of the coun- 
try. Indian victories were called massacres, white men's 
massacres were glorious victories, — battles for freedom, and 
we now sing: "My Country, Tis of Thee!" And talking 
about the country, few have ever asked where they got it 
and how. 

In November of this year (1909), in company with Mr. 
Christopher Wren, your Curator of Archaeology and Oscar 
J. Harvey, Esq., members of the Society, I wandered over 
the battlefield of Wyoming. The place and its environs was 
of intense interest to me, for my own ancestors had poured 
down through the cut in the mountain and fallen upon the 
settlement at Wyoming. The so-called massacre, however, 
as Mr. Harvey has discovered from an examination of origi- 
nal documents in the British Colonial office, was a carefully 
planned battle, and in all of its essential details laid out at 
Montreal two years before. 

One of the interesting facts over which historians have 
long disputed, is whether Capt. Joseph Brant led the Indians 
in this raid. The Indians have always denied this, as have 
several historians, notably Stone. Brant's son. John, went 
to England to protest against the statement that his father 
had participated in the battle and strongly objected to his 
father being described as the "monster Brant". ( 
Harvey, Esq., and Rev. Horace E. Hay den have recently 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. Jl 

shown by documentary evidence that Brant had no active 
part in the battle. 

Brant was not a monster, although his superior officer, 
Walter Butler, was unquestionably one, and one whom 
Brant, the Indian, despised. J. Max Reid, the historian of 
the Mohawk Valley, in reviewing the lives of Brant and 
Butler, says: "I have searched in vain for a single kindly 
act or generous impulse of Captain Butler and his infamous 
son, Walter N. When their acts are compared with those 
of Brant's, their deeds are the deeds of savages and Brant's 
those of a noble, generous man."* 

Walter Butler's savagery was too ferocious for even sav- 
ages to endure. He was despised and hunted by the Oneidas, 
loyal to the patriotic cause, and was indeed shot by an Oneida 
on the banks of Oneida Creek fifteen miles above Herkimer. 
As the Indian raised his tomahawk to dispatch him he begged 
for mercy, like the coward that he was, but nevertheless lost 
his scalp, not, however, until the loyal Oneida had shouted 
"Remember Cherry Valley!" 

As I wandered over the scenes of the Wyoming battlefield 
I asked Mr. Harvey to point out the notch in the hills and to 
show me the swamp where the young Seneca warriors had 
concealed themselves. Mr. Wren and myself, following his 
lead, went with him to these spots, and together we talked 
of how his ancestors suffered. The day was one of those 
foggy, smoky days of early November, but I ventured to 
make a photograph of the mountain notch, with the swamp 
in the foreground. The traditions of my Seneca ancestors 
would make me a descendant of one of the Seneca leaders 
of the attacking Indians, and, indeed, in the old homestead 
on the Cattaraugus reservation to-day hangs the knife which 
he carried, and, perhaps, buried deep in many a patriot's 
breast. 

It was a great pleasure to walk over the historic ground 
which for so Ions: had been the theatre where tragedies of 

*Reid, J. Max, The Mohawk Valley, p. 227, Putnam's. 1901. 



72 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

tribes and nations had been enacted. Several historians 
have called the Wyoming Valley the Southern Door of the 
Iroquois Long House. The simile sounds well, but as facts 
stand the Iroquois never had a side door. The Wyoming 
Valley was the south lawn, the game preserve and asylum 
for dependent tribes. The Iroquois regarded this valley as 
their own by right of conquest, not by conquest sought as 
such, but one which resulted from the repeated and extended 
wars of the Susquehannock tribes and their refusal to con- 
form to the plans of the Iroquois League. The Susquehan- 
nocks, although of the same original stock, had been the bit- 
ter enemies of the Iroquois, perhaps since the Mohawks 
came south from the Laurentian basin, — but I am getting 
ahead of my story, since I prefer to deal with it from an 
anthropological rather than an historical view point, for 
the Wyoming Valley is the center of more converging lines 
than the one marked Iroquois or colonial history, and the 
circle inscribed from this center is one of wide influence in 
American ethnology as it is also in American history. 

PRIMITIVE CULTURES OF THE WYOMING VALLEY. 

There are few spots in our country more romantic than 
the Wyoming Valley, and, indeed, there are few regions 
where local history has been preserved with more zealous 
care. Whether this is due to the enchantment of its roman- 
tic history or to the appreciation of its inhabitants does not 
concern us immediately. We are more interested in the fact 
that the events which transpired in the wild, raw days of the 
pioneer have been well recorded, and that we of to-day may 
know much of the historic yesterday. We know something 
but not all, and modern science is content with nothing short 
of all. 

The word recorded facts of the events which transpired in 
a region such as this, however extensive these records may 
be, form only a small portion of the history of that region. 
Fortunately for us we have discovered other records which 






ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 73 

were made ages before white men trod this soil, and even 
ages before Indians or any man walked over the great trails 
made by the traveling herds of gigantic mammals and gazed 
upon the wide spreading plains which we call Wyoming. 

The earliest records are those of nature herself, the geo- 
logic, and these have been interpreted well. Later came 
perchance preglacial man, whose relics have been found in 
the Delaware Valley in numbers. Then came the great ice 
sheet to blast and uproot the forests, to drive men and beasts 
far to the south and to bury the land under a mile of ice. 
When the gigantic forces which precipitated the ice age had 
expended themselves and the sun had reduced ice to water 
that gushed in might torrents that seamed and furrowed 
the land into new valleys, and when the waters had subsided 
and plants and animals flourished man came again, but how 
long he waited or what stock he represented we know not. 
We must find the record if we can. This is one of our pro- 
blems. 

This region, as does every region, to the anthropologist, 
presents its own peculiar problems, and every region bears 
its own particular relation to the great problems of anthro- 
pology. Until these problems are recognized and until 
local culture variations are known or sought, there can be no 
true progress in the particular branch of science which we 
wish to elucidate. 

The problems of anthropology carry us deep into the 
realms of many things. We deal with life and its origin. 
man and his origin, and mind and its manifestations. The 
anthropologist seeks an explanation of how a given race of 
men came upon a continent, when they crystalized into a 
race or races, what elements modified them, what they did 
and made, what they believed and said, and how their 
thoughts and artifacts compare with those of other races of 
a given culture stage, for strangely, as first viewed, peoples 
widely separated by time and space, living in a given culture 
stage, produced similar things and thought similar thoughts. 



74 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

The anthropologist, therefore, seeks to know and measure 
the monitions of the cosmic mind that had expressed itself 
in all men of all times. The child of the ancient caves of 
Belgium, of the mountains of Ur, of Chaldea, of the 
shadows of Cheops, of the cromlechs of ancient Briton land, 
of the gilded temples of the Incas, of the ingloos of the ice 
clad Arctics, of the leaf huts in the tropics, or of the manger 
in Bethlehem, all gave the same low cry and sought a 
mother's breast. The wild, untaught man of the Himalayas, 
of the jungles of the Gangees, of the rock lands of north 
Scotland, of the valley of France's Somme, or of the coal 
hills of the Wyoming Valley, all sought out rude stones and 
chipped them into knives and spear heads, that, as we gather 
them now, resemble each other so closely in many ways that 
save for the material one can scarcely tell from whence 
they came. Like the cry of the babe, they tell of the first 
feeble efforts of the infant race to follow the promptings of 
the cosmic mind to better things. In the struggle to enlight- 
enment some men have gone with greater speed but the 
same path has been followed. This is the truth which an- 
thropology teaches, but let no man suppose that because one 
race of men is in the lead that its endurance is greatest, for 
many in the past have fallen by the wayside while slower 
minds and feet have plodded on in advance. Speed is not 
the test, — well balanced growth and conserved energy is. 

In America our problem is to tell how man first came 
here, whether he is of a homogeneous race, and, if not, what 
racial elements have modified him ; how the great linguistic 
stock originated ; how they divided, and what regions they 
successively occupied. In a given area we have specific 
problems. We seek to know what tribes and stocks occupied 
the area, from whence they came and whither they went : 
what each stock made and how and for what purpose their 
implements were made and used. We ask what thev ate : 
what grains they cultivated ; how and who they fought ; how 
they governed themselves; how women were regarded In 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 75 

the tribal economy; what their religion and ceremonies 
were; what their mortuary customs were, and the facts of 
domestic life, and what they wore. All these facts and 
more are necessary to determine the degree of culture, or its 
peculiar form, and unless this scheme is pursued in studying 
the archeology and ethnology of a people, or a region, no 
perfect scientific result can be attained. 

To those unacquainted with the methods of anthropologi- 
cal research it may seem an impossible thing to know much 
or even anything concerning the prehistory of a region. To 
these we answer, that the earth about us contains many 
relics of the men who lived before us, and many museums, 
such as this, have collected these relics in order that they 
may be available for interpretation. As elsewhere I have 
explained, to those who are wont to rely upon the word 
written records of history, it may not at first clearly appear 
how much may be learned from such relics, or how such 
things can have the import which the archeologist claims. 
Let it first be realized that early man has left upon the sur- 
face of the earth traces of himself by which his prehistory 
may be materialized far more accurately than it might ever 
have been from a word written document. We have become 
so accustomed to rely upon the testimony of word-made 
records, that we lose sight of the fact that words are but 
thought symbols, ideophones and ideographs, and that writ- 
ten records may be erroneous and incomplete, while material 
objects may convey clearer meanings by which a much more 
accurate knowledge may be gained. We seek to know the 
man of prehistoric times, yet that man has left us few writ- 
ten documents by which we may read in words his thoughts 
and learn of his activities. He has done better and we may 
know him notwithstanding. He has left pencil ings upon the 
surface of the earth which he trod, which neither rains, nor 
floods, nor the ravages of time have erased save in spots. 
as a stray raindrop might expunge a letter from a slate and 
yet leave the word still readable.* 

♦Parker, A. C. Erie Indian Village. Bull, 117, X. Y. State Museum. 



y6 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

INDIAN TRIBES AFFECTING THE PRIMITIVE CULTURE OF THE 
WYOMING VALLEY. 

There are few regions in the United States where the 
archeologist may expect to find a greater variety of relics of 
so many diversified cultures than are found here.* Before 
entering too far, however, into a discussion of the aboriginal 
occupation of this region, it may be well to classify the vari- 
ous bands of people whom we shall mention. This is neces- 
sary, since not only are there variations in stocks but also 
differences in divisions of stocks. 

The Huron-Iroquois family embraced the various Huron 
tribes, the divisions of the Cherokee, the bands of Tus- 
carora, the Susquehannock, and Andaste tribes (afterward 
called Mingos and Conestogas), the Neutral, the Erie, the 
Wennroh, the Seneca, and the other four Iroquois tribes, 
the Cayuga, the Onondaga, the Oneida and the Mohawk. 
The Seneca and Eries, and, perhaps, some smaller divisions, 
were very likely the Massawomecks whom Captain John 
Smith met. It is a well known fact to ethnologists that the 
Senecas differed more than any other tribe from the re- 
mainder of the confederated Iroquois and never were in 
complete harmony with them. 

The great Algonquin stock covered a wide stretch of terri- 
tory and embraced a large number of tribes. Those which 
inhabited this region or affected its culture were the Dela- 
wares or Lenni Lenapi with their several sub-tribes, the 
principal ones being the Munsee, the Unami, and the L nlach- 
tigo. Other Algonquins were the Xanticoke, the Conoy, the 
Shawnee, and the Mahikan. Each of these divisions were 
divided into still smaller bands. 

Two other linguistic stocks which influenced this area 
were the Muskhogean and the Siouan. The representatives 
of the latter are the Catawba or Tuteli and of the former the 

*Compare Dr. F. C. Johnson's article on "Count Zinzendort and 
the Moravian and Indian Occupation of the Wyoming Valley." 
Proceedings W. H. and G. Soc, Vol. VIII, pp. ii9-;S_\ 






ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. JJ 

Chickasaw. The Catawba were the most important branch 
of the eastern Sioux. They were first mentioned by Van- 
dera in 1579. He called them Isse, a name derived from 
the Catawba, iswa, meaning river. The Chickasaw belong 
to the same stock as the Choctaw, Creek and Seminole. The 
Chickasaw practised head flattening. 

These stocks and tribes have been enumerated not only to 
classify them but to emphasize that the territory occupied 
by these peoples was of vast expanse, reaching from the 
Atlantic coast to the Rocky Mountains, and from the Lau- 
rentian basin to the Gulf of Mexico. A knowledge of all 
these things is necessary in order to appreciate the factors 
which influenced the customs and art of the people who lived 
here. With this knowledge at hand we are prepared to 
examine the sites of former Indian occupations and the 
relics of those occupations. 

The earliest known tribes inhabiting this valley, as is well 
known, were the Susquehannocks. The name Susquehan- 
nock, however, is a generic term and includes without doubt 
several tribes of Iroquoian stock, notably the Andastes. 
These people at the time they were first visited by Captain 
John Smith, had an alliance with the Algonquins on the east 
shores of the Chesapeake but were enemies of those on the 
west side. The Iroquois of the north had warred upon the 
Susquehannocks for many years and brought about their 
downfall in 1675. In accord with their custom the Iroquois 
denationalized them. According to Colden they were set- 
tled among the Oneidas and when completely Iroquoiscd 
were sent back to the town of Conestoga. It will be per- 
ceived that the words Conestoga and Andastc are both 
derivitives of a single word, Kanastogc, meaning place of 
the sunken pole. At the town to which the dwindled band 
was sent they wasted gradually until they were but a score. 

In 1763 this handful of a once mighty nation was de- 
stroyed. A band of white men, known as the Faxtang Hoys. 
murdered them, wantonly, the poor Conestogas being a 



yS ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

peaceful, unresisting band.* It must not be thought, how- 
ever, that the blood of the Conestogas or the Susquehan- 
nocks is entirely blotted out. It still flows in the veins of 
many an Oneida in Wisconsin, Ontario and New York. The 
tribe of Susquehannock, or Conestoga, whichever you may 
chose to call it, alone is extinct and not the blood. 

In the "Character of the Province of Maryland", by 
George Alsop, the Susquehannocks are described in the fol- 
lowing words: 

"They are a people looked upon by the Christian inhabi- 
tants as the most noble and heroic nation of Indians that 
dwell upon the confines of America." 

Such were the people conquered by the Iroquois, and it 
cannot be denied that those who were absorbed must have 
added a valuable element to the conquering race. Every 
writer speaks of these Indians in the most glowing terms. 
The description which Captain John Smith has left us is a 
most valuable one not only from the standpoint of history 
but also of ethnology. He remarks in his "General History 
of Virginia" :* 

"Such great and well proportioned men are seldom seen, 
for they seemed like giants to the English, yea and to the 
neighbours, yet seem of a simple and honest disposition. 
w T ith much adoe restrained from adoring us as Gods. These 
are the strangest people of all these countries both in lan- 
guage and attire; for their language it may well become 
their proportions, sounding from them as a voyce in a vault. 
Their attire is the skinnes of beares and wolves, some have 
cossacks made of beares heads and skinnes that a man's 
head goes through the skinnes neck, and the eares oi the 
beare fastened to his shoulders, the nose and teeth hanging 
downe his breast, another beares face split behind him. and 
at the end of the nose hung a pawe. the halfe sleeves coning 

*Some authorities dispute that the Conestogas were always a we'.! 
behaved band of people. 

♦Smith, John. General History of Virginia. Chapter VI. 



ETHNOLOGY IX WYOMING VALLL 79 

to the elbowes were the neckes or beares. and their arras 

through the mouth with snares hanging at their noses. One 

had the he :e hanging in a : - a Jewell, his 

tobacco pipe, three o*fi yard lone 

with a bird, a deare or some such derist ■ fgjn I end, 

sufficient to beat out ones es, and 

clubs, suitable to their greatness Chest . roe known 

to Powhatan. They can make 600 able men and are palli- 

sadoed in their r lefend them from the 

womekes, their mortall enemies. Five 

Wefowanaoc came aboard vs and cr; 

barge. The picture of the greatest ? s*c 

the mappe. V . . * . 

yard about, and all the rest his limbes so i s 

that proportion that he seemed the g, 

ever beheld. His ha] -me side was long, I 

shore close with a rk)gc & c 

His arrow otters long headed with - 

of white christal'-like stone, 

broad, and an inch and a halfc g ~ 

a woolues skinne at his for his s one 

hand and his ciubbe in the other, as 

The descriptions oi the bear and wolf ski-, 
with the remnants 0! such things I Erie 

graves in western Xew York. The 
Smith described are in 
regions i in the older sites 

and in graves. These, of c Chero- 

kee, a related people, ah effg 

these should be contused with the . '. the mound 

builder culture, which are of anothi 
Werowannace. mentioned by Smith as . 

! gnitkant. for it is an I:. 
primitive derivation to the S< teca 
ing a ttarr.e e\rj.*.v 

The Susquehannocks held this region for a longer pC 



80 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

than any known tribe, but they had not always held it. At 
various times after their conquest their ancient territory was 
occupied by the Delaware, the Mousey, the Swance, the 
Nanticoke, the Mehogan, the Wanamese, the hCickasaw and 
the Tutelo. All these bands were placed here as denational- 
ized tribes and vassals of the Iroquois. 

It seems most improbable that these peoples, coming from 
so many widely separated points, should not have brought 
with them their own peculiar arts and forms of decoration. 
It was for this reason that I stated that relics of several 
diverse cultures should be found here. The bundle burials 
of the Nanticokes should be found if they continued their 
customs after their arrival here. The flattened heads of the 
Chickasaws should be found with relics showing Musk- 
ohgean influence. Indeed, these skulls have been found near 
Plainsville. The peculiar forms of Tuteli culture should be 
found where they once lived and the Algonquian pottery and 
other artifacts of the Delaware and Minsis should be brought 
to light. 

It would be a most interesting work to chart all the known 
sites of former Indian occupancy and to endeavor to n~me 
the occupying tribe and give the name of the village itself. 
No doubt many sites would be encountered to which no 
name could be given nor even the name of the tribe that 
held it given. The sites of unknown peoples, however, 
should prove a most interesting study and afford an inter- 
esting basis of comparison. 

The culture history of the Susquehannock-Iroquois and 
their relation to cognate tribes has never been fully studied 
and there never seems to have been a systematic attempt to 
excavate known Susquehannock sites with the purpose of 
discovering the material facts of that culture. There are 
several interesting problems to be solved and a host of 
material to be collected. This must be done now or if 
never be done. Sites are constantly being covered with the 
alluvium from floods or with the refuse of commerce. 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 8 1 

Towns and cities, railroad cuts and gradings cover and 
destroy these priceless bits of pre-history, obliterating 
knowledge for all time. Our descendants will cry shame and 
blame us for our heedless neglect, and they will have just 
cause for complaint. A museum like this can never be too 
busy, but it cannot get busy without money. The money 
reason is the one which ties the hands of most historical 
societies and compels them to see the treasures of time lost 
forever. I have thus digressed to say and to emphasize that 
the peculiar archeologic duty which falls upon this Society is 
to solve the problem of the Susquehannocks so far as they 
within your province lie. To the splendid beginning which 
has been made in the way of research and collecting let 
there be a strong following. 

ABORIGINAL ARTIFACTS IN THE COLLECTION OF THE WYOMING 

HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY SHOWING 

IROQUOIAN INFLUENCE. 

Among the various interesting archeological specimens 
found in this general region and now in the collections of 
the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, similar to 
those of Iroquoian origin in New York State are celts and 
adzes, chipped stone arrow points and knives, stone ham- 
mers, net sinkers, pottery vessels, shell runtees, tortoise rat- 
tles, a bone comb fragment, a brass or copper spiral. There 
are also other objects of exceptional interest which will be 
mentioned later in this paper. A preliminary study of these 
objects was made some weeks ago through the courtesy of 
your Corresponding Secretary. 

Celts. The ungrooved axes and adzes, or celts as they are 
usually called, found in the Iroquoian regions oi Xew York 
are of various sizes and types. Some are only an inch and a 
half long and others reach nine or ten inches or more. There 
are several interesting forms in the collections oi this Society 
which while rare here are fairly common in some parts oi 
New York. Among these is the flat water-washed pebble 



82 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

fashioned by nature so that it needs only the work of grind- 
ing an edge to complete it as a chisel or small celt. This 
class of edge implements consists of two classes, that just 
described and which is well proportioned as a small celt, and 
the long slivers of shale sharpened on one end. There are 
several of these in the Wren collection. This latter type I 
have found only on sites occupied by the Eries. They have 
been found by others elsewhere, but not commonly. 

Another type common in central Xew York, especially in 
the Seneca country, is the adz form ; that is a celt having one 
side flat and the other beveled in flat planes. There is one 
specimen of this form in the Wren collection and several in 
the general collection. The Wren specimen was found at the 
mouth of the Susquehanna. In Xew York celts of this type 
range from specimens having well defined beveled sides with 
flat planes to high rounded specimens having no flat planes 
whatever. Like many primitive implements the forms, pro- 
nounced as they may be, grade almost imperceptably into one 
another. 

The celt, however, is not purely or entirely an Iroquoian 
implement. It is not even American Indian, but a universal 
form of an ungrooved axe common to all peoples who lived 
in the stone age culture. And when we say stone age we 
do not mean any precise age in the world's history, for many 
peoples still live in the stone age, just as many others, now 
civilized, did ten thousand years ago. 

One of the common colloquial names for implements oi 
this class is "skinning stones", although they are sometimes 
also called "deer skinners" and "fleshers". It is not imp H 
ble that an ungrooved axe or adz might have been used for 
the purpose of peeling off an animal's hide, but I have yet. to 
learn of an historical reference to the fact. On the other 
hand, these implements have been found in Xew York 5 
and elsewhere in original hafts, or handles oi wood, plainly 
showing them to have been axes. Xor is it even necessary to 
examine these specimens almost miraculously preserved by 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 83 

muck or peat, to determine their use as axes. Explorers 
have found them in use not only on this continent but in the 
islands of the Pacific and in other regions where men have 
not reached civilization. 

To cut down a tough grained tree with one of these dull 
edged stone hatchets is, of course, a well nigh impossible 
feat. The Indian, however, in common with savage man, 
universal, knew how to make natural agencies do the work 
of muscle. He built a fire at the base of a tree and when the 
flames had eaten into the wood he chopped out the charcoal 
with the stone hatchet to give the fire a fresh surface and 
then waited for the flames to make more charcoal. This 
process repeated soon brought even a large tree to the 
ground, as I, myself, know by experiment. Modern civilized 
man scarcely realized the immense utility of fire to his 
primitive ancestor, nor the extent to which he employed it. 

Among the interesting specimens of celts I find several in 
the collection which clearly show the three processes which 
they underwent, — the chipping to give form, the picking to 
reduce uneven masses, and the abrading or polishing pro- 
cess to give polish and remove surfaces not reducable by 
picking. Some of these rude, unfinished specimens are 
worth far more than some finished specimens for what they 
teach of primitive arts. 

There is another rare form of the so-called celt which I 
find represented by one specimen in the Wren collection. It 
consists of a long slender bar of polished black slate sharp- 
ened on either end. The Wren specimen is ten inches in 
length and elliptical in cross-section. The writer in 1906 
proposed the name bar celt 1 for this type of implements, of 
which a number have been found in various places. They 
are not common in New York, the State Museum oi Xew 
York having but four specimens, one of which is broken. 
Two of these, in perfect condition, I was fortunate enough 

1 Parker, A. G Excavations in an Erie Indian Village and Burial 
Site, p. 533. N. Y. State Museum, Bulletin 117. 



84 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

to discover in Chautauqua county, N. Y. One of them came 
from the grave of an Erie woman in the site excavated 
under my direction in 1906. It is interesting to note that 
the Wren specimen was also found in a grave, but not one 
of a known occupation. 2 According to information fur- 
nished by Mr. Wren, his bar celt was found in 1888 in a 
grave within about an eighth of a mile of a site known to 
have been occupied at different times. "In going over vil- 
lage sites some years ago with Mr. O. J. Harvey," writes 
Mr. Wren, "for use in his history of Wilkes-Barre.I locating 
them from signs I had actually seen on the ground and he 
referring to an unpublished diary of Count Zinzendorf, we 
came to this location. The Indians pointed out this burial 
place to Zinzendorf and told him they did not know any- 
thing about the people buried in it, as the graves were there 
before their time." 

Similar implements have been found in Jefferson county, 
St. Lawrence county, three at least in Chautauqua county, 
and one or two in the Seneca lake region in Xew York State. 
The fact that the two specimens have been found in graves. 
one of which is positively Iroquoian and the other probably 
such, indicates their use by an Iroquoian people. As all of 
the sites where these grave specimens were found are of an 
early Iroquoian occupancy, it seems safe to say that they are 
relics of the culture possessed by the Iroquois when they 
came east. The northern Xew York specimens would 
belong to the prehistoric Mohawks, or more likely the early 
Onondagas, who had not yet shaken off their original influ- 
ences. The western New York specimens, no doubt, belonged 
to the Iroquois who skirted the shores of Lake Erie and who 
were separated from the Laurentian Iroquois, while the 
Wyoming Valley specimen probably belonged to the Iro- 
quois, who early held this region. If this is true, we might 

2 "Shupp's Graveyard" on Boston Hill, Plymouth township. Lu- 
zerne county, Pa. See Wren, Stone Age, Proc, Wyoming Hist, and 
Geo. Soc. 1904. p. 108. 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 85 

look for similar specimens in the Mississippi Valley, where 
the Iroquois are said to have lived or through which they 
passed in their long journey for a permanent home in the 
east. Specimens, indeed, have been found in Tennessee 
and one is described by General Thruston in his "Antiquities 
of Tennessee." We may look for them elsewhere and note 
their occurrence with interest, for they may furnish an inter- 
esting clue to the early home of the Iroquois stock. 

OTHER IMPLEMENTS OF STONE. 

There are several specimens of abrading or sinew, 
stones in the collections of your Society which are similar 
to those in New York. These stones are either natural 
pieces of sandstone, or broken and sometimes complete 
celts, having grooves deeply worn, first by sharp stones and 
later by the sinews which were drawn through them to even 
down the cord or thread. Perhaps awls also were rubbed in 
the grooves to sharpen their dulled points. 

The stone hammers, both massive and pitted, and the 
net sinkers of the ordinary type in your collections are simi- 
lar in every way to those found in New York State. The 
large circular net sinkers, which seem peculiar to the North 
Branch of the Susquehanna, of course, are not found in 
New York in the quantities which they are here. 

CHIPPED STONE IMPLEMENTS AND HOW THEY WERE MADE. 

The most numerous articles in any considerable archeo- 
logical collection, in our region at least, are those of chipped 
stone, popularly termed flint implements. Thus we find 
numerous and varied forms of chipped implements in the 
collections of this Society. Many of these implements are 
most worthy of study and description. 

To the uninformed a gracefully shaped and delicately 
chipped Indian arrow head represents the product of a 
wonderful lost art. It seems almost impossible that the 
beautiful specimen could have been made by an Indian 
possessing only rude means of making anything. It is an 



86 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

erroneous idea, however, to suppose that the American who 
centuries ago made such an arrow head was untutored or 
ignorant of the best possible of tools needed for flint chip- 
ping. In many instances with the tools which we call rude 
he produced a finer specimen of stone chipping than could a 
modern lapidary with all his modern appliances. 

Some hard cutting material is a necessary adjunct to 
the progress of any people, primitive or enlightened. Since 
primitive man was not acquainted with the use of metal, it 
is natural that he should utilize stone, which was abundant 
everywhere. The use of sharp pieces of naturally broken 
stone probably led him to break stones, and using such 
pieces for cutting suggested other uses by modifying the 
form. 

Early man in all probability used natural pebbles as 
throwing weapons, and natural clubs of wood for striking. 
His use of pieces of wood for thrusting suggested the spear- 
shaft, and his experience with cutting stones suggested the 
spear-head, with which he could more easily kill game or 
provide himself with a weapon of defense or attack. The 
game killed required a knife for dressing it and sharp tools 
were necessary for scraping and cutting skins for garments. 
Cutting tools were also essential in shaping soft stone into 
pots, for making wooden vessels, for cutting trees, making 
bone implements and drilling holes. The pressing need of 
early man for so many things gave rise to the art of stone- 
chipping. 

Although many relics of the ancient American remain in 
the soil all about us, the ordinary observer passes by un- 
noticed the pottery fragment, or the bone implement, and 
picks from the ploughed held or water-washed bank the 
arrow head which excites his greater admiration. 

The first requisite for making a good chipped implement 
is appropriate material. The stone must be hard and have 
conchoidal fracture. It must chip at an acute angle to the 
medial plane of the mass. The less the angle, the more 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 87 

workable the stone. Flint or chert, quartz, jasper, chalcedony, 
obsidian, felsite, and argillite are all types of stone having a 
conchoidal fracture. 

To chip properly, the stone should be obtained from a 
moist place, such as the sea or lake shore, the damp earth, 
or from veins of rock below the surface exposure. 

Large pebbles were used and larger masses quarried and 
broken into fragments. These fragments, chipped roughly 
into blank forms or "blades", were carried into camp for 
completion. Concerning the quarries of the ancient Ameri- 
can, Dr. W. H. Holmes, in "Arrows and Arrowmakers". in 
the "American Anthropoligist" for January, 1891, says: "In 
Arkansas there are pits dug in solid rock — a heavily bedded 
novaculite — to a depth of twenty- five feet and having a 
width of a hundred feet or more. In Ohio and other States 
similar phenomena have been observed. In the District of 
Columbia extensive quarries were opened in gravel-bearing 
bluffs, and millions of quartzite and quartz bowlders secured 
and worked. The extent of native quarrying has not until 
recently been realized. Such work has been considered be- 
yond the capacity of savages; and when ancient pits were 
observed, they were usually attributed to gold hunters of 
early days, and in the south are still known as 'Spanish dig- 
gings'. From Maine to Oregon, from Alaska to Peru, hills 
and mountains are scarred with pits and trenches. The 
ancient methods of quarrying are not known, and up to the 
present time no tools have been discovered, save rude stone 
hammers, improvised for the purpose. Picks of bones and 
pikes of wood were probably used.'' 

Flint Ridge in Ohio and the Fort Erie, Ontario, quarries 
are fairly well known. I do not mid, however, that any 
mention has been made of the numerous aboriginal "flint" 
quarries in Pennsylvania, except by Mr. A. F. Berlin in 
Moorheads "Prehistoric Implements", p. 1S7. Your Curator 
of Archeology tells me that there are about 2.000 such quar- 
ries alone in Lehigh and Berks counties, Pa. Specimens of 



88 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

the material from these quarries are to be found in the Wren 
collection of your Society. 

To determine how arrow heads and other chipped imple- 
ments were made, it is only necessary to watch the process 
among modern Indians who still remember the art. There- 
are also several good descriptions contained in books by 
travelers, among them Catlin. The Iroquois generally have 
forgotten the art and inquiries will bring but meagre infor- 
mation. A few, however, remember the fundamental prin- 
ciples but the majority look upon an arrow or spear head of 
flint with as much wonder as does the ordinary Yankee 
farmer. 

In the description which follows I have combined pre- 
viously known facts regarding the chipping of flint-like 
stones with other facts gleaned from a series of experiments 
conducted by myself under the direction of Professor F. W. 
Putnam, in the American Museum of Natural History. 
These results were embodied in a paper which has never 
been published. Much of the description which follows 
later is taken from this paper. In the description of the 
various processes the reader must understand that where 
positive statements of methods are made that these methods 
were those used in experiments and are in accord with 
methods known to have been used. 

The tools used in shaping arrow heads were few and sim- 
ple, consisting merely of a stone hammer and a flaker. For 
larger implements a stone anvil, a pad of skins, and a pitch- 
ing tool, were used in addition. The flaker was one of the 
most important tools in the process and with it the most deli- 
cate work was done. 

In making an arrow head the arrow maker chose, for in- 
stance, an oval pebble measuring approximately four inches 
in length, two inches and a half in width and three-quarter? 
of an inch thick. He held the pebble in his left hand, palm 
downward, the pebble projecting about an inch over his 
thumb. The hammer was held in his right hand, 




Fig. i. Position of the hands in chipping a quartz or flint pebble or flake. Note the grip of the 
fingers on the pits in the hammer-stone. 







Fig. 2. Position of the hands in flaking quartz or Bint with a btMM or antler flak; 



r 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 89 

toward the left (see figure i). He struck a quick, smart 
blow on the projecting edge of the pebble at the point indi- 
cated in the figure. A large chip flew off, starting at the 
point of percussion, and running on the under side, grad- 
ually thinning and widening as it progressed. This opera- 
tion was repeated all around the stone. Then the chipped 
pebble was reversed. The chipping having been success- 
ful, the portion chipped away on one side of a surface met 
that on the other side of the same surface, and the edges 
became sharp. The flaker (figure 2) now came into requisi- 
tion. It was a piece of deer antler, or, perhaps, of bone, as 
either would answer, and had a roughened surface. A point 
near the end of the flaker was pressed against the sharp edge 
of the stone so that the flaker was indented (see figure 2). 
The pressure of the flaker was against the stone and upward, 
while the stone was pressed against it and downward. 
A quick turn of the wrists inward and downward brought 
off a chip. In this way the arrow point was given definite 
outline. That bone or antler should be the chief instrument 
in flaking stone seems at first strange, and yet it was the 
most important factor in the process. An antler pitching 
tool was useful in taking off long flakes. 

In the manufacture of a large spear head, the pebble, 
which is too large to be easily held in the hand, was placed 
upon the pad of skins which rested upon the stone anvil, 
the object of this pad being to provide a yielding 
base; this also was one reason for holding the smaller stone 
in the hand. The notches in the arrow point were made 
by making a small chip at the proper place, reversing the 
blade, and chipping again until the notch was "eaten in". 
Large stone chips required only the use of the antler or bone 
flaker to transform them into shapely points. Often many 
hundred of unfinished chipped blades were made and stored 
in the earth, afterward being dug up and flaked into any 
shape that necessity required. A fine cache of forty-oight 
jasper specimens in your collection was found in Nescopeck 



90 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

township in the year 1908. It was formerly believed that 
cache blades were buried for safety only, but it is now- 
understood that they were also placed in the damp earth to 
absorb and retain the moisture that keeps the stone elastic 
and easy to flake. 

It must not be supposed that the arrow maker was suc- 
cessful in finishing every blade. Often a blow would cause 
an abrupt fracture or take off too large a chip. This all 
depended upon the character of the stone and the skill of the 
operator. Unsuccessful attempts were cast aside and are 
technically called "rejects". Many hundreds of these may 
be found on old Indian quarry and camp sites. 

The usual chipped implements are the knife, spear point, 
arrow point, drill, and scraper, each kind of implement 
varying in size and form. The drill is long and narrow, 
having rough but sharp edges, generally broad at its base, 
and was used to perforate soft stone, bone and wood. It 
was sharpened automatically, for as soon as an edge be- 
came dulled the increased resistance caused the material 
that it was drilling to act as a flaker and compelled a flake 
to fly off, thereby giving a new edge. The scraper was made 
from a large chip, flaked so as to be bevelled on one side 
like a chisel. Many scrapers were made from broken arrow 
and spear points. It was sometimes fastened to a h 
and used to scrape wood, bone, and skin. The different 
forms of spear heads and knives and arrow points grade 
into each other, often making it impossible to name the exact 
use of a particular specimen. Perhaps they were used to a 
considerable extent interchangeably. Knives were o: 
forms, the chief characteristics being the finely bevelled 
sharp cutting edge. Some were made so as to fit into a 
handle and others to be held in the hand. The spear wzs 
much longer than the arrow point and designed to be 
ened to a shaft. Spear heads or points were ii 
most beautiful specimens of the chipper's art. They have 









ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 91 

been found in abundance on sites of great antiquity, con- 
firming the theory that the arrow point is more modern 
than the spear. The arrow point could only be used in con- 
junction with a throwing stick or with a bow, and there is 
every reason to believe that the arrow was evolved from the 
spear. 

The arrow head appears in as many varied forms as 
design and accident could create. It was made from stone, 
colored by all the hues nature produces — red, pink, yellow, 
blue, green, black, and white — and often from quartz crys- 
tal. Different peoples to a certain extent had different styles 
and individuals often their own particular "brand". The 
arrow head was made for all the varied uses to which a mis- 
sile of its kind could be put. Special arrows were likely used 
for large and for small game, for birds, for fish, and for 
war, but to venture to define these would be simply guess- 
work. An ingenious device was the bevel head. The cross- 
section of a bevel head is rhomboidal. For a long time it 
was thought that this form was but an accident in the method 
of flaking, but I am told that experiments made at the 
Smithsonian Institution are said to have shown that the 
bevel head flies with a rotary motion, so that it not only goes 
more directly, but on striking an object literally bores a 
hole into it. This seems to require further investigation, 
however. The "fishing point" is long, narrow, and slender. 
It was designed to be shot into the water at the fish. 
The small points were made from small chippings with a 
small flaker. War points are thought to have been fastened 
loosely to the shaft so that they could not be pulled out of 
the flesh, even though the shaft were withdrawn. Blunt 
arrow heads, or "bunts", were used to hit objects without 
penetrating them. Such bunts were often made of broken 
points reflaked. 

The arrow has ceased to play an important part in hunt- 
ing or warfare, the bullet having superseded it. The bullet, 
however, is the evolution of the arrow head, its mission is 



92 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

the same, and the principle which governs it is the same. 
Ancient as well as modern man was aware that a small, 
heavy. object, swiftly propelled, could go where a larger one 
thrown by hand could not go, and that it would do more 
damage. 

From the hand spear to the arrow — after the bow was 
known — was but a step ; then came the cross-bow and bolt ; 
then the rude musket and bullet. The bullet, being heavier 
and propelled more swiftly, needed no shaft, nevertheless it 
is but an arrow head in another form. 

A SCOTCH SILVER ORNAMENT. 

There is in the collection of this Society a simple little 
ornament of silver which, I dare say, is overlooked by the 
majority of visitors without a passing thought. It is, never- 
theless, a most important specimen, and while it is not even 
of Indian origin, it is a specimen of a class of ornaments 
which greatly influenced the Iroquois and other eastern 
Indians. I refer to the heart and crown brooch in the case 
of the Col. Zebulon Butler collection. This specimen is 
the first which it has been my fortune to see in any Ameri- 
can collection.* The brooch is plainly of European manu- 
facture and is one of a class of Scotch ornaments or buckles 
which gave rise to the Iroquois art of silversmithing. For 
half a century or more among the most interesting speci- 
mens of Iroquois ornaments have been their silver brooches. 
Of a great variety of forms and of several sizes, these 
brooches or buckles have long attracted the attention oi col- 
lectors. Though abundant fifty years ago and common 
twenty years ago, the great activity of collectors has stripped 
the Iroquois of these relics until few remain, and these are 
prized heirlooms. That the Iroquois made them is certain. 
There is no question about this, for several collectors, nota- 
bly Mrs. H. M. Converse, Mr. M. R. Harrington and myself 
have collected sets of tools used in their manufacture, and 

♦This specimen is doubly interesting because it is decorated on 
either side. 



I 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 93 

the old silversmiths who sold their rusty chisels and dies 
demonstrated how the brooches were made. In the set 
which I was fortunate enough to get were even tin boxes 
filled with the clippings and filings of the beaten silver coins 
from which the Iroquois silversmiths cut the brooches. 

The origin of the art has puzzled students of Iroquois 
ethnology and as far as I am able to discover I have been the 
only one to hit upon a clue and follow it to Scotland. In a 
paper as yet unpublished I remark: 

"Iroquois silversmithing and silver work are subjects 
worthy of the attention of ethnologists. Silver brooches are 
among the most sought for of the later day products of 
Irquois art. Beauchamp, Converse and Harrington have 
each interesting accounts of the brooches but none of them 
has indicated how the Iroquois first obtained their knowl- 
edge of silver working or have suggested how the patterns 
of the most common forms were secured. Airs. Converse 
wrote: 'I fail to find in illustrations of jewelry ornamenta- 
tion of either the French, English or Dutch, designs that 
have been actually followed in the hammered coin brooch of 
the Iroquois.' Harrington remarks in his excellent paper, 
the best yet issued on the subject : 'Before concluding, a few 
words concerning the art of silversmithing among the Iro- 
quois may not be out of place. Of course, such a discussion 
must necessarily be almost entirely theoretical. Taking the 
brooches first, it seems possible that we may look for their 
ultimate origin in the ornaments of copper, mica and other 
materials, thought to have been sewed or tied upon gar- 
ments as ornaments by many tribes of the precolonial period. 
As Beauchamp says, 'Apparently the brooch was the evolu- 
tion from the gorget for some (early) ornaments oi this 
kind were tied on, not buckled.' He mentions and figures 
such a crude broochlike ornament of copper found on an 
Onondaga site of 1677. It is difficult to surmise how the 
buckle tongue fastening originated, or if borrowed whence 
it came. Perhaps the idea was in some way derived from 



94 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

the old-fashioned shoe or belt buckle of the colonists. Exam- 
ining the patterns, the Masonic type speaks for itself, as 
being clearly of European origin; but other forms are not 
so easily traced. The heart type surmounted by an apparent 
crown looks suspiciously European also; but we cannot 
prove that the heart, which occurs so often in all kinds of 
Iroquois carving and bead work, is not a pattern native to 
the people. The crown-shaped ornament above possibly 
represents a feathered headdress, or sometimes an owl's 
head. * * *" * 

This paragraph embraces a summary of all that recog- 
nized writers have yet said about the origin of the Iroquois 
silver brooch. Correspondence with the National Museum 
of Antiquities of Edinburgh brought the information that 
for many years brooches precisely like the primary types 
found among the Iroquois had been made in Scotland and 
were called Luckenbooth brooches, from the Luckenbooths 
about St. Giles Church, where they were sold. Further 
research revealed that these brooches were shipped in quan- 
tities to America by English and Scotch traders about 1755, 
and sold and traded to the Indians about the great lakes. 
Some of them, similar to the one in the collection of this 
Society, were actually found in a mound in Wisconsin, where 
they had been buried with the remains of a modern Indian. 

The Iroquois, so far as inquiry goes, were the only 
Indians to actually copy these ornaments and produce them 
themselves. Reworking a pattern and inventing new de- 
signs of their own, they produced brooches by the thousands 
and traded them in many quarters. The fashion spread 
widely and the desire for brooches became a passion among 
the Indians of the east, the height of the craze being about 
1850, when there was a rapid decline. The art oi making 
them became extinct shortly after the Civil War. 

♦Extracted from Parker, A. C. Iroquois Silversmithing. Manu- 
script in N. Y. State Museum. (See Museum Report, 190S.) 











(S^ 




Obverse and reverse of the "Luckenbooth brooch' 
from the Ethnological Collection of this Society. 




Seneca brooch, presented to the Society by Mr. 
Parker, as used in his family for many years. 






ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 95 

The greatest change from a stated original type is to be 
found in the case of the Masonic emblem which the Iro- 
quois copied and recopied until in some brooches the origi- 
nal motive can scarcely be detected. In some cases the 
square and compasses, with the arc of a circle, and the sun 
and moon, are represented. From this the Indian designers 
wrought the arc into the sky-road, made heaven holding 
pillars of the compass and a council fire from the other 
parts of the design. Then to completely change the emblem 
it was worn upside down. 

The heart and crown brooch in the collection of this 
Society, was made, if we are to judge by the data upon it, 
in 1794, which is about the time during which the Iroquois 
obtained the greatest quantity from traders. The Iroquois 
silversmiths seldom put any inscriptions on their brooches, 
unless a few conventional dots and lines may be construed 
as hieroglyphs. To put names and dates, as well as rhymes 
or "posies" on their brooches, was, however, a common 
custom with the Scotch. The Luckenbooth brooch in the 
possession of this Society bears the inscription: "Xathl — 
and Celia Sykes, 1774." Dr. Joseph Anderson, Curator of 
the Edinburgh Museum, describes another brooch of this 
same type, on which is inscribed: "Wrong not the [heart] 
whose joy thou art." The missing word heart is supplied 
by the form of the heart in the brooch. Brooches of this 
type are used by the Scotch as love and marriage tokens, but 
the Iroquois thought them to be owls that symbolized 
watchfulness "when the sun goes under the sky". 

The facts which I have just mentioned will place the Iro- 
quois brooches in a new light before ethnologists and for 
this reason the brooch in your possession becomes of special 
interest. If there are no specimens in your collections to 
tell of Iroquoian influence on the ethnology of this region, 
there is at least a specimen which tells of Scotch influence 
on the Iroquois. 



96 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

IROQUOIAN POTTERY VESSELS AND RELATED FORMS. 

Among the most important classes of articles in the col- 
lections of your society are those of baked clay or pottery. 
Pottery, broadly speaking, consists of two divisions, — ves- 
sels and tobacco pipes. There are other objects of pottery, 
but for the purposes of this paper it is not necessary to men- 
tion them. 

Entire pottery vessels are rare in the North Atlantic 
coast States and those bordering upon them. This is a fact 
recognized by every authority. It was for this reason that 
your Secretary, Harrison Wright, in 1883, described those in 
this Society's cabinet. It remained for Mr. Christopher 
Wren, however, to describe in detail the pottery of this 
region. This excellent treatise, which has proven of great 
use to many students, makes it easier for me to give an esti- 
mate of Iroquoian influence. 

The products of the ceramic art represent a distinct and 
substantial advance in the achievements of the people which 
acquired it. From a collection of vessels and fragments 
from a given culture one may obtain a knowledge of the 
ideas of form, symmetry and decoration held by the pot- 
makers. A perfect knowledge, of course, cannot be ob- 
tained, for there seems to have been some fixed principle 
that governed pot decoration in this region. The plastic 
sides of the unbaked vessel certainly invited the potters 
talent for decoration, but in most cases we find only the 
markings of a cord-wrapped paddle or smoothing tool on 
the body of the pot, and conventional lines, dots and scallops 
on the neck, rim and collar. Except in rare instances life 
forms do not appear except on Iroquois pots from 
dating between 1590 and 1630. As far as I have been able 
to discover I believe that no attempt has ever been made 
to explain the reason for such a custom. I may be criti 
but I venture this explanation. To the Iroquois, and to the 
Algonquins in all probability, the making of a life represen- 
tation, an effigy or a drawing of any kind, carried with it the 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 97 

idea that the spirit of the thing would enter the representa- 
tion and become sensible to good or evil treatment. The 
soul of the man or the spirit of the animal drawn upon a 
pot, therefore, would feel the biting of the flames, and feel- 
ing the insult straightway bring some dire catastrophe upon 
the head of the offender. Those unacquainted with Iroquois 
ideas as they still survive, have little idea how they regard 
images and mysterious drawings. There is a field for inter- 
esting research in this subject. The prevalent theory of 
forms is that advanced by Frank dishing, that pot forms 
are determined by the receptacle which preceded the use or 
discovery of the use of clay for pottery. The Iroquois pot, 
according to the theory of Cushing, is influenced in its form 
by a hypothetical bark vessel which preceded it. As a vessel 
I do not know where Cushing obtained the data upon which 
he based the drawing which has so often been copied. The 
bark basket which he represents is certainly not used by the 
Iroquois now, nor do I find any record of its use by Iroquois 
people. A similar form, without the stitched neck, was used 
by the Algonquins, and specimens of Algonquin bark 
baskets are in the collections of the New York State 
Museum. Iroquois baskets of this type were of elm bark 
and had a rim of hickory sewed on with inner elm or bass 
wood bark. 

The entire pottery vessels from the Susquehanna Valley 
in the possession of this Society, consists, as might be ex- 
pected, of two types, the Iroquoian and the Algonquian, with 
an intermediate form presumably of Algonquin make. The 
Iroquois form is represented in the Ross pot in your collec- 
tion. (Figure 5.) This vessel is typical of the Mohawk 
Valley in New York, although it was found in a rock shelter 
near the falls of the Wallenpaupack. A related form, the 
Reynolds pot, is Iroquoian in its form and decoration, but 
the technique of the design is so unusual that it may have 
been made by an Algonquin (see figure 6). In the pot illus- 
trated in figure 7 we have the example of an Algonquin pot 



98 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

in which the potter has endeavored to copy the Iroquois 
collar and decorations but with poor success. The pot is a 
fine example of the mixed type and is probably unique. 

The pot illustrated in figure 8 is a good example of a 
purely Algonquin pot from the Susquehanna watershed.* 
In most respects it is similar to Algonquin pots found else- 
where. 

The series which I have mentioned is, perhaps, entirely 
unique and the Algonquin vessels in your possession with- 
out equal in number or interest in any collection. Algon- 
quin pots, like Algonquin skulls, are mostly found in frag- 
ments, while Iroquois heads seem lively to-day and Iroquois 
pots fairly numerous. I, myself, have found more than a 
hundred entire Iroquois pots, but have helped find only one 
broken specimen of the Algonquin type from Algonquin 
territory. In Iroquois territory, however, I have found 
entire jars that seem Algonquian in form and technique. 
Possibly they were made by captives. 

A TORTOISE RATTLE. 

Many objects left by the Indians are most puzzling. To 
attempt to guess their use may lead to great confusion, while 
a review of known facts as recorded by historians is apt to 
be equally confusing, for in most cases historians were not 
ethnologists and saw little use in noting minute details. Yet 
we are often compelled to use the data of the careless his- 
torian as final evidence. All this merely emphasizes the 
necessity of studying the critically surviving vestiges of 
aboriginal cultures. Archeology must be interpreted in the 
light of ethnology, if ethnology will furnish the particular 
light which we desire. 

♦The great mass of potsherds from the Wyoming Valley sccmu to 
indicate a longer Algonquin occupation than we generally have 
recognized. Of the collection of fifteen pots in the Wyoming His- 
torical and Geological Society, twelve have been illustrated in Vol* 
I and 2 of the Proceedings of the Society. 



*"*"" -«"— — 



Indian Pots from the Collections of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Societ\ 
Wilkes-Barre, Penn'a. 




Fig. 5. The Ross Pot. Proceedings of the Society. Vol. 
Fig. 6. The Reynolds Pot from North Mountain. 




8 



V 



/ 



Fig. 7. White Haven Pot 



P8| s. Tiofi ivt. 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 99 

One of the puzzling articles to which I refer is a tortoise 
shell carapace, evidently the remains of a rattle, found in a 
grave at Athens, Pa. This rattle has been described in papers 
read before your Society by Dr. Harrison Wright, and by 
Christopher Wren. The conclusions which Mr. Wren 
reached regarding it are absolutely the best obtainable from 
the data available. I am fortunately more or less of an 
Indian myself and a member of some of the Iroquois folk 
societies. It is, therefore, of no special credit to my intelli- 
gence that I am able to state, with some degree of positive- 
ness, that the rattle in question is not one of a type used in 
the Great Feather Dance ceremony, but one used, in all 
probability, by the Tonwi'sas Company, a sisterhood devoted 
to the propitiation of the spirits of growth and the harvest. 
You see that Iroquois women had secret societies long ago 
and have them now. Rattles of this character were used in 
their ceremonies and only this type of rattles. The rattles 
used by the Great Feather Dancers was the rattle made 
from a large snapping turtle, with the neck extended to form 
a handle, the sternum being painted red. A similar rattle 
without the painted sternum was and is used by the False 
Face Company. The publication of these facts, with many 
others bearing on Iroquois life and ceremony, no doubt will 
clear many vexing questions. The State Museum of Xew 
York will publish such a volume in a few years. A great 
quantity* of manuscript is only awaiting compilation, and 
annotation to make it ready for the public. 

The tortoise rattle, therefore, tells of a unique side of Iro- 
quoise influence in the Susquehanna Valley, — that of the Iro- 
quois woman and of her secret sorority, the Tonwi'sas. Like 
most women's societies, however, after a while it becomes 
necessary for a man or two to enter. A Tonwi'sas lodge in 
necessary for a man or two to enter. A Tonwi'sas lodge in one 
was carried off bodily by the Cherokee and it cost a lot of 
blood and wampum, not to speak of suffering, to get the 
women back. Thereafter the sisters had two well qualified 



IOO ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

warriors accompany them as escorts. These escorts carry 
implements of death, however, not tortoise rattles. Anyone 
may see the annual ceremony of the Tonwi'sas at a mid- 
winter thanksgiving ceremony of the Senecas. There are 
several rattles similar to the Athens, Pa., specimen in the 
State of Museum of New York, which came from Seneca 
graves in Ontario and Erie counties. These are precisely 
like the specimens now in use by the members of the Ton- 
wi'sas. 

BONE COMBS. 

Another bone object of interest from the Athens site is 
the bone comb described in detail by Mr. Christopher Wren 
in a paper read before this Society. Its peculiar interest lies 
in the fact that it is similar to all bone combs found in Iro- 
pois sites before and a little after 1600. Combs of this char- 
acter have been found on prehistoric sites of the Seneca 
and also of the Erie as well as on early sites of the Oneida, 
Onondaga and Mohawk. The Iroquois did not use fine 
toothed combs, it is interesting to note, until after the com- 
ing of the white invaders. 

There is in the Christopher Wren collection a bone awl, 
near three inches long, the only one, I believe, in the collec- 
tions of your Society. It comes from a grave at Plymouth 
and is similar in every way to Iroquois and Algonquin awls. 
and, indeed, similar to the awls of the early Britons or 
Swiss Lake dwellers, for that matter, for so simple a 
tool is it that its form would occur to any one need- 
ing a sharp, piercing implement of bone. The New York 
State Museum possesses many hundreds of specimens oi 
bone awls from all portions of the State. The Iroquois 
used them in great quantities and probably for several pur- 
poses. Refuse pits in certain places often contain fro 
to thirty or more of these awls, some of them beautifully 
polished. That so many should have been lost by accident 
seems most improbable. Some custom, or folk-belief, must 



ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. IOI 

have influenced the practise of casting awls and other imple- 
ments in refuse pits. It was a common custom of the Iro- 
quois to offer as a propitiation to animals which they had 
killed certain trinkets. These trinkets and other things, such 
as were offered, were thrown upon a small fire, and a sprinkle 
of tobacco thrown upon the flames or smouldering coals as 
the case might have been. In the earlier times, when the 
Iroquois brought their game to the village, it seems quite 
probable that they would throw the sacrifice into the fire and 
refuse pit as an offering. Of course, some might have be- 
come lost, but it seems entirely unlikely that the immense 
quantity of useful objects as are found should have been 
accidently overlooked and swept into the pit. 

This paper, because of the vastness of the subject, if 
treated in a detailed way, especially the historical end of the 
subject, has been prepared largely to suggest what may be 
done in the future. It is impossible, manifestly, to treat the 
archeological end of the subject completely in a comparative 
way since but few excavations have been made, and, there- 
fore, since so much remains to be developed. On the other 
hand, an historical treatment would be entirely superfluous. 
One of your members, O. J. Harvey, Esq., has already pub- 
lished so detailed an account of the Indian history of this 
region and other regions connected with it that his work 
must forever remain a classic. It has only been possible, 
therefore, to suggest a plan for work, to recognize the field 
and to study a few of the specimens which seemed of special 
interest as a basis for comparison with the Iroquois artifacts 
found in New York State. 

The Iroquois themselves never occupied this valley in the 
sense of having lived here in settled towns. They controlled 
it for about a hundred years, and so greatly did they impress 
themselves upon its history that they will always have a 
place in it. 

To the Iroquois the Wyoming Valley was the asylum of 
conquered and dependent tribes, the mixing bowl oi many 






102 ETHNOLOGY IN WYOMING VALLEY. 

nations from many divergent points. It was the artery 
through which the Iroquois received the blood which has 
caused them to persist as a people and maintain their 
national identity. To-day in the veins of men calling them- 
selves Iroquois runs the blood of all the tribes of the east 
that were fortunate enough to be conquered by the Iroquois. 
To-day on the various reservations of the Iroquois in the 
State of New York and Canada, we find men and women 
who can trace their ancestry back to the Eries, the Kah- 
kwas, the Shawnese, the Nanticoke, the Tuteli or Catawba, 
the Sauks, the Delaware, the Mohegan and the Minsi and 
Munsee. Nor are these all. It should be remembered, also, 
that the Tuscaroras came to the Iroquois into the Oneida 
country through this valley, but could not become a repre- 
sented nation because they "burst into the side of the house" 
instead of entering the door. 

It is now 300 years since first the Iroquois met the white 
man and each year of these three centuries has been char- 
acterized by the increasing encroachments of the invading 
race. Strong forces of arms, subtle plots and underground 
legal proceedings, as I said in introducing my subject, have 
been successively directed against them, but they still exist. 
— not as a broken people, demoralized and scattered from 
their ancient seats, but nominally as nations with name and 
soyreignty, retaining in a large measure their own peculiar 
culture, and exist as Iroquois and Indians in the very heart 
of civilization. 

The influence of the Wyoming Valley on the Iroquois has 
been great because of the influence of the Iroquois on the 
Wyoming Valley has been great. 












REMINISCENCES 

— OF — 

Rev. Jacob Johnson, M. A. 

First Pastor, First Presbyterian Church, Wilkes-Barre, 
1772-1790 

BY 

Frederick Charles Johnson, M. D. 

Historiographer of the Society. 

READ BEFORE THE WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

February 11, 1910. 



Preface. 



Doubtless of all the pioneers of the Wyoming section 
of Pennsylvania, no one, excepting Hon. Timothy Picker- 
ing, has left material for reminiscences of his times so full 
and so varied as has the Rev. Jacob Johnson, whose inter- 
esting experience as a pioneer missionary and pastor is 
narrated in the following pages. 

The author, his great grandson, has been for years 
patiently gathering this material together for presentation 
by publication. The matter covers fully thirty years of 
active work in the sacred ministry of the Gospel among the 
Indians of Connecticut and Xew York, and among the early 
settlers of North-Eastern Pennsylvania. 

That grand old church, the First Presbyterian Church 
of Wilkes-Barre, founded by Jacob Johnson, with its many 
daughters throughout this section, is his best monument. 
In his connection with this church more historical material 

10$ 



IG4 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

touching his history will be found in the third volume of the 
"History of Wilkes-Barre," by Oscar Jewell Harvey, Esq., 
now in press. 

The genealogy of Jacob Johnson has already been pub- 
lished in a pamphlet of thirty-two pages, entitled 

"Rev. Jacob Johnson of Wallingford (Conn.) and 
Wilkes-Barre (Pa.) by F. C. Johnson, M. D., Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa. Member of Wyoming Historical Society ; New Eng- 
land Historical and Genealogical Society, etc. 1904." 

HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN. 



CHAPTER I. 
Early Life in Connecticut. 

Rev. Jacob Johnson, the pioneer preacher of Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa., was born April 7, 171 3, at Wallingford, Conn., 
of which place his great-grandfather, Thomas Johnson, the 
emigrant, and his grandfather, William Johnson., were 
founders in 1670. He was a son of Jacob and Abigail 
(Hitchcock) Johnson. Of his early life we have little infor- 
mation. It was his father's desire that he be educated for 
the ministry of the Congregational Church and he was 
accordingly sent to Yale College, from which he graduated 
in 1740 with twenty others as Bachelor of Arts, one-third 
of them becoming clergymen. The college in 1763 conferred 
on him the degree of Master of Arts. 

His father, also named Jacob, was born at Wallingf r 
September 25, 1674, and died July 17, 1749.* He was 
a deputy to the General Assembly in 1763 and is men- 
tioned in some of the Wallingford records as "Serg 
Jacob Johnson. The mother of Rev. Jacob John 
was Abigail, daughter of John and Abigail Hitchc c 
ALigail, born 1654, was the daughter of Lieut. Xa:' 

•A fuller genealogy of the family has been published by t w e 
ent writer in a pamphlet entitled "Rev. Jacob Jonnson of Wall:: 
Conn., and Wilkes-Barre, Pa.", pp. 32. 1904. 






REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 105 

Merriman, one of the original proprietors of Wallingford, 
founded in 1670. 

The elder Jacob was a well-to-do farmer, who at his 
death in 1749 left an estate valued at about £14,000. The 
inventory of the estate and its distribution to the heirs, 
recorded at New Haven, shows that Jacob received as his 
share a piece of land valued at £1,351 and two slaves, "the 
negro man Dick and the negro woman Deft," valued at 
£800. With the land was "1-3 part of the mines and miner- 
als in the Hanging Hill woods farm." It is likely that these 
values were in the inflated currency of that time. In 1768 
Rev. Jacob was so poor that it was difficult for him to clothe 
his family, then resident at Groton, Conn. 

The grandfather of Rev. Jacob was William, sometimes 
mentioned in the ancient records as "Wingle" Johnson. He 
was a prominent New Haven man and was a deputy to the 
General Assembly several times. William was one of the 
original proprietors of Wallingford, and died in 17 16. His 
wife was Sarah, daughter of John and Jane (Wollen) Hall. 
Her father, John Hall, lived in Boston in 1639, but resided 
in Wallingford in 1671 and was chosen selectman in 1675. 
He died in 1676, aged 71 years. William was one of the 
sons of Thomas Johnson of New Haven, who emigrated to 
Connecticut from Kingston-upon-Hull. England, and met 
his death by drowning in New Haven Harbor in 1640. 

Of Rev. Jacob Johnson, Dexter's "Graduates of Yale 
College" says: "He was elected to a Berkeley scholarship at 
graduation, but if he resided at all on this foundation left 
soon to complete his theological studies with the Rev. 
Jedediah Mills (Yale 1722), of Ripton Parish, now Hunt- 
field East Association, April 29, 1742." It is also recorded 
of h ; m in "Contributions to Ecclesiastical History oi Con- 
necticut," pp. 300 and 415 : "He sympathized strongly with 
the New Lights or Revival party, and early in 1743 preached 
to the seceders from the First Church in Mil ford, Connec- 
ticut, and was invited to become their pastor. He accepted 



106 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

the call and in April the Presbytery of New Brunswick, 
New Jersey, met to examine him, with a view to ordination. 
The Presbytery, however, advised instead a reconciliation 
wiih the First Church; and the attempt to settle Mr. John- 
son was abandoned." 

This matter is referred to more fully later thus : 

"On the ioth of March, 1749, the North Society in 
Groton, Connecticut, now the town of Ledyard, voted Mr. 
Johnson terms of settlement, and on the ioth of June he was 
ordained there." 

The town of Groton, Mr. Johnson's field of ministerial 
labor for twenty-three years, was originally a part of New 
London and took its name from the town in England, the 
birthplace of Governor John Winthrop, who founded New- 
London in 1646. Groton, Mass., was similarly named by 
a member of Governor Winthrop's family. Groton, Conn., 
was at the time of the advent of the whites the home 
of the Pequot Indians. They and their allies, the Narra- 
gansetts, had their stronghold here on Fort Hill and this 
soil was made the battlefield of the first regular warfare in 
New- England. Capt. John Mason in 1637 captured and 
destroyed the Indian defenses at Mystic Fort on Pequot 
Hill, and putting King Sassacus to flight ended the dreadful 
Pequot war in the colonies. " Thirty-nine years after Mason's 
victory a remnant of the Pequots was led in the war against 
King Philip by Capt. James Avery of Groton. 

The Great Awakening during the decade following 
Jacob Johnson's graduation was a religious movement which 
shook New England to its foundations under the fervid 
preaching of Revs. George Whitefield, Gilbert Tennant and 
James Davenport. Ministers of the gospel were urged to 
remember their obligations to the Indians, and one of the 
fruits of this pleading was to prepare the way for the subse- 
quent missionary effort of Dr. Eleazer Wheelock to evange- 
lize the Six Nation Indians. Rev. Jacob Johnson was 
of those who became aroused on the subject of converting 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. IO7 

the Indians and he labored among the Groton Pequots, and 
subsequently the Iroquois of the Mohawk Valley in the 
colony of New York. 

indeed for a century the Pequots had been the objects 
of solicitude on the part of the church at Groton, whose 
pastors preached to them and aided in the maintenance of 
schools. They never had a separate congregation, but wor- 
shiped with the white people. However, they had a school 
house in which services for the Indians were sometimes 
held, with preaching by Samson Occom, Samuel Ashbow, 
Jacob Fowler and other Indians. The land was poor and 
the Groton Pequots never prospered. While in 1725 they 
numbered 322 souls, Jacob Johnson took a census in 1766 
and found they had dwindled to 164 souls, one-half of whom 
were children under 16 years of age. 

"The Assembly in this year appointed a committee to 
repair to the town of Groton and inquire into the condition 
of the Indians. The committee reported them poor and 
needy and that they appeared to be disposed to attend 
preaching and to send their children to school and that some 
fuither assistance was necessary." It was also "Resolved 
that there be paid out of the public treasury of this Colony 
to the Reverend Mr. Jacob Johnson, the sum of five pounds 
lawful money for his services in preaching to and among 
said Indians the year ensuing." (Col. Records of Conn., 
xii, 525.) 

The church at Groton, Conn., was destined to receive a 
terrible baptism of blood during the Revolutionarv War, 
when in 1780 the British troops under Benedict Arnold 
attacked Fort Griswold and mercilessly exterminated the 
garrison, leaving sixty widows and three times as many 
orphans to mourn. 

The terms of Rev. Jacob's settlement over the North 
Society in Groton, now Ledyard, are thus indicated in an 
action of the town meeting held in March previous to his 
coming : 



108 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

"Voted that Mr. Johnson shall have four hundred 
pounds settlement and £300 in old tenor bills salary yearly as 
long as he continues to be our Gospel preaching minister." 
It was customary in Connecticut in those early times to give 
the pastor what was called a "settlement." The £400 for 
the first two years was doubtless considered by the people 
as a sufficient sum to begin official life with. Judging from 
Rev. Mr. Tuttle's History of the Ledyard church this seems 
to have been a uniform amount at that time, at least on the 
part of Congregational churches. 

These "old tenor" bills of public credit were paper cur- 
rency then in use and their depreciation is shown in the fol- 
low-iig additional resolution, passed at the same meeting, 
the reader bearing in mind that six shillings Connecticut 
currency were equivalent to a dollar: 



ADDITIONAL RESOLUTION. 

"Voted, that said £400 settlement and $300 salary shall 
be paid in the following article*, or bills of public credit 
equivalent thereunto at the time of the annual payment, viz. : 
pork at 2s. per pound, beef at is. per lb., wheat at 30s. per 
bu,. sheep's wool at 8s. per lb., indian corn at 15s.. rye at 
20s., cheese at 2s. per lb., butter at 4s., oats at 7s. 6d. per bu., 
flax at 4s., the payment of money to be regulated by an 
equal portion of each, article ; always provided, and it M to 
be understood that if Mr. Johnson should withdraw himself 
to any other persuasion, he shall return the said £400 settle- 
ment to the society in the same value as he received it." 1 he 
society was probably led to make this provision as to with- 
drawal, by the fact that Mr. Johnson's predecessor, Rev. 
Ebenezer Punderson, had resigned, to enter the Episcopal 
Church. 

In Mr. Woodhull's historical pamphlet on the Groton 
Chv.rch it its noted that while Mr. Johnson was laboring 
in the second or North Society he on June 21, 17^7* 
"preached ye first sermon ever was preached in the new 
meeting house in ye first [or South] society of Groton. 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. I09 

The edifice in which Mr. Johnson labored at North 
Grocon is thus described : 

"The frame was raised in 1727, by individual subscrip- 
tion. Previous to this time meetings had been held for 
public worship on the Sabbath at private dwellings in various 
parts of the neighborhood. The building stood 116 years 
and was in shape like many of the meeting houses of former 
days, with the main door on the front side, with the pulpit 
opposite to it on the other side of the house, and with a door 
at each end, and having neither porch nor steeple. For the 
purpose of raising funds for its construction the ground 
floor was sold to individuals, and they erected pews for 
their own accommodation, holding same as their property. 
These pews were like square boxes or pens, with scats en 
all sides within, except in the doorway. The high upright 
sides of the pews afforded no very convenient place for 
sleepers in the time of worship. That there was no demand 
for ornamentation in those days is shown by the fact that 
during three successive pastors there was no inside plaster- 
ing except on the right and left of the pulpit ; and it was 
open above to the ridge. The timbers of the house, above 
the ground floor, were all visible. It was not until 1790 
that the pew owners relinquished their rights and made the 
house common property so that the pews might be rented. 
The old house resisted the elements until 1S43, when it was 
replaced by a new edifice." 

Mr. Tuttle continues : "In regard to Mr. Johnson's 
theology scarcely anything remains to show what it was. 
Very few productions' were left by him in print, but from 
what I have seen I am led to believe that he was a little 
visionary. He published an account of the religious experi- 
ence of a little daughter of his, at the age of eight years, in 
which there was something stated bordering on the marvel- 
ous. Rut, perhaps some allowance should be made in view 
of the ardent affection of a doting parent. [This was his 
daughter Lydia, who became the wife of Col. Zebulon But- 
ler at Wyoming, Pa.] It does not appear, however, that 
his orthodoxy was ever questioned. 

"It was some time during his ministry that the Roger- 
ene Quakers (named for John Rogers of Xew London) 






HO REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

manifested their zeal in opposition to the regular ministra- 
tions of the gospel. Mr. Johnson, as well as other ministers 
in the vicinity, was often annoyed by them in the time of 
Vvorship. Both men and women sometimes brought their 
work to the meeting house for the purpose, it would seem. 
of disturbing the congregation and of seeking what they 
considered persecution. Sometimes they would speak out 
and charge the ministers with falsehood. Mr. Johnson con- 
ceived a plan by which he hoped to put an end to their dis- 
turbance. As they were present on one occasion he said, 

addressing himself to the leader: 'As friend VV seems 

to be fond of meetings, I will, with his leave, appoint a 
meeting at his house.' The man gave his consent. At the 
appointed time Mr. Johnson dressed himself in his meanest 
garb (for the Quakers were opposed to any appearance of 
what they considered pride in dress), girded himself with 
a strap, and went to the place of meeting. His audience 
being assembled he commenced his sermon without first 
praying audibly, for audible prayer was contrary to their 
creed. The conversation turned upon the pride of dress, 
and George Whitefield, the revivalist, was mentioned as thus 
showing his pride. The Quaker wore on his head a checked 
linen cap. Mr. Johnson reaching forth his hand took hold 
of it and said, T do not think Mr. Whitefield is any more 
proud of his dress than you are of this cap/ Thus the inter- 
view ended and Mr. Johnson had no more annoyance of 
that kind." 

In October, 1772 at a Society meeting Mr. Johnson 
arked for a dismission, and his request was granted. The 
purpose of his resignation was to enable him to accept a 
call to Wilkes-Barre, he having been in correspondence with 
a view to removal to the Susquehanna. 



CHAPTER II. 
New England Theologv in Jacob Johnson's Time. 

The period during which Jacob Johnson was educated 
at Yale College and during the quarter century which fol- 
lowed, was characterized by great theological unrest 
throughout New England. It was a time of upheaval, and 
the Presbyterian Church was for a time divided against 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. Ill 

itself. "It was," as Jacob Johnson wrote in his pamphlet on 
Sarah Williams, "a time of feuds, animosities, divisions and 
discords among brethren." 

All denominations suffered and many new sects sprang 
up. In a pamphlet published in 1754 by Jacob Johnson, 
then minister at Groton, he says that little town had "Episco- 
palians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Saybrookalians, 
Baptists, Quakers, Rogerenes, Friends, Separates, Independ- 
ents, Levellers, Freethinkers, Seekers, Heathen, Solitudi- 
narians and I know not how many more." 

There were many dissensions as to whether the Confes- 
sion of Faith or the Westminster Catechism was the true 
basis of faith, and in 1741 a schism occurred, due to the 
following causes : 

(1) The quarrel between the Revivalists and their 
opponents. The Revivalists came to be known as New 
Lights, or New Side, in distinction from the conservatives, 
who were called Old Lights or Old Side. 

(2) Demand of Synod that all candidates for the min- 
istry undergo examination at its hands. The New Lights 
resrnted the interference of Synod as an infringement on 
individual liberty. 

(3) Protest of Synod against itinerant preachers was 
another cause of the rupture. In 1737 it was ordered that 
no minister of one Presbytery be allowed to preach in the 
bounds of another, without the permission of the latter. 
The Revivalists defied the Synod by their itinerant evange- 
lism and they claimed the right to speak to whatever con- 
gregations desired to hear them. 

"The coming of Whitefield was the breeze which fanned 
the smouldering fire of discontent into a flame. His power 
was that of a tornado, which swept all before it. He 
preached to thousands. So profound an impression did he 
make in Philadelphia that for a whole year daily services 
we-e held. The Old Side partisans ranged themselves in 
opposition, and closed their pulpits against him. The New 
Side was in strong sympathy with the revival. The Pres- 






112 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

byteries were in open rebellion against Synod. New Bruns- 
wick ignored Synod's rule of examination and licensed can- 
didates on its own account, and evangelists went everywhere 
regardless of the edict against itinerants. Rival pamph- 
eteers kept the presses busy with their fulminations. Some 
of these writers were surprisingly bitter. They denounced 
one another as heretics, Pharisee preachers, wolves in 
sheep's clothing, devouring monsters, babbling ignorant 
priests, devil's advocates. Jacob Johnson was a contributor, 
though not a radical one, to the controversy and several of 
the libraries of the country contain rare copies of his 
pamphlets. 

"It was a sorry spectacle, this contest of ungenerous 
partisans. The New Side claimed that vital religion was 
dead among clergy and people. The Old Side criticised 
the revival methods as sensational, disorderly and demoral- 
izing. Both sides considered union as 'monstrously absurd' 
and in 1741 the New Brunswick Presbytery withdrew and 
Synod found itself divided." 

Gillett, in his History of the Presbyterian Church, says : 

"As to the Revival the verdict of impartial history 
must pronounce it, with some qualifications, a powerful 
movement for good. If it sometimes burned the standing 
corn, it consumed an immense mass of stubble. Vital reli- 
gion all over the land was strengthened by it. Thousands 
of souls were converted. The pulpit was armed with a 
new power and a dead orthodoxy was quickened to life. 
But neither the movement nor the opposition to it was con- 
fined to the Presbyterian Church. Some of the Boston 
ministers opposed the revival. 

"The Legislature of Connecticut in 1742, at the insti- 
gation of certain ministers, enacted that any clergyman who 
should preach outside of his own parish, without invitation 
of the settled minister, should forfeit his salary and bo 
bound over to court in the sum of £100, to peaceable and 
good behavior. Nonresident preachers, not licensed by an 
association, were liable to arrest as common vagrants, to be 
expelled from the colony. In 1743 all the pulpits of New 
Haven County were closed against the ministers of \e\v 
Brunswick Presbytery. It was not until 1758 that harmony 
was restored." 

As showing the intolerance of that period, the follow- 
ing from "The History of the Presbyterian Church in 



f *■-.'— ' 






REV. JACOB JOHNSON. II3 

America," by Rev. Richard Webster, father of Rev. Richard 
B. Webster of Wilkes-Barre, gives an incident in which 
Jacob Johnson was a participant : 

"In 1737 difficulties arose in the congregation of Mil- 
ford, New Haven County, in relation to the settlement of 
Mr. Whittlesey as pastor, a respectable minority regarding 
his doctrine as Arminian and his preaching as unedifying. 
They urged their objections so strongly and with such ap- 
parent concern and conscientiousness that the Council 
declined to ordain, but the majority of the people, headed 
by the Deputy Governor, insisted on their rights, and it was 
finally agreed to ordain him, and that the minority should 
hear him for six months, and, if not satisfied, should settle 
a colleague according to their liking. They heard him two 
years, but were more dissatisfied, and in 1740 applied to 
the church and then to the town for relief according to the 
agreement. Finding them intractable they asked advice of 
the Association; but they obtained neither advice nor coun- 
tenance. They then — according to the 'statute for consci- 
entious scruplers' — declared 'their sober dissent from the 
Standing Order' established in the colony, professing them- 
selves to be Presbyterians according to the church of Scot- 
land, and agreed November 30, 1741, to set up a separate 
society, if thirty heads of families would unite for that 
purpose. On the following Sabbath they met for worship 
at the house of George C. Clark, Jr., and on the last Tues- 
day in January, they qualified themselves before the county 
court according to the Toleration Act, thirty-nine persons 
taking part. The Rev. Benajah Case of Simsbury was 
fined and imprisoned for having preached for them. 
Whittlesey refused his pulpit, on Sabbaths when he did not 
use it, to the ministers who came to preach to them. One 
of them preached from the doorstone to an assembly of a 
thousand. Whitefield had preached here with unusual 
success in October, 1740, and Gilbert Tennant was there in 
the next spring. The people made preparations to build a 
meeting house in May, 1742, but the town refused to a 
them to erect on the common. The county court, however, 
granted them liberty to build, and in November it was 
raised. The Rev. John Eels of Canaan preached the first 
sermon in it, and the constable was ordered to apprehend 
him ; a like order was issued against the Rev. EHsha Kent 
of Newtown, but they both escaped his search. 



114 REV - JACOB JOHNSON. 

"Jacob Johnson of Groton, Conn., who graduated at 
Yale in 1740, preached to them, having taken the necessary 
oaths. Having made him a call, they applied to New 
Brunswick Presbytery to receive them and take Mr. John- 
son on trial with a view to ordination. They constituted 
themselves a church and elected ruling elders.' Accordingly 
said members did send to him pieces of trial; a sermon on 
Romans 8:14 ['For as many as are led by the spirit of God, 
they are the sons of God'] and a Latin exegesis — 'An 
regimen ecclesia presbyteriale sit Scripturae et rationi con- 
gruumf [Concerning the regimen of the Presbyterian 
Church, is it in accord with Scripture and reason?] 

"The New Brunswick Presbytery met April 6, 1743, 
to hear the exercises, and after proceeding some length in 
the examination of Jacob Johnson the Presbytery paused 
and advised that a further attempt be made toward a recon- 
ciliation with the First Church. The effort was unsuc- 
cessful. 

"Samuel Finley preached two Sabbaths * * * 
and for this offense he was prosecuted, tried and con- 
demned. Governor Law ordered him to be transported, as 
a vagrant, — disturbing the peace of the community — from 
town to town out of the colony. This treatment was con- 
sidered by some of the ablest civilians in Connecticut and 
the city of New York to be so contrary to the spirit and 
letter of the British Constitution that had complaint been 
made to the King in Council it would have vacated the 
colonial charter." 

As illustrative of the revival spirit of that period we 
insert an account of a later revival in Lebanon, Conn., as 
written by Dr. Eleazar Wheelock to Jacob Johnson while 
the latter was on a missionary visit to the Oneida Indians. 
The original letter is in the library of Dartmouth College: 

"Lebanon, Conn., Jan. 30, 1769. 
"The work of God in this place, which began before 
Mr. Cleveland went up to ye Indian congress [at Fort 
Stanwix], is now glorious indeed; it has spread into all 
parts of ye parish: their conference meetings (which are 
very frequent) fil ye houses where they are held: five of 
which we had last evening — at these meetings scarcely a 
word is heard but of ye things of ye kingdom; gn 
lemnity, eagerness & affection in hearing the Word whenever 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. II5 

they have opportunity for it. And it is yet increasing daily, 
very fast. Accounts every day of new conversions & souls 
newly wounded— And hitherto, by the goodness of God, 
such hath been ye order, regularity, & decency through ye 
whole, that ye Accuser of ye Brethren himself, han't yet 
been able, that I know of, to form one plausible objection, 
either against the work itself, or the subjects of it. Con- 
victions are remarkably genuine, conversions clear, & ye 
fruits very good. Near 30 have been hopefully converted 
within a few weeks — Several of my Family and school, I 
hope, thro ye Grace of God, are ye happy subjects of this 
work, and just at this juncture as ye Indian boys begin to 
appear concerned, they are sent for home, and in all human 
probability will lose their convictions, & and I fear their 
souls too by ye means. I verily believe the old destroyer 
of souls is at ye Bottom, whoever were the instruments. 
I have taken care to forward your letters. I heard that your 
Family were well about 10 days ago. Mr. Barber is dis- 
missed, as is also Doctor Whitaker. Mr. Qccttm preaches 
with great success of late both to English & Indians ; many 
appear concerned under his ministry. I would send you 
money, but you said nothing to me about it. nor am I advised 
for our dear Mr. Kirtland. I beg of you to be a father to 
him — ■ 

"Accept my best Respects. The Lord be with you, my 
dear Brother, farewell, 

"Yours in the dear Jesus — 

[Rev. Jacob Johnson.] Eleazar Wheelock. 



CHAPTER III. 

Journey to the Six Nations. 

The year 1768 was marked by a notable event, one in 
which Jacob Johnson was unexpectedly a participant. This 
was the treaty at Fort Stanwix, in the heart oi the Six 
Nation country, in the province of New York. The event 
was of national importance, as it was there that England 
fixed a permanent dividing line between the English col 
and the Indian domain. French rule had fallen at Quebec 



Il6 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

and the English ascendancy in America was now well estab- 
lished. The Indian country was being more and : 
encroached upon and it became necessary to establish a 
boundary beyond which the whites should not make settle- 
ment. 

Accordingly a council or congress was held at Fort Stan- 
wix, now Rome, Oneida Co., X. Y.. in the autumn of 1768, 
at which there were present Sir William Johnson, the gover- 
nors of Xew York, Pennsylvania and Xew Jersey and 3,200 
Indians of the Six Xations. Twenty boatloads of blankets, 
goods and rum were provided to propitiate (Jacob Johnson 
says "decoy") the Indians. (See letter infra.) Six days 
were consumed in private conferences before the Indians 
agreed to a boundary line. The sum of $10,000 in goods and 
money was then paid to the Indians, an insignificant sum 
for a piece of territory nearly 1,000 miles long, covering 
large parts of Xew York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky and 
West Virginia. 

Not only was the Fort Stanwix treaty of national im- 
portance, but it was of equally great concern to the pro- 
jectors of the Connecticut migration to Wyoming Valley, 
since it was at this Fort Stanwix treaty that a former 
sale of the Wyoming lands to Connecticut (at Albany in 
1754) was repudiated and a new sale made to the Pro- 
prietors of Pennsylvania. The Penns dominated the Fort 
Stanwix council, and it was only natural that they would 
use their power to crush the Connecticut movement towards 
the disputed lands in Pennsylvania. The Connec 
people would not recognize the 176S sale as valid and thus 
there ensued the Pennamite War, which was to occupy a 
third of a century and deluge the valley of the Susquehanna 
with blood. 

Having then in mind a purpose to wrest the old 1754 
title to Wyoming from the Connecticut claimants. S 1 
William Johnson and the royal Proprietaries of Pttn 
vania, John and Thomas Penn, saw to it that Connc 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 117 

received no invitation to the Fort Stanwix council. But it 
happened that Jacob Johnson was there, having been sent 
on a missionary journey to the Oneida Indians by Dr. 
Eleazar Wheelock, who also gave him authority to present 
to the assembled Indians, and to the representative of the 
Crown the needs of the educational movement. Mr. John- 
son was an impulsive man and in his zeal for the rights of the 
Indians, and in his fearless utterances of some "rebel" senti- 
ments, he incurred the displeasure of Sir William Johnson 
and the Penns and they excluded him from the deliberations 
with the Indians. As the request of Dr. Wheelock for aid 
for his Indian school was refused and this refusal was 
looked upon as the death blow to the Indian school, there 
was considerable criticism directed against Jacob Johnson 
in the correspondence of the time. A study of the facts 
will show that the Connecticut parson was in nowise to 
blame. 

Let us now pass to some details of the missionary 
journey of Mr. Johnson and his adventures at Fort Stanwix. 

In the middle of the eighteenth century there was a 
powerful revival in New England (see page 106), and as 
one result of the Great Awakening, as it was called, the 
clergy felt a heavy burden for the souls of the Indians. Dr. 
Eleazar WheelocVs propaganda to civilize and Christianize 
the Indians was one of the great religious movements of 
our history. In 1741, the year following Jacob Johnson's 
graduation from Yale, Wheelock preached 500 sermons 
throughout New England. The movement took hold of 
Jacob Johnson and hence his connection with the Pequot 
Indians of the neighborhood, as noted supra, 

Until recently there was no known material concerning 
Jacob Johnson's missionary experience except some corre- 
spondence published in the Documentary History oi New 
York, but there has lately been found a collection of his 
letters in the library of Dartmouth College, giving many 
interesting details of a journey to the Indians and of the 



Il8 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

part which Mr. Johnson unexpectedly took in the council 
with the Indians at Fort Stanwix. Grateful acknowledg- 
ment is made to the librarian at Dartmouth College, Mr. 
M. D. Bisbee, for placing these original manuscripts at the 
disposal of the compiler. 

The following manuscript correspondence appears in 
"Documentary History of New York, iv, 245." The orig- 
inals are in vol. 16 of the Sir William Johnson papers at 
Albany : 

Oct. 17, 1768. Letter of Rev. Jacob Johnson to Sir 
William asking interview with the Indians and requesting 
that they be informed as to his late arrival at Fort Stanwix. 

Letter to Sir William and the Commissioners defining 
his idea of allegiance to the King. 

Oct. 22. Thanking Sir W r illiam for restricting the 
supply of liquor to the armed Indians at such a critical time 
as the Fort Stanwix conference. 

Oct. 30. Asking the Commissioners at Fort Stanwix 
that the Indians be not sent so far away by sale of their 
lands as to prevent the continuance of missionary work 
among them. 

Oct. 31. Jacob Johnson's request of the Indians at 
Fort Stanwix to aid Wheelock's schools. 

Nov. 24. Letter of Sir William Johnson charging 
Jacob Johnson with intrigue among the Indians and obstruc- 
tion of the proposed boundary of the Indian land. 

For reasons not apparent Mr. Johnson signed some of 
his letters of that period as Jacob W. Johnson and others as 
Jacob Ws Johnson. But usually his name appears without 
middle initial. 

The evangelizing of the Indians had long occupied the 
attention of philanthropists on both sides of the Atlantic. 
Both the Church of England, and the Presbyterians had 
supported missions among the aborigines, the former as 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. IIQ 

as 1701, and the Jesuits much earlier. But Whcelock* under- 
took to found a school which should remove young Indians 
from their native environments and bring them in contact 
with English youth in a mixed school. His design was to 
educate his Indian pupils especially for missionaries for 
work among their own people. The school was established 
at Lebanon, Conn., and was often spoken of as Moor's 
Indian Charity School, from the man who donated the land. 

Out of it grew Dartmouth College. Among Wheelock's 
pupils were Joseph Brant, and Walter Butler, son of Col. 
John Butler, who with the Indians and Tories destroyed 
Wyoming in 1778. Brant, at the age of nineteen had been 
sent to Wheelock's school by Sir William Johnson and 
remained two years. Becoming interested in Christianity 
Brant acted as interpreter on preaching journeys to the Six 
Nations. Jacob Johnson records in one of his letters that 
Brant had interpreted for him. 

In the spring of 1768 Wheelock heard that Jacob 
Johnson, now a man of fifty-five, felt drawn towards the 
Indian field, and he invited him to undertake a missionary 
journey to the Oneidas. They were the first of the Six 
Nations to express a desire for missionary effort, and in 
1761 Samson Occum, the first of Wheelock's converts, had 
been sent to them. Occom was the first missionary sent 
out under the auspices of Connecticut people, his predeces- 
sors having Deen sent out by the Boston "Society for Propa- 
gating the Gospel," 1741. While on this journey Occom 
secured three Indian boys as pupils in Wheelock's Charity 
School, one being Joseph Brant. The Oneidas heard John- 
son gladly. 

Wheelock, in addition to the charge of his own parish 
and extensive itinerating, had early taken Indian boys into 
his own family to train and educate, and thence conceived 

*Rev. Eleazar Wheelock. b. Wind bun, Conn.. 1711. called "The, 
father of Indian Missionaries." See McClure's "Memoirs of Wheelock," 
Love's "Samson Occum." Dexter's "Tale Biographies." 



120 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

the plan of fitting them for missionaries among their own 
people. Wheelock, like William Penn and Count Zinzen- 
dorf, was inclined to the belief that the Indians were 
descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, who had 
migrated from Asia by way of Behring Strait. Jacob John- 
son held the same view. One of the earliest to entertain 
this view was John Eliot, the Apostle of the Indians, who 
in 1660 founded the first Indian church in America. 

Aaron Kinne, who was a teacher in Wheelock's school 
for the Oneida Indians, wrote to Wheelock, from Groton, 
Conn., April 1, 1768, as follows, advising him of Jacob 
Johnson's availability for the Indian work: 

"I have lately seen Mr. Johnson, & informed him of 
your Request — Pie appears very friendly & determines, 
extraordinaries excepted, to give a Sabb. for the supply of 
Mr. Pomroy's Pulpit [in Hebron], viz., the third in April. 

"I briefly hinted to him the want of Missionaries at 
which he was somewhat elated & desires you would write 
to him, & give information of particulars, as soon as may 
be that he may have Time for Consideration before he shall 
come that way. 

"Aaron Kinne." 

Mr. Pomroy was brother-in-law of Wheelock. 

Wheelock to Johnson. 

"Lebanon 26th Apl 1768. 
"Revd & dear sir 

"Last week I wrote you a line in utmost haste on my 
being informed by Mr Camp yt you was willing to a 
a mission among ye Indians for 6 months. I would pray 
you to settle your affairs as soon as possible in order to 
And if you can, I pray you would so order your affairs a> 
to preach at Hebron ye Sabbath after next, or they will be 
destitute so far as I can see or know. 

"If you would come at that time prepared to go on 
your mission I would accompany you to Hartford to ye elec- 
tion, but you will need to spend some days wth me before 
you go, in order to get Intelligence of Affairs &c 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 121 

"Please to let me know as soon as possible wt you will 
want besides money yt I must provide for you &c — Accept 
kindest love to you & spouse from my dear sir 
"Yours in ye dearest bonds, 

"Eleazar .Wheelock. 
"Revd Jacob Johnson." [Dartmouth MSS.] 

Johnson to Wheelock. 
"Sr 'Groton May 17th, 1768 

"I am present reduced to a very low State of Health, 
by the Great Cold I took, or Some other Cause, so that I 
was not able to Attend the Service the last L'ds Day — I am 
a good deal at a loss, whether I shall attempt the journey 
proposed, if I dont recover my health better by the Time 
prefixt — But I have had opportunity to confer with Mr. 
Kenne; who now is in Groton ; and seems a good deal in- 
clinable to go — And I hope, either He or I, or both Shall be 
setting forward at the time proposed — 

"I send you enclosed a Funeral Discourse.* 
"I wish I coud serve the cause of Christ in a better 
manner, and more extensive way than hitherto I have 
done. But alas ! I am but a poor earthen vessel. O that I 
might be like one of Gideon's Pitchers, that the more broken 
I am, the more the Light may Shine out. O I want, or think 
I want, to do something for Christ, his Cause, & Kingdom ; 
If it were but as Clay and Spittle. But that I must leave 
with him, who has me in hand. I am for his sake Yours 
& the 

"church's humble Servt 

"Jacob Johnson/' 

Johnson to Wheelock. 

"Sr "Groton May 21, 1768 

"My health not addmitting me at present to go on so 
long a journey as to the Onoida, I have prevaild with Mr 
Kinny to go in my Room, who will be with you, Providence 
permitting. And he proposes to go on that Christian Ser- 
vice of progagating the Gospel among the Indians for the 
months of June July & August. And if farther helpe be 

•This was a sermon preached bv Jacob Johnson at Groton at th« 
funeral of Col. Christopher Avery." It was printed by Timothy Green. 
Now London, 176S. in a pamphlet of 36 pages. A copy is to be seen in 
the library of the Connecticut Historical Society. 



122 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

needed & can't be had without my going And my health 
be restored, I propose to go for the months of Sep- 
tember, October & November: or even thro' the winter, if 
there be a prospect of doing much Service. Sr, I heartily 
wish prosperity to Zion & to every attempt, in a Christian 
manner, to carry and spread the Gospel among the perish- 
ing Natives and am with all proper Respect your Dutiful 

"huble sert, Jacob Johnson. 
"P. S. 

"I shall have opportunity to write & and send you my 
mind farther by Mr Kinny who by the Le've of Providence 
will come by the way of my House on Monday next. I 
have had much anxity & concern of mind in this affair but 
hope all will issue well & to our mutural rejoyceing in the 
end, & farther aim of the Gospel which is all my desire and 
all my joy." 

Johnson to Wheelock. 

"Groton, Conn., Agst 29 1768 
"Revd & Hond Sr 

"Yours of the 25 Inst I received by Mr Kinne* with 
Some ac't of the State of the Indians at the Onoidas. I laid 
your request before our chh & society or assembly yester 
being L's D. [Lord's Day]. Conferd some upon it but ob- 
taining no answer, appointed Wednesday next to determine 
the matter. My going will be attended in many res: 
with great difficulty my health being yet very poor & several 
of my Family No ordained Minister in the town when I 
am out save Mr. Barber** & he yet, & I fear will be to his 
death, wholly useless & much more & still more weighty I 
I cannot write, & besides I don't think I could possiK 
soon as next Monday were I to attempt it. However, thro 
all the crowd of embarrassments if it be the mind of Divine 
Providence I will go, & let you know as soon as I C 
word or Letter after Wednesday In case some other I 
might do better can't be obtained. 

"I am Sr your very Humle Srt J. John- v" 

•Aaron Kinne was born in Connecticut in 1744. graduated from f* * 
In 1765. Was a teacher In the Oneida school. He was ordained in ■ 
and died in Ohio in 1S24.— (Allen's Blog, Dic> 

•♦Jonathan Barber, born 1712, graduated from Tale.— labored 

Whitefield in Georgia, was pastor at one of the Qr 
churches, became Insane with the delusion that he was a leper. 



r- 



rev. jacob johnson. 1 23 

Johnson to Wheelock. 

"Groton September 5 1768 
"Rev & Hon. Sr. 

"Your Letter by Mr Kinne I further considered, & 
lay'd before our pp. [people] who have left it to me to go 
among the Indians if I think it my Duty. I have deliberated 
upon it (looking to the Great Counsellor) and have by 
the Leave of Divine Providence concluded to go as soon 
as I can. The Indians are now upon their Hunt, and will 
not likely hold their Congress before the Last of the month. 
It may be not before October. I hope to be on my Journey 
the beginning of next week; so as to be there in Season to 
treat with them at their general meeting. Except some 
other (I heartily wish might) be found to answer better; 
for it is with great Difficulty I can leave Home ; & myselfe 
(which is worst of all) very unfit for the Service: tho' I 
would by no means decline if God calls, tho' I were the least 
of all my Fathers children, & unworthy to be Hon'd as your 
Brother, & Humble Servant, 

"Jacob Johnson/' 

Mr. Johnson was then furnished with a commission 
from Wheelock to proceed to the Indian country and take 
up the work which Rev. Samuel Kirkland had been com- 
pelled to relinquish owing to ill health.* Mr. Johnson was 
also authorized to attend an Indian Congress about to be 
held at Fort Stanwix and further the designs of spreading 
the Gospel among the tribes. The town of Rome, Oneida 
County, New York, stands where stood Fort Stanwix. It 
marked the head of navigation on the Mohawk River and 
was in Tryon County, "the dark and bloody ground" of 
the Revolution. In this county was Mount Johnson, the 
fortified seat of Sir William Johnson, at whose beck, says 
Lossing, a thousand armed warriors would rush to the field. 

The home occupied by the Great Confederacy of the 
Five Nations stretched across New York from the Hudson 

•Kirkland was at this time thirty-seven years of a?o. He wafl 
subsequently a chaplain in Sullivan's Army. 177?. In influence among 
the Indians he is considered as being second only to Sir W" 
son. He was one of the four white lads in Wheelock* a Char 
Though he wrote his name Kirkland it as often appears in the corre- 
spondence of the time as Klrtlar.d. He married Wheelock's niece. 



124 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

to Niagara and was called the Long House, each nation 
having its own share of this strip of territory, the Mohawks 
being in the eastern end, the Oneidas at Oneida Lake, the 
Onondagas at the head of the Susquehanna, etc. The region 
was named the Long House from its resemblance in form 
to the dwelling of the Iroquois, which was a long narrow 
bark structure, perhaps 50 feet long, in which dwelt several 
families. 

Jacob Johnson's Commission. 

"Whereas by the Grace and Favour of God towards 
the Savages of the Six Nations Several Towns have been 
induced to favourable Sentiments of the proposals made and 
the endevours used to promote Religion and Learning 
among them, and a preached Gospel at Onoida & Kanawar- 
ohare has in a Judgment of christian Charity been made 
effectual for the saving Conversion of a number of them 
from Idols to God, and for a General Reformation of those 
Sordid & Brutish Lusts & Vices which have heretofore been 
unbridled among them, and the Revd. Mr Kirtland whom 
God has honoured to be a principal Instrument of this Good 
Work being now removed from them by Sickness before a 
Chh has gathered & Gospel Ordinance Settled among 
them, and yet continuing too infirm to return to his Lab's 
there, and I being also informed of a General Congress 
about this Time of the Chiefs of all the Tribes under the 
Inspection & Superintendensy of the Honle Sir William 
Johnson, when there will likely be a most favourable Oppor- 
tunity to recommend to that Body of Chiefs together the 
Grand Design of Spreading the Gospel of Christ anions 
their representative Tribes, and to use Suitable Arguments 
and Motives to induce them to a favourable opinion ( 
same and a hearty concurrence of their Endeavours therein. 

"I have therefore desired the Revd Mr. Jacob Jol 
of Groton whose praise is in ye [colony?] throughout all 
the Churches to go as Missionary and Supply the place 
which is now vacant by Mr Kirtiand's removal from I 
and to gather & form a Chh in that place according 
Gospel rule and order and administer the Ordinance 
Christ among them according to the Directions which he 
has given, and to inspect and Regulate the Schools already 



• 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 25 

set up and form others to be supply'd with Masters from 
hence as he shall occasion. And also in conjunctn with Mt 
D. Avery, Missy and Joseph, Thomas, and any other men 
of Influence in the Tribes to make such application to the 
Chiefs of the Nations in ye aforesd congress as he shall 
think with the best advice shall be most likely to Subserve 
the great Design in View, and to use Such Endeavours with 
any of the Tribes in those parts as he shall Judge proper 
and Expedient for that purpose, and bespeake the Favour, 
Countenance and Assistance of Sir William Johnson and 
any others whose Favour and Assistance he may find to be 
needfull in the Prosecution of the Business of his Mission. 
Commending him to the civilities, kindness and charity of 
all as he shall have occasion and they opportunity for the 
Same, and especially to the Protection, Favour and Blessing 
of Almighty God in whom I hope for the Success of his 
important mission, 

In Testimony and Confirmation of Which I Subscribe, 
Eleazar Wheelock Founder & President of the Indian 
Academy in Lebanon." Dated in Lebanon, the 19th Day of 
Septr A' D., 1768. 

Wheelock had not been apprised of the Fort Stanwix 
Congress, but he learned of it accidentally through some 
Oneida Indians who had visited Lebanon, Conn., and he 
determined to send an agent to attend it. In view of 
Wheelock's already established movement among the In- 
dians and Sir William Johnson's familiarity with the same, 
it seems strange that the baronet had not invited him to send 
a representative. But as seen elsewhere it was not the 
desire of Sir William or the Penns to have Connecticut rep- 
resented at the congress, one of the most important ever 
held with the Indians. 

Mr. Johnson made the journey of 300 miles on horse- 
back in ten days and at Canajoharie he was met by David 
Avery, who had been teaching the Oneidas, He reported 
his arrival to Wheelock as follows : 



126 rev. jacob johnson. 

Avery to Wheelock. 

"Canawarohare, Octbr ist. 1768 
"Revd & Hond Dr, 

''The Reverend Mr Johnson came to this place 29th 
last month with the Fullness of the blessing- of the Gospel. 
Was cordially received by the Indians & released their 
minds from some disquietude occasioned by the long absence 
of a minister. He came in good season. Sir Wm & a very 
large number of Gentlemen have been at Fort Stanwix 
about three weeks — the Indians are come & coming, it is 
expected they will all arrive in a week or ten Days.' Will 
doubtless be the largest Congress that ever was among the 
Six Nations. I Design by Divine Leave, to accompany the 
Revd Mr Johnson over as soon as the Indians go, and to 
return to New England as soon as the Congress shall be 
ended. 

"Hoping for a continuance of an Interest in the Doctor's 
Prayers, am with all Duty and Humility, Revd & Hond Dr. 
Your much obliged and very humble Servant 

"David Avery/' 

Johnson to Wheelock. 

"Onoida lower Castle Kanawaro'he 

"Octobr 5th 1768 
"Rev d & Dr Sir 

"I am safely arrived here in Good Flealth (thanks to 
my great & good Protector). I came by the way of Fort 
Stanwix but the Heads of the Nations were not in general 
come together. Onely conferd with Col. Butler & left your 
letter for Sir Wm for He was not then to be seen. I thot 
best to come up to Onoida & confer with Air Avery & the 

- chief men of Onoida For I perceived there was a groat 
coldness in Col. Butler & others I conferd with resnectinc 
the Propagation of the Gospel among the Six Nations. Was 
then & am more & more confirmed in my opinion that these 

• Gentlemen are not in mood to do much towards pronvunc 
the end you have in view. However if I am mistaken (which 
I will not Absolutely say I am not) it will appear in Sir 
Wms the Govr. of Pennsylvania & New York's conduct at 
the congress where I propose with Mr. Avery & some of 
the Principal men of this town to attend about the middle 
of next week. I suppose it will be soon enough after stl 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 27 

Congress is over that I shall write ycu more full of that & 
every thing relative to the grand affair in agitation. Onely 
thus much at Present I will say if ever there needd help 
from on high it is now, yea if ever there needd faith in 
the promise it is now, or at least it so appears to me and 
in that promise in particular of our blessed Lord to his 
Apostle Peter 'On this rock I will build my Chh & the gates 
of Hell shall not prevail.' I have tho't the very Pillars of 
Heaven trembled & the Mountain were removing out of 
their places so that there is no Shelter no Safety but in the 
Lord alone. I know not Scarcely whether I had ever a 
greater Sense of it. The Lord increase my Faith. Yea the 
Lord increase yours & every christian's especially the min- 
ister's. I use plainess & freedom for the cause requiring it 
with me to you but the wisdom of the serpent to others. I 
know you will not cease to pray for me & the cause of Christ 
which it is not unlike a ship in the midst of a storm. But 
Christ the great Pilot is in it, whom not onely the Ships 
but winds & seas obey. Having this hope & assurance I 
comfort myselfe & am at peace in my soul & hope that you 

L & I may rest and stand in our Lot in the end of the Days. 

J But I must not add further at this Time only. Everything in 

the Indian town apprs up to, yea beyond my expectation. 
The greatest danger is from the Mighty Hunters whom the 
Lord well knows, for they are not out of his sight & the 
reptile daughters of the Horse leech who never have enough 
tho they stuff themselves till they burst asunder. 

"May Babel's tower fall into confusion & the stone 
which ye builders reject become the headstone of the corner. 
"I am in all dutiful affection 

Revd & hond Sir yours in Christ 

"Jacob Johnson/' 

Jacob Johnson reported his arrival to Dr. Wheelock as 
follows : 

"Fort Stan win Oct 10 1768 
"Sr 

"I have been at Onoida Castle, am now here. Have 
waited on Sr Wm & other gentlemen of which I cannot now 
write. But onely assure you that things are in a most 
critical Scituation. yea wear a very threatening aspect, 
However speciously covered & conceald. The sum of the 



128 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

matter is 'That antecedent to ascertaining" the Boundaries 
& Lines betwix the Indian & British claims' a number of 
great and wealthy Gentlemen from New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Jersey & Virginia Have brought a great sum of Gold 
& Silver with Bateaus of Blankets & other goods in order 
to decoy & prevail with the Onoida & other Indians to sell 
their Lands from the Fort Stanwix to the Lake Ontario &c 
thence in a line down to the Alleganey Ohio & so down or 
near to Fort Pitt &c, the which if they accomplish, as you 
Sr must know, the Principal design or designs of this 
Project you must know what will be the event as to your 
Schools & designs of propagation of the Gospel among the 
Indians. Being Sensible of this (tho' kept as a profound 
secret by the projectors and managers of it) we have more 
privately consulted the Two Chiefs of the Oneidas in order 
to aprise them of this design & if possible to fix in them an 
unchangible resolution & determination upon no consider- 
ation to part with their Lands but Hold them as their Birth 
Rights the great Parent of all things has given them withall, 
showing them the most dangerous consequences & with 
many arguments from fact as well as reason. 

'But yet after all we are not without a great deal of fear 
the Indians will be overcome & made a sacrifice to the ambi- 
tion & avarice of the great Head plotters & Heart haters of 
the spread of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

"Upon a whole view of the Case & state of things here 
(a contract specimen of which I have given) we tho't best 
to send an express to you Sr that you may know what is 
doing, & politically moving to be done, that you may lay it 
before the great Counsellor as we have done in the best 
manner we could & daily do. As also in such a weighty & 
most concerning affair that you would if you think exped- 
ient send your best advice & that the Revd Mr Kirtland 
would come up if his health will admit & you think advis- 
able, all which may possibly be done before the conclusion of 
the Congress which will not likely be desolvd in 3 or 4 weeks 
from the date herof. 

"Yours in all things for Christ's ch & his cause 

"J. Johnson." 

"P.S. 

"Joseph may stay with (if you think fit) till further 
advise. 



mgm — 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 120, 

"We may hereafter give you an acct of the whole Scries 
of things but now onely hint at them as they are as it were 
in Embryo. 

"I shall continue to wait on the Congress & if oppor- 
tunity presents send you farther. 

"In the mean time we clont speak of these thing openly 
or let any one know but fr'ds wherefore Jos. goes for Xew 
Engd. O pray ! pray ! pray ! as Mr Eliot Apostle to the 
Indns said in a Letter to — [illegible]. 

Johnson to Wheelock. 

"Fort Stanwix Octobr 17th 1768. 
"Revd & Hond Sir 

"I doubt not but you will be glad to hear from the Con- 
gress. I have sir done every thing I could, both by Prayer, 
Consultation & application. I have consulted Col. Butler & 
others. I have laid the cause before Sir Win Johnson per- 
sonally and by an address in writing subscribed by David 
Avery and myself e (For Dr. Tho's went home not well) a 
copy of which I enclose which you will please to preserve 
(For I have no other copy & the original is in Sir Wins 
possession) I have opportunity to converse with the chief 
Gentln here as Governor Wm Franklin of The Jersie, Gov- 
ernor Penn, Mr Peters of Philadelpa & others, many others. 
I could be heartily glad you sir was here. You would be 
received most Honbly & affectionately I can assure you. 
Your name is often mentioned with a great deal of Respect 
by Sir Wm Johnson, Govr Franklin & others. 

"Govenr Penn is gone home But before He went I 
took an opportunity to confer with Him about setting up an 
Indian College on the Susquehanna or somewhere there- 
about. He told me He had seen Dr Whittaker [of Nor- 
wich] & his request of a considerable Tract of Land and 
that the affair was sent Home to the Proprietors. I asked 
Him if He tho't the Proposals woud be granted. He sd 
He tho't not. I asked Him if the Proprietors would not 
part with a tract of Land for that purpose. He sd He 
belivd not as requested. Will they, sd 1, upon any terms. 
He sd yes as they sold it to others. Upon no other terms ? 
replvd I. He answerd no. He believd not or to that purpose. 
I askd Him if the Proprietors woud not come to some agree- 
ment with the New Engd Purchasers on the Susquehanna. 



I30 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

He said yes as they would with any other purchasers. And 
upon no other terms sd I. He answd no. I conferd with 
Mr Peters of Philadelpa upon the subject. He thot great 
care should be taken to choose such a place to set up an Indn 
academie as might not interfere with any other public 
School or occasion discontent or envy or dislike lest it 
shouldnt answer the design and besides He thot few of the 
Indians woud ever do for Missionaries that in general it 
was not worth while to do more for them than to learn them 
to read & write & be industrious &c. 

"I conferd with Sir William upon the same subject 
what his opinion was about it. He thot it a laudable & very 
good design. I asked Him where He thot best to set up 
the school. His Excellency sd Pie supposed that affair was 
sent Home already and determined. I informed his Excel- 
lency it was now in agitation & preparation to be sent. But 
I supposd not yet gone. I asked Him where he thot the 
most proper place to set it. He replyd He supposed in or 
near Albany. I mentioned Pensylvana. He sd He sup- 
posed the Proprietors wouldnt part with their lands for that 
purpose upon any other Terms than they woud to others. 
I mentioned Kohoss [Coos, N. H.]. He thot that too 
much one side. I mentioned Pittsfield. His Excellency 
askd if they had any considerable of Lands &c for that pur- 
pose. I told his Excellency they woud subscribe in Lands 
and money a thousand pounds & more. He smild and made 
no reply onely that Coll Williams was proprietor there &&C 
Upon laying the enclosed address before Him when He had 
read it He askd me where I woud have the Bounds of the 
Provinces Restricted. I told him Here especially at the 
Onoidas. He sd that was at Indns election Whether they 
woud part with their Lands or not. At present He coud'nt 
tell no more than I coud where the Division Lines woud 
run. When all the chiefs were come together he shoud 
know and not before and that he shoud be as tender of the 
Indns Interests as I or any other friend coud be to 'em. 
That twas easy for designing men to get away their Land 
by insinuating themselves into their favor together with a 
few Gifts, good words &c, that many, too too many had 
done it. For the Indns in genii valu'd not their Lands & 
much more passd betwixt Him and me alone (which I have 
not time or room to write, for paper is here so scarce that i- 






REV. JACOB JOHNSON. I3I 

sheets has cost me as much as 2 quire in New Engd & with 
great difficulty I have got so much and usd Halfe of it 
Already). 

"But sd Sir Wm upon the conclusion He should make 
open proclamation of the Doings of the Congress that all 
might know & and in the mean Time that 1 might have 
further opportunity to confer upon these things. And sir 
I must confess that Sir Wm has & does treat me & mankind 
in the most Handsome and genteel manner Imaginable, 
which has endeared Him to me very much tho He Has no 
Grace, yet has no small share of lovely Humanity. 

"But sir on the whole the situation of the Indns with 
respect to their Lands is very ticklish & doubtful. Xo less 
than 15 thousands Pounds worth of Goods & a vast deal of 
Provision with 4 chests of Gold & Silver weighing not less 
than a barrel weight of Cyder or Pork each is sent as a 
temptation, with Rum, Wine & high Spirits proportionale 
if not to Exceed & great numbers of adventurers from all 
parts especially Albany New York Pennsylva & Virginia &: 
many beyond. And besides tis thot the King has a design 
to make a large purchase of the natives for some pious use. 
But this is kept as a secret which has not yet transpird and 
known to onely a very few. I must leave you as I am, to 
guess in this matter what it portends but we may be pretty 
sure something to the chh of England or some Dignatary. 

"You will likely sir have a more full acct. <$; view of 
these things at the close of the Congress wch I am apt to 
think will be about the Latter end of next week it may be 
not before the week after. 

I am yours in all Giristian Bonds &c &c 
Jacob W. Johnson." (His. Docs. N. Y., iv, 244.) 

Johnson to Wheelock. 

"Fort Stanwix Oct. iS 176S 
"Revd & Dr Sir 

"Abraham being delay'd till this morning as I walked 
abroad seing the natives & others — I could not but make 
these reflections — Good God! How deplorable is the state 
of these Nations not onely of Indns but bordering inhabi- 
tants who seem to be very much Ignorant of Israel's God 
of Christ the great and onely Saviour of mankind. My 
bowels coud do no less than yearn over them. O that the 
light of the glorious Gospel may shine forth among men. 



I32 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

Oh Good God & compassionate Saviour must they remain 
as lost Sheep. Do they not many of them belong to thy 
Fold & oh may not the time be near, or now come, to call 
them home into thy Family & put them among thy sons 
& daughters. While I tho't & do think upon this moveing 
subject my Eyes gush out with Tears & my Heart is rowled 
jver & out of its place. Oh if it be the will of my God I 
must I will stay some Time among them if not spend even 
die Remnant of my Days Preaching Christ & salvation to 
them. Dr Sr it seems to me now & then there is a great 
*vork yet to be done here. Oh that these meditations & 
expectations may not be a morning cloud that passeth away. 

"These things will appear one way or the other I believe 
in a short Time oh may we always keep the hand the Heart 
of Prayer & give the Lord no Rest till he come & make 
Jerusalem a joy & praise in the whole earth. But I must not 
ddd onely that I am yours in all affection 

"J. \V. Johnson." 

"I send this by Abraham Simon, whom I recommend 
to you if on examination you think best to put Him into 
your School. I hope the Lord may incline his heart not 
onely to desire to learn human things but Divine, that He 
may in some way serve the Interest of Christ's Kingdom. 
You will perhaps think proper to try Him & retain Him till 

Cj are satisfied whether it may be worth while to bestow 
bor & cost upon Him for the purpose aforesd — or am 
other." 

The following, which was on a different sheet, appar- 
ently came about this time, but whether a part of the same 
letter there is no indication, save that the fold of the sheets 
is almost exactly identical : 

"Mr. Kirtland (if his Health would admit Him to 
come) would be very welcome to the Indus & many others 
who often mention his name & enquire after Him. Your 
son [Ralph] also whose name Sir Wm has once & again 
mentioned with a sensible respect. You will please to send 
your best advise as far as possible and Mr Kirtland if he 
can possible come. And let us by all means as far as 
possible know the real state of Boston for we are all in 
pain to know. It is a trying Time here in many respects. 
O I need the wisdom of an Angel of God. I never knew 
"how sensible I needed helpe from God on high as I 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 33 

have done since I came here & yet am sensible & I think 
more & more & tho Mr David Avery & Dr. Thomas &c 
are in some lesser things helpful the main stress of all 
lyes upon me. I had need to have the very Sholders of 
Sampson & the wisdom of Solomon and meekness of Moses. 
I am not able nor ever shall that I know of be able to tell 
you what I have endured at Times both in Body and Soul. 
But O forever blessed be God I have learnt more in some 
respects than ever I did before of man of whom Christ our 
Saviour bids us beware. To approve myselfe to God who 
trys my heart & promote his kindom & glory this is my 
great concern of which I cant think or write without a flood 
of Tears the Cause of which God almighty knows. But in 
paper & ink you cannot know if it be indeed possible in any 
other way on this side the Eternal world to know. There is 
need of strong cryes and tears to him yt is help. I have had 
some agonies of soul which none but they that have felt can 
tell. Onely this I may say that virtue is in as great danger 
as Sampson's seven locks were of Delila's Sheers, Daniel's 
life in the Lyon's Denn or the three Children of the Fiery 
furnace. I need watch & pray every hour, yea every moment 
that I enter not into Temptation, blot my sacred Character 
& mar the work & Cause of God in my hand. 

"Johannes that went up with D. Avery this Instant 
returned, & Let me know Thomas is better but that David 
Avery had a fit of the Feaver & ague. He proposes to come 
down ( if He is able) when the Onadagaus, Senecas & oth- 
ers that way come which is supposed will be the latter end 
of this week so that the business of the Congress will be 
in Agitation next week & likely concluded the week after 
at lest we hope it will, when David Avery & 3 or 4 Indus 
will set out immediately for New Engd by whom (Bene 
plaeito Dei) you will know both by word and writeing what 
I can now onely by conjecture & uncertainty write you. 

"I should Sr be glad you woud let me know the Re- 
ports in brief concerning the places tho't of for erecting 
a college and by no means Sir make a Representation to the 
Board of trust till the Conclusion of this important Congress 
& you have Sir heard farther from me." 

But let us go back a little. On Jacob Johnson's arrival 
at Fort Stanwix he and Avery found in waiting with Sir 
William Johnson, Governor William Franklin of Xew Jcr- 



134 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

sey, Governor John Penn of Pennsylvania, Col. John Butler 
and a number more of notables from those provinces and 
from Virginia with a great sum of gold and silver and 
numerous boat loads of blankets and other goods, their 
purpose being to obtain from the Indians the cession of a 
large tract of their lands, as Chase says, "under cover of a 
settlement of boundary." 

Sir William Johnson was a figure unique in American 
history. Born in Ireland, he was at the age of twenty-three 
called by his uncle to America to superintend the settlement 
of a large tract of land in the Mohawk Valley. Johnson 
made his home there, learned the Indian language and 
acquired an influence over the Six Nations greater than 
that which any other man ever enjoyed. The English Gov- 
ernment made him superintendent of Indian affairs, colonel 
of militia and a baronet. — (Chase History of Dartmouth 
College.) 

Mr. Johnson addressed the baronet as follows: 

"Fort Stanwix, 
"Fryday evening, Oct. 7, 176S. 
"Sir: I am just now returned to the Fort. I should 
have come sooner, but incidental things prevented. I shall 
be ready (Bene placito Dei) to wait on your Ekcellencv en 
the morrow at what time and place your Excellency shall 
please to order my attendance. 

"Jacob Ws. Johnson. 
"To Sir William Johnson." 

This letter is No. 180 in vol. 16 of the "Sir William 
Johnson MSS. papers at Albany, N. Y. 

In another letter Mr. Johnson asks the baronet I 
form the Indian chiefs that he was prevented by illness 
from attending the opening of the council. He regrets that 
his absence has been misconstrued by Monsieur Montour 
to prejudice the Indians not only against him, but against 
the Protestant religion. He asks the baronet to let them 
know that he is a sure friend of the Indians and especially 
interested in their souls' salvation. 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 135 

He also on Oct. 17 addresses a communication to Sir 
William Johnson referring to Mr. Wheelock's project for 
propagating the gospel among the Indians, and asks the 
baronet to encourage the design. Sir William is asked "as 
a tender father to these perishing Indians" to prevent them 
from removing from their lands, as such removal would 
frustrate the plan of propagating the gospel among them. 
To that end the baronet is asked to recommend to the heads 
and chiefs Dr. Wheelock's educational plan, and to give 
Rev. Jacob Johnson and his colleague, Rev. David Avery, 
personal audience with the Indians. 

So slow were the Indians in assembling, that events 
dragged along tediously. A fortnight later, under date of 
Fort Stanwix, Oct. 30, Mr. Johnson addresses a note to 
"Sir William Johnson, Gov. Wm. Franklin, Col. Graham, 
Col. John Butler and other respectable gentlemen interested 
and concerned at their congress." He informs them of his 
presence there in behalf of Dr. Wheelock in the cause of 
propagating the gospel among the Indians. He alludes to 
the labors of Dr. Wheelock, made possible by charitable 
benefactions on the part of the King and the nobility of 
England, and fears that if the Indians be allowed to scatter 
as a result of parting with their lands, that the spread of 
the gospel may be hindered. He asks that a door mav be 
kept open where the work of preaching and teaching has 
been carried on, that the missionaries may know where to 
find the Indians. 

Mr. Johnson also addressed a letter to Sir William 
thanking him for having forbidden the giving of the 3,000 
Indians intoxicating spirits at so critical a juncture. He 
expressed his fear that the Indians, especially the Senccas, 
were armed, while the whites at the fort and in the vicinity 
were naked and defenseless. He said he had heard there 
were priests among the Indians who held it meritorious to 
kill heretics, as they considered Protestants, "and our sins 
and provocations may incense heaven to let them loose on 



I36 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

us unawares, if the utmost care and precaution be not taken, 
which your excellency in his superior wisdom will doubtless 
well consider and give orders accordingly. As affairs wear 
a most threatening aspect at this juncture, I think it a time 
to be serious. As I am a seer, I may be knowing to some 
things your excellency may not, which occasion me thus to 
write." 

It will be remembered that it was the Senecas who 
destroyed Wyoming ten years later. 

This expression, "I am a seer," and others like it indi- 
cate that Mr. Johnson thought his sacred office conferred 
upon him some occult power of peering into the mysterious 
or supernatural. This idea always clung to him and in the 
last year of his life he had some mysterious premonition of 
the date of his death, and so real was it that he not only 
made the usual preparations for dissolution, but dug his 
own grave. He died on the date foretold. Many years 
later the author of this paper and his father, Wesley John- 
son, were present at the opening of the grave near the 
Memorial Church and the removal of the bones to Hollen- 
back Cemetery, where they now rest. 

The fact that Jacob Johnson was a Connecticut man 
was sufficient to bring him into disfavor with the Pennsyl- 
vania proprietaries. Indeed, Conrad Weisser, the cele- 
brated Indian interpreter, much employed in the Pennsyl- 
vania interest, wrote to the governor (Miner, p. 94) warn- 
ing him to look out for "that wicked priest of Canojoharry. 
lest he defeat our designs." The result was he was ex- 
cluded, as he says in an affidavit in Miner's History, p. o~. 
from the various consultations with the chiefs. Miner also 
gives an affidavit from Rev. Samuel Kirkland (Miner, p. 
98), who sets forth the part taken by Mr. Johnson, and the 
general facts of the treaty, and the questionable methods 
employed to secure the consent of the Indians, in repudiat- 
ing the 1754 sale to Connecticut and in making a new sal 
to Pennsylvania. 



MIM'HJW r "~ 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. I37 

While Jacob Johnson was not permitted to participate 
in the council with the Indians, he was recognized socially 
and was a participant in a dinner given by the baronet. He 
made a speech there which had the ring of true patriotism, 
but which offended some of the baronet's guests. 

The people were already beginning to clamor for lib- 
erty and for the repeal of the Stamp Act. Jacob Johnson 
was an impulsive man and when roused was fearless of 
consequences. So in this stronghold of royalty at Fort 
Stanwix he did not hesitate to voice the cry for freedom, and 
to warn the mother country of the impending storm which 
was to sweep away her American colonies. His fearless 
words, prophetic of the struggle for liberty, stamp him as 
one of the earliest as well as one of the bravest of the sons 
of the Revolution. This lofty patriotism characterized his 
whole life, and it was appropriate that Charles Miner, the 
historian of Wyoming, should have prefaced his sketch of 
Mr. Johnson with these words from Barlow : 

"God and my country" through the eventful strife, 

Such was the glorious motto of his life." 

This is what he said at the dinner as recorded by himself : 

"I drink the Health of King George III of Great 
Britain, &c. — comprehending New Eng'd & all the British 
Colonies & provinces in North America. And I mean to 
drink such a Health to his British Majesty, when occasion 
serves, so long as his Royal Majesty shall govern his 
British & American subjects according to Magna Charta, 
or the great charter of English Liberties, and hears the 
prayers of his American Subjects, when properly laid before 
him. But in case his British Majesty (which God in great 
mercy prevent) should proceed contrary to charter rights 
& Privileges, & Govern us with a Rod of Iron, & the mouth 
of Cannons and make his Little Finger thicker than his 
Father's loyns, and utterly refuse to hear or consider our 
Humble prayers ; then, & in that case I should think it my 
indispensable Duty to seek a retreat elsewhere ; or joyn 
with my Countrymen in Forming a New Empire in 
America, distinct from, & independent of. the British Em- 



I38 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

pire: agreeable to a project, & predicted Plan in a late essay, 
Intitled 'the Power and Grandure of Great Britain, 
Founded on the Liberties of the Colonies &c.', which in 
Substance agrees with my mind in these things, & if 1 am 
not mistaken, with every true son of Liberty." 

He was too much of a patriot to suit the King's repre- 
sentative, the Baronet, and too much interested in the wel- 
fare of the Indians to suit the Penns. So he was excluded 
from the council. 

Sir William's reasons for excluding him and for pre- 
venting the delivering of his speech to the Indians are told 
by him in a letter to General Gage (Doc. His. N. Y.), in 
which he said: 

'The New Englanders have had missionaries for some 
time among the Oneidas and Oquages and I was not ignor- 
ant that their old pretensions to the Susquehanna lands was 
their real object, tho' religion was their assumed object. 
Two New England missionaries [Johnson and Avery] 
came up, one of which was strongly recommended to me by 
Dr. Wheelock and did all in their power to prevent the 
Oneidas, whose property part of the Susquehanna is, from 
agreeing to any line. They even had the face, in opposition 
to His Majesty's commands and the desire of the colonies, 
to memorial me, praying that the Indians might not be 
allowed to give up far to the west or north, but to reserve it 
for the purpose of religion. And they publicly declared to 
several gentlemen there, that they had taken infinite pains 
with the Indians to obstruct the line and would continue to 
do so. I think you should see in what manner the govern- 
ment's favors and indulgences are made use of by these 
gentry, of which I could give many instances, being pos- 
sessed of their secret instructions and many other very ex- 
traordinary papers." 

The correspondence and papers of Sir William John- 
son have been collected at Albany and the same are easily 
acessible. There is no trace of these "secret instructions 
and many other very extraordinary papers" which the 
baronet asserted he had in his possession. 

The congress ended early in November. As long as it 
was in session liquor was withheld, a fact which had 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 39 






brought out a letter of appreciation from Jacob Johnson to 
the baronet, and harmony and decency prevailed. When 
all was over, but before the rum was served to the Indians, 
Sir William and his family hurriedly left in the night and 
advised all whites to leave as soon as possible. Within two 
hours after the liquor was given out the community was 
rilled with drunkenness and hell seemed broken loose. Sev- 
eral were killed. It was Sunday too. 

Now that the congress was over, Mr. Johnson was 
compelled to report to Wheelock that nothing had been 
accomplished for the school, that the petition for aid for his 
school had resulted in failure. 

As O. J. Harvey, Esq., states in his admirable "History 
of Wilkes-Barre :" 

"The Pennsylvanians were successful, and on the very 
day that the Fort Stanwix treaty was signed six sachems 
of the Six Nations — one from each of the several tribes — 
executed to Thomas and William Penn a deed for all the 
lands within the bounds of their Province not heretofore 
purchased from the Indians, and so far as the general boun- 
dary with the King had then been settled. This purchase 
included most of the lands claimed by The Susquehanna 
Company and The Delaware Company, under their respec- 
tive deeds from the Indians. The consideration paid by the 
Penns for the Fort Stanwix deed was 10,000 dollars, and 
two of the signers of the deed were Tyanhasare, or Abra- 
ham, of the Mohawk tribe, and Senosies, of the Oneida 
tribe, who had signed in July, 1754, the deed to The Sus- 
uehanna Company." 

Johnson to Wheelock. 

"Fort Stanwix November 6th 176S 

"Revd Sir, 

"The business of the Congress is now compleated. all 
is in confusion. Mr Cleveland, Avery, Mathes will give you 
a narrative. I expected they would have accompanvd me to 
Canawarohere this Day & so omitted writing till then. But 
they viz Mr Kirtland &c suddenly changed their purpose. 
I have not time to write you for they are parting. Onelv 



I4O REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

that we have all done what we coud to forward the glorious 
design you have Sir in view. But the business of the Con- 
gress being of such a nature it seemed to answer no great 
purpose at Present. However I believe it is not time lost 
to any of us & I hope not in genl to the Cause. It may be 
seed sown in Darkness which may in God's Time Spring up. 
I wish I had time to write more at large & to the purpose. 
But I am hurried to the utmost. If it be the Divine will I 
shall write by Mr Kirtland in short time. I thank you 
heartily for your kind Letters & all your expressions of love. 
My enclosed Letter please to forward. 

"I am with all due respect yours affectionately 

"Jacob Johnson/' 

Johnson to Wheelock. 

"Oneida, Decembr 28th 1768 
"Rev & hon. Sr 

Your christian & very kind Letter (Dated Lebanon 
Nov. 21) I received For which & all other Tokens of your 
Friendship, I return you my Sincere & hearty thanks. And 
pray the Blessing of Heaven, may long rest on your Person, 
Family and School, and desird success accompany ail your 
undertakings, to promote the Cause & Kingdom of Christ 
on earth. I have, Sir, done all within my power, to promote, 
& set forward, this great, & glorious design, since I came 
this way. As to what pass'd at the Congress relative here- 
unto (either as to my Character or Conduct) I desire noth- 
ing more, I ask for nothing more, nor indeed wish for any- 
thing more than to exhibit that progress, with the Facts. & 
doings theron attendant, in their own 2 ro P^ r light, which 
(thanks to God) I am well able to do (without boasting). 
And at our next Interview, I will (if it please God) let you 
fully into that affair. And I doubt not you will be satisfied. 
I did everything that was proper to be done, or Indeed coud 
be done. As to any ill consequences touching yourseiie Sir. 
or the Laboring Cause, I am by no means whatsoever suffi- 
cient to provide against 'em ; but most humbly, ft meekly 
submit them to Him, who brings about all things, according 
to the Council of his own will, & finally for his own glory, 
& Zion's weal, and prosperity; and without all doubt, or 
controversie to me, issue the present dependent Cause (as 
far as it respects my character or Conduct) to the same 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. I4I 

happy & glorious purposes: 'For He will (sooner or later) 
bring forth my judgment as the light, & my Righteousness 
as the noonday.' As to the present situation I am here with 
Mr Kirkland most of the time ; Preparing and ripening 
things for action ; and waiting a favorable opportunity for 
embodying, & building up a chh. here ; tho I have not been 
favored with an Interpreter (onely occasionally & Provi- 
dentially) which in some respects has been a great disad- 
vantage to me, in others perhaps an advantage, for it has 
put me the more upon studying their Language, customs, 
&c, and perhaps, I shall be able to speak to them in their 
own Language, before I leave them; tho I expect an Inte:- 
than regain my seemingly lost time. Upon receiving your 
last letter, I felt much concerned, lest you Sir, shoud think 
hard of me, thro' some inuendo's or false suggestion from 
some quarter or other and tho't whether it might not (on 
the whole) be best to come down to New Engd and satisfie 
your mind Sir in those things ; but consulting & advising 
with Mr K — d, He thinks it will by no means do at this 
Time. Mr Kirkland will write to you also and you Sir 
will please to give me your mind farther upon the return 
of Dr Thomas I am Sir as clay in the hands of the great 
Potter I have no claim upon the Deity, But for Christ's 
sake ; & none upon you Sir, but in Christ, & for his sake, 
and the cause of his kingdom, & glory; to which (tho' un- 
worthy) I submit myselfe: & am sir, with great esteem. & 
hearty affection & brotherly Friendship, yours in all things 

"Jacob Johnson/' 



To Dr Eleazr Wheelock 
Lebanon 
"N. B. I was going to have given you a view of the 
State & process of ye Congress in writing but perhaps i* 
may be better to do it by a personal Representation at a 
private Interview If it be the will of God I return to see 
you Sr." 

The above letter of December 28 drew out the follow- 
ing declaration of confidence, and about the same time 
Kirkland wrote to Wheelock praising Johnson's work as a 
teacher : 



i42 rev. jacob johnson. 

Wheelock to Johnson. 

"Lebanon 30th Jany. 1769. 
"Revd. & dear Sir, 

"Your refreshing and brotherly letters, by Thomas 
came safe — You need give yourself no uneasiness at all 
about ye affairs of ye Congress ; all is right, & well. I 
han't so much concern about it, as to spend time to hear 
it if you were here * * * 

"Eleazar Wheelock." 

"Oneida Janry 9th 1769. 
"Revd & Hond Sr 

"The enclosed has lain some Time waiting an opperty 
of Conveyance which has been unexpectedly hinderd by the 
rains & floods here & at the German Flats. But now we 
think the way passable so I transmit by Peter* and Dr. Thos 
I believe Sir tis the Mind & Will of God I continue here, 
otherwise I had returned before now I believe God has 
something for me to do here before I return I think not 
onely by Mr K'ds desire but some light I have had by the 
Word & Spirit of God It will not do to leave him here 
alone in his present feeble state of health both of body & 
mind tho blessed be God he seems to be rather gaining his 
health every way than declining and it may be will be con- 
tinued a Light in this wilderness where Light is so much 
wanting You will sir always consider him (& if you please 
me too) as but clay & spittle or earthen vessels in the hands 
of the great Master builder and rather expect great things 
from him than us who have no strength but our eyes are to 
the Lord alone for help. 

"I trust I hope in the Lord I shall yet praise him for 
sending me here, yea yt yourselfe will too, & that all em- 
barrassments will give way to the pure Light & truth of 
the Gospel in God's time and that there will be a perfect 
harmony regained and long [illegible] betwixt all that wish 
well to Zion & are laboring to promote the glorious Cause 
of the Gospel 



•"Good Peter," Domine Peter, Peter the Priest, was an OnoMa 
chief, born on the Susquehanna River, educated, and the best orator 
among the Six Nations. He was one of Mr. Kirkland's deacons. He 
d. 1792. 

"Dr. Thos." was a Christian Oneida deacon. The abbreviation 
may mean "dear Thomas" or "Deacon Thomas." 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 143 

"I am with great Respect & affection 
"Yours for Christ's sake 

"J. Johnson." 
"N. B. Peter has serve! very well for an Interpreter 
since He came here I propose to get an Interpreter for 
about 2 months & if I stay any longer interprit for my self e 
Mr Kirkland has made surprising proficiency in their Lan- 
guage so that He can preach & pray as occasion calls in their 
own tongue." 

Johnson to Wheelock. 

"Kannaojohare Jany 13th 1769 
"Revd & Hond Sir 

"Yours I received (pr T — r) For which & all other 
Expressions of your Goodness & beneficence I return you 
my thanks & pray ev'ry blessing of Heaven upon you sir, 
yours & all your undertakings to Serve the Cause & king- 
dom of the Redeemer. 

"As to the affair of the Congress I am well afraid you 
never had it represented in its true and genuine Light And 
I can by no means do it in a Short Letter Onely this I 
will say I doubt not you Sir will be fully satisfied my con- 
duct was as good as the nature & circumstances of things 
woud admit of. I have reflected upon it with the greatest 
severity I was able & cannot see where I coud have mended 
it or anybody else except they had been unfaithful to their 
trust which I presume woud think the wrong way of mend- 
ing As to any ill consequences arising to you sir or the 
School I must leave to the issue of Divine providence which 
I doubt not on the whole will be best. 

"As to our affairs at Oneida we are obliged to move 
slowly with 'em at present for reasons too long to write. 
Were you here you woud be satisfied & will be when I see 
you or Mr Kirkland whom I can't nor dar'nt leave. We 
keep Sabbath at Kannaquajohare Expect Johannes will go 
with me to Oneida for a short season perhaps a month or 6 
weeks I hope by then thro' ye goodness of God to interprit 
for myselfe That I may lose no time but rather regain the 
time We propose to embody the chh upon Dr Thos return 
& for several Reasons can't well do it sooner I have Sir sent 
a pacquet of Letters directed to you Sr most of which 
Letters are to the Ministers round about to desire their 






144 REV - JACOB JOHNSON. 

remembrance &c and to sundry Friends in Groton new Lon- 
don &c some compos [itions?] in verse to my children &c. 
I shall finally deliver the sense of all to you sir viva voce & 
by my journals if the will of God be so Mr K — d writes to 
you more at large on some things All our ways are before 
the eyes of the Lord who tryeth our paths These affairs 
meet with many difficulties which I can't write even in vol- 
umes Were you sir to go on a mission you woud then see 
& feel what you do but hear of at a distance but never can 
realize without experience any more sir than a woman that 
never brought forth can realize what are the pains of child- 
bearing It is not be wondered at that such as go on a mis- 
sion have been discouraged or their Constitutions broke, 
especially when young and unexperienced one older & more 
seasoned woud undoubtedly wear out tho' it may not be so 
fast I have had the least tryal for the Time been onely 
preparing for the Service & yet I am told a good deal 
of my flesh is worn away by those who saw me when I 
went up & now see me again I expect to be worn down 
till I can tell all my bones tho I am as careful of my health 
as the affair will admit of Mr K — d I believe woud have 
dy'd (& will yet for ought I know) tho I am with him You 
will Sir write your mind farther by Dr Thos. 

My love to all your [a word here not legible]. 

"J.J-K." 

"N. B. my Pacquet of letters were accidentally left at 
Oneida — didn't expect to see them but they were brought 
along when I had about l / 2 wrote this, otherwise I should 
not have wrote it just so You will easily understand the 
matter & qualifie things if you are so lucky as to read my 
writing Look through the Rough bark & you will see all 
things sound & good But stick & be pricked and offended 
with the burr and you will never see or eat the nut The 
fool believes every word but the wise look well to other 
goings look not to the outward appearance but weigh all in 
the Scales of Truth. 

"My rideing beast I send down by Peter because she 
can't be kept at Oneida and her keeping thro' the Winter 
woud be too Dear here [Canajoharie]. You will please to 
send her down by the first opportunity to Groton or other- 
wise as you think best the ways are so extreme bad here to 
ride that 'tis to go on foot in general better, especially thro" 
the woods." 



rev. jacob johnson. 145 

Johnson to Wheelock. 

"German Flatts Jany 16 1769 
"Revel Hond Sir 

"I am now on my return from Kannajohare where I 
preached yester Day. I had Joseph Brant for my Interpre- 
ter who performed to my surprise Johannes was by, but 
declined Serving tho' I believe He might have done it well 
enough had he been well, tho on the whole he promisd to be 
at Oneida the next Sabbath when & where I hope he will 
answer the Intention at lest for 3 or 4 Sabbaths while Mr 
K — d is absent at Sir Wms & down at Skanactady &c 
Partly for the sake of his health & partly to get some neces- 
saries of Life. 

"There is to be another Congress in about a month at 
Mr Shoenmakers where Sir Wm the govr N. York Col. 
Krahan and Other Gentn will meet the Heads & principals 
of the Indian Nations to complete what was left unfinished 
at the Late congress But Sir such meetings dont seem to 
be very Favourable to the far greater & more Interesting 
concerns of the Gospel The buyers of Oxen, Farms &c 
dont lend an ear to the Gospel entertainments as you Sir 
know well was the Case while Christ was on earth & is not 
altered to this Day 

"You will consider whether it will be worth while to 
address Sir Wm or any other Genn on such an occasion in 
Case you have an opportunity of transmitting Letters &c 

"I believe Sir the great medium of Propagating the 
Gospel among the Indians must be apostolic preaching of it 
to them and that not by the Might and Strength of Human 
Authoritv or Recommendation but by the Light & Influence 
of the Holy Ghost the way it made its progress at first 
since & ever will do The Indns themselves & even the 
Chiefs of them seem to be not a little sensible of this & 
the other human Schemes will be to little purpose How- 
ever I submit all to the direction of Heaven & am Sir yours 
in Christ 

"J. J N." 

It was charged that the failure of Wheelock's project 
was due to what had been said and done by Jacob Johnson 
at Fort Stanwix. Perhaps in his ardor to safeguard the 
Indians from the encroachments of the land grabbers he 



I46 RVE. JACOB JOHNSON. 

did go too far and in doing - so alienated Sir William John- 
son, yet Wheelock assured him in a letter, January 30, 1769, 
that he was satisfied with his course at Fort Stamvix : 

"Your refreshing and brotherly letters came safe. You 
need give yourself no uneasiness about ye affair of ye Con- 
gress All is right and well." (Supra.) 

In view of this endorsement of Mr. Johnson's course 
Dr. Wheelock's subsequent harsh words about Jacob John- 
son when writing an apologetic letter to the baronet may 
be overlooked. To lose the approval of King George, Lord 
Dartmouth and other noble patrons of the school was 
enough to make any man feel sore, even the good Dr. 
Wheelock. 

As far as the Fort Stanwix boundary line was con- 
cerned it was a keen disappointment to Jacob Johnson, as 
it threw his beloved Oneidas into the Indian country, the 
very thing he had sought to prevent. The boundary adopted 
started from the point where the Ohio River empties into 
the Mississippi (southern limit of Illinois), passed up the 
Ohio to Fort Pitt (present Pittsburg), thence up the Alle- 
ghany to Kittaning, Pa., thence directly east to the West 
Branch of the Susquehanna River to where Bald Eagle 
Creek empties in. Here the line was naturally making for 
the junction of the two branches of the Susquehanna at 
present Sunbury, but as this would throw the much coveted 
Wyoming region into the Indian country, the line was so 
-deflected northward as to strike the Susquehanna at present 
Towanda. Thus the Penns were able to keep Wyoming 
outside the Indian domain. The line having skirted round 
Wyoming, passed northward to Owego, then east and north 
to a point just east of Oneida Lake. This threw all the 
tribes except the Mohawks into the Indian country. For 
the details of the line as stated by the deed of 1768, together 
with a contemporary map by Guy Johnson, see Documen- 
tary History of New York, i, 377. 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 47 

Kirkland placed a high value on Jacob Johnson's ser- 
vices, for he wrote to Wheelock, December 29, 1768: "Mr. 
Johnson should continue if an interpreter can be procured. 
He has got ye very notion and method of instructing In- 
dians, which is one-half of the battle." 

Writing from Kannaquajoharie, January 13, 1769, Mr. 
Johnson mentioned that he had sent a packet of letters for 
friends in Groton, New London, etc., and some composi- 
tions in verse to his children. He alludes to a journal which 
he was preparing for Wheelock, but it has not been pre- 
served. 

In his letter from German Flats, January 16, 1769, he 
says he preached at Kannajoharrie the day before, and that 
he had Joseph Brant for his interpreter. Brant had been 
a pupil at Wheelock's Indian school and he was the warrior 
who nine year later was desolating the Pennsylvania fron- 
tier with torch and tomahawk. Most of the earlier his- 
torians charged Brant with being the leader of the Indians 
in the battle of Wyoming in 1778, but it is now certain that 
this was an error, though his cruelties at other points on 
the frontier were no less atrocious. 

Here occurs a break in the Dartmouth letters. The 
next shows that Mr. Johnson returned from his mission in 
April, 1769. A letter to Wheelock indicates the poverty of 
the time. He says he was absent from home seven months, 
during which time he traveled on horseback and on foot 
nearly 1,000 miles. He felt that the sum of £30, in addition 
to a small sum he had already received, would be reasonable. 
At that time he had seven children, and "several of them 
could never go to meeting for want of clothing." He tells 
Wheelock he "would not thus have exposed our own pov- 
erty and the people's penury among whom we live" were 
he not driven to it by necessity. 

In June, 1769, a letter to Wheelock indicates that Jacob 
Johnson was troubled over the perils which threatened the 
country. "The times look threatening at home and abroad. 



I48 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

Some great adventure seems to be near. The nation and 
land seem ripening fast for destruction if sovereign grace 
does not interpose. It will likely be troublesome, if net 
dangerous, for the missionaries among the Indians this 
summer. The Oneidas expect war and we hear that foreign 
Indians are mustering for that purpose about and beyond 
Detroit. The quadruple alliance carries an ominous aspect. 
But God will overrule all for Zion's good." 

Johnson to Wheelock. 

"Groton, Conn., May 3d 1769 
"Rev & bond sir 

"I proposed to have been at L — n [Lebanon] and 
Settled accts respecting my mission to Onoida eer now But 
things falling out in D. Providence divers ways have hith- 
erto forbid, my Family unwell my second Daughter dan- 
gerously ill & many things to attend & my horse Catling 
& none yt will do to be had I woud have come up this 
week but one way or another hindered If I can I will come 
up the beginning of next week but lest I shoud not as I 
am afraid I cant, things being as they are with me, I think 
it best to send you a copy of accts of what money I received 
& how laid out which you sir or your Bookkeeper may see 
in the enclosed paper As to my Reward I shoud ask 
nothing more than what I have receivd did not the neces- 
sitys of my family call for it, if not as a debt of hire yet as 
a reward of Charity to cover their nakedness and stay their 
hunger Some of which & more than 10 years old never 
had but one pair of shoes in their life Several oi them 
never coud go to meeting for want of clothing and but one 
out of 7 can go to at once to meeting for want of decent 
clothing. I shoud not thus have exposed our own poverty 
& the people's penury among whom we live but to let you 
know sir I don't ask or desire anything for the sake oi 
filthy Lucre but pure necessity which has been & is very 
humbling & eructating to my mind, even to my soul. As 
for money I don't want much, 5 or 6£ to pay some out 
standing debts the rest at Mr Brimmer by your order : t 
clothing to cover my family that they may not suffer & may 
go to meeting & School which thev rarely do for want of 
Clothing & often suffer for want of other necessaries oi 






REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 49 

Life which I am sorry to speak of but the painful sensation 
extorts it out of my mouth As to the sum of what may 
be tho't Reasonable in my case (who dont expect or desire 
great things in this life) I have tho't of the addition to 
what I have received of about 3o£. 

"I was from my House calling & business from the 
17th of September 1768 to 7th of April 1769, the bigger part 
of seven months, in which time I travelld on horse back & 
foot nearest one thousand mile & never was one day idle but 
was either studying for the Indians, praying for them or 
preaching to or conversing with them by an Interpreter or 
in their own Language which I was able in some measure 
to do before I came away and were I to be with them about 
3 months longer I doubt not but I coud speak their lange 
compleat, I mean the Onoida & in 6 months more or less 
all the langages of the 6 Nations which appear to me to be 
but a different dialect of one Language, the raohawk & 
oneida are the same word for word only the R in mohawk 
is sounded arrh in Onoida arth as for instance Rogarri i. e. 
my Father in Mohawk Rougharre in the Oneida ^illegible]. 

"I think it greatly necessary that the Missionaries to 
the Indians learn their Language or not pretend to go 
among them I believe sir you woud be sensible of it to a 
high degree were you to go as a Missionary among them. 
This I know I was beyond what I coud conceive of before 
I believe sir in ordinary a faithful Missionary woud do 
more in 7 months by speaking their langauage than 7 or 
17 year by an Interpreter However I believe it best to 
Instruct them & especially their children in the English 
tongue as fast as may be & in the mean time for the Mis- 
sionaries to learn their language as fast as possible 

"I have much more to say on these things but I pass 
them over to your tho'ts sir. As to my reward sir if you 
think me any way unreasonable bring it down as low as 
you please & if I am griv'd I will not be offended, but if 
sir you think me moderate as my necessities are, send an 
order to Mr Brimmer or who you please so that I may by 
a line or a word know or the the order to me to take of 
things I need in Mr Such a one's shop to the amount of 20 
or 2$£ in goods & 5 or 6£ in Cash I shall acknowledge the 
favour & bless God from whose hand all good things of this 
life come & more especially those better things yt belong to 



I50 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

the after life I am sir with great sincerity your very much 
obliged & humble sert 

"J. Johnson." 
"P. S. 

"Sir If you have an opportunity by your son or other- 
wise to send the enclosed to Oneida I shall count it a favour 
There is nothing private in't no not in the few Lines wrote 
in Indian you may read it if you please & seal & send it. 

"My sincerest Love & good will to your Son. May 
God Almighty be with & succeed him in his mission if he 
goes & all others." 

Johnson to Wheelock. 
"Rev & Hon. "Groton May .13. 1769 

"Sir 
"I suppose you have received some Letters with the 
Reasons of my not coming to Lebanon, s as I had intended 
my Family most of 'em are unwell & my 2d Daughter in 
a critical State of Life & other things so with me, that my 
Time is wholly took up & several things yet to do of impor- 
tance that I can't yet attend to I saw Air Huntington 
(whom you mentioned to me when at Lebanon) who in- 
forms me that He and a School-master are to go soon for 
Oneida & the Indn Country Perhaps as things are Cir- 
cumstanced it [might?] be left at present (till you sir see 
further) to employ more than one Missionery (besides Mr 
K — d) & a Schoolmaster & perhaps Mr Huntington (as 
things now are) may do best to go He is indeed young, & 
has not had much time, or advantage to get acquain 
in these affairs but being, I hope, honestly & heartily inclined 
to serve the Redeemer, in this most important cause, He 
may be succeeded and blest in the undertaking There are 
many difficulties, & dangers, attending of it especially to 
one unacquainted with the Indn Language, manners &c 
But God is able to do all things & even out of weakness to 
ordain strength I believe Sir it would be best (if possible) 
for one of the Schoolmasters to go as an Interpreter to Mr 
Huntn for he will be put to difficulty otherwise to get an 
Interpreter and moreover if Mr Htn proposes to speir 
Life among the Indns, to be sure to give his Mind to Learn 
the Language ; the advantage of it is inconceivably great to 
a Missionary Next to the Grace of God it is the better 
halfe of a Missionary's qualifications to do service in the 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 151 

cause. I coud wish that all & every one that think of doing 
service as Missionaries among- the Indians woud give them- 
selves to the Learning of their Language as one most neces- 
sary antecedent qualification for their going among them 
And for this most important purpose that you woud Sir get 
as soon as possible a professor of Indian in your School and 
that the Indn Language may be taught as equally if not 
even more necessary than Latin Greek or Hebrew as I am 
indeed certain it is in this Case by my own certain experi- 
ence There Language may be reduced to the rules of 
Grammar & taught as any other Language and be learned 
as soon or sooner than any other especially by those who 
have any taste or geneous for the oriental Languages as I 
could easily show by what I learned of it Was it the will of 
God I shoud spend as much Time among them again as I 
did the last winter I think I woud be master of their Lan- 
guage & be able to reduce it to the Rules of Grammar which 
I think woud be a service of unspeakable advantage who- 
ever does it to effect And if your son or any other propose 
to go into the service I hpe they will in the mean time give 
themselves to the study of the Indian Tongue Yet: see sir 
the affair is so much on my Mind that I know not how to 
dismiss it or give over urging it upon your mind. Sir, till 
you do something to effect about it the which when [ hear 
of my Mind will be easy in that respect but I must not 
enlarge May the Father of Lights direct you sir in all 
things & make his will in these & all respects plain & perfect 
for the furtherance & upbuilding the Redeemer's kingdom 
among the benighted Heathen 

"I am Hond sir with all sincerity respect 
"vours in Christ Jesus our Lord 

"J. Johnson." 

"P. S. I believe upon the whole it may he best for 
your son Mr Ralph not to go for the Oneida untill you Sir 
& yr son have had a personal Interview with Mr K — d at 
your own House & those affairs subsisting be considered 
& amicably settled to mutual satisfaction which I hope 
through the Mercy & Grace of God mav be -lone & well 
done so that the pathway of Duty may be open & plain that" 
there may be nothing in that respect within or without to 
hurt or offend in all God's Holy Mountain It \va^ my 
Labor there with K — d & prayer to God then & since that 
[it?] might be done." 



152 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

"Groton, Mav 29, 1769 
"R. H. Sir 

"I hear Mr Huntington is going for Oneida this week, 
upon whose arrival I suppose Mr K — d will return to New 
England — When He comes I expect to see Him at Groton 
and have a personal conversation with hiir — \nd if the 
case require, meet him at Lebanon at your own House to 



;-. ' 



there shoud be. I heartily wish it may be done if yet to 
do to the mutual satisfaction of all concerned and especially 
& above all as it concerns the Interest of Religion in gen'l 
& the propagation of the Gospel among the Indians in Par- 
ticular. I shoud have wrote to Mr K— d further but per- 
haps I have wrote enough in the affair till I see Him or 
hear from Him I wish you sir, your Family. School, and all 
attempts to Propagate the Gospel among the Indn Heathen 
Success I should have seen you Sir before now but ev'ry 
Day & week fills my head, heart & hands full & even exceed s 
my own private affairs, chh & socity hang upon me in such 
a sort, as is uncommon we have chh meeting this week a 
council at Chelsea next & so on 

"I am Sir your very obliged Friends 8: Ser't in Christ 

"J. Johnson." 

"Groton June 15 1769 
"Rev. & Hon. 

"Sir The state of my family & my own verv Indiffer- 
ent state of health has been & is the Reason why I have not 
seen you Sir at Lebanon e'er now. My wife has been & is 
poorly & 2d Daughter who is under the Dr's ;:are My 
negro man and chief stay in my outdoor business Dyed last 
week after 9 days illness so that I am left weak I have sent 
3 or 4 letters to let you know of these things I came as 
far as [Newent] with my daughter but couldnt come farther 
the Dr being at Preston &c & I was obliged also to bo at 
home two besides as Mr Huntington is gone to Oneida & 
Mr Kirtland will probablv be down the latter end of tl 
Month or beginning of next I propose to see you then 
if possible. 

"The Times look threatening at Home & abroad Our 
helpe is in God onely Some great adventure seems to be 
near The Nation & Land seem ripening fast for destruc- 
tion if meer sovereign grace does not interpose It will 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 53 

likely be troublesome if not dangerous for the Missionaries 
among the Indians this summer The Six Nations to be 
sure the Oneidas expect war & we hear the foreign Indians 
are mustering for that purpose about & beyond Detroit The 
quadruple alliance carries an ominous aspect But our God 
can, yea we may be sure will, over-rule all for Zion's good 
& his own and that's enough to quiet our minds 
"I am yours &c 

"J. Johnson/' 
"P. S. I have Sir heard nothing from you either by 
word or letter since I came thro' Lebanon I know not but 
my Letters have all miscarried I suppose Mr Kinni didn't 
go so far as Lebanon as I expected I hope Sir however 
you have heard the reasons of my not coming & so I rest 
till I see or hear from your Sir." 

In a letter of October 28, 1769, Hugh Wallace wrote to 
Wheelock that Sir William seems satisfied that Wheelock 
was not to blame for what had taken place at Fort Stanwix, 
but he could not forget that Wheelock's instructions to 
Jacob Johnson strongly implied a desire of getting some 
lands from the Indians for his school. 

Chase says Johnson had "secret instructions" to get 
land for the school, that Johnson let the secret be known, 
and this made trouble ; that Johnson's companion, Avery, 
sent a special messenger to notify Wheelock. But after the 
excitement had all subsided Wheelock wrote to Johnson as 
in the letters of Janury, 1769, not to worry, &c. Chase was 
in error, because Jacob Johnson distinctly asked for land 
for school purposes, (v Documentary History of New 
York, iv, 248.) 

Jacob Johnson's arrival at Fort Stanwix had been at 
an inopportune time. Any New England man Wheelock 
could have sent would have been equally liable to incur the 
displeasure of his Majesty's Superintendent of Indian 
affairs. 

Though Sir William Johnson was an Episcopalian he 
had always treated the Presbyterian missionaries from Con- 



154 R EV - JACOB JOHNSON. 

necticut with consideration, but a change had gradually 
come over him in this regard. 

"The entry of Wheelock's missionaries into the country 
of the Six Nations had not been gratifying to the partisans 
of the English Church and they entered into fresh com- 
munication with Sir William Johnson with a view to coun- 
teract the Presbyterian influence in the Indian country by 
occupying the field themselves." (Chase 73.) An itinerant, 
minister from the English Church at Albany had visited 
Sir William Johnson and had christened several children 
who had previously been baptized by Presbyterian mission- 
aries. Sir William had not only countenanced this proceed- 
ing by permitting it to be done at his home, but he himself 
had acted as Godfather. Some hot Presbyterian words of 
protest were spoken, the protest necessarily implying a 
criticism on Sir William Johnson. Added to this Sir 
William's natural son had been dismissed from Wheelock's 
school for some irregularity. So Sir William gave assurance 
to newcoming missionaries of the English Church that they 
would be heartily welcomed. Wheelock was promptly 
warned by friends in England that his movement in the 
Indian country was to meet with competition, and so he 
wrote to Whitefield as follows : 

"Plans for future operations are at present stopped 
by the daily expectation of Episcopalians from your side to 
supply all vacancies there, and (inter nos) it is supposed 
that Sir William Johnson designs none but such shall - 
among the Indians in that vicinity. It is 'Indian news' 
that he has told the Onondagas to keep to their old religion 
and customs, that God is well pleased with them, and if 
ministers from New England come among them, to treat 
them with civility, but not to receive them nor mind what 
they say; that he is often telling the Indians he expects true 
ministers, who will baptize them with the sign of the cross ; 
that those they have from New England are but half min- 
isters, etc., and I understand by two of my hoys, who came 
from Mr. Kirkland's to-day, that Mr. Kirkland SUS| 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 55 

something of that nature has had some influence to cool the 
affections of some towards him and towards this school." 

Chase in his History of Dartmouth College thinks 
these rumors exaggerated and says Sir William Johnson 
assured Wheelock of his continued friendship, persuaded 
as he was "that Wheelock's pursuits would be dictated by 
a disinterested zeal and a becoming prudence towards the 
plans of the Established Church." 

It should not be forgotten that an Episcopal movement 
would necessarily have the endorsement of the Crown, 
while a Congregational movement would not thus be 
favored. Sir William's first thought was ever for the 
Crown, and so we find in Documentary History- of Xew 
York, iv, 2&2, the following: "Sir William Johnson thinks 
the Church of England worship of much more influence on 
the Indians than that of the Dissenters, whose gloomy 
severity disqualifies them from the task. The Indians 
should always be taught to place their confidence in his 
Majesty as their common father and protector, who is dis- 
posed to redress their grievances and to contribute a portion 
of his royal bounty to making them happy, and thus furnish- 
ing the best security for their fidelity to the Crow r n." 

The responsibility for the failure of Wheelock's appli- 
cation to the Fort Stanwix council for aid in his religious 
movement among the Indians, was placed on Jacob John- 
son, who was charged with dissuading the Indians from 
agreeing to the boundary. But there are several factors to 
be considered : 

1st. Sir William Johnson, though personally friendly 
to Wheelock and up to this time friendly to his work, was 
no longer in sympathy with the New England Presbyterian 
evangelistic movement in the Six Nation territory, which 
he considered as belonging to the Church of England. 

It is an interesting coincidence that when Episcopalian- 
ism was, a few years later, introduced into the Mohawk 



156 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

Valley and western New York, it was accomplished mainly 
by Wheelock's own grandson. This was Davenport Phelps, 
and he was actively assisted by Joseph Brant. 

So with Jacob Johnson's impetuous course at the treaty 
as an excuse, the New England missionary movement was 
practically killed. Love in "Samson Occum" says Jacob 
Johnson's lack of diplomacy alienated Sir William Johnson. 
But the fact is, Sir William Johnson was already alienated, 
as Wheelock more than suspected, for he wrote to George 
Whitefield a year earlier that he had heard Sir William 
designed to restrict the missionary movement to Episco- 
palians. 

2nd. The Indian school would not have been saved 
even if the Fort Stanwix council had granted what 
Wheelock wanted, for it had passed the limit of its useful- 
ness. Wheelock himself had become discouraged at the 
meagre results, and he was ready to drop it. His English 
patrons were also discouraged and were withholding their 
donations. Then, too, Wheelock's son Ralph had acted 
injudiciously and had alienated the baronet. Ke had been 
on a mission to the Western Indians as the representative 
of his father. He is described as "imprudent, domineering 
and irascible," quarreled with Kirkland and did much harm 
to his father's beloved cause. Kirkland and Wheelock 
became more or less estranged and three years later the 
latter gave up the Six Nation work, though he for a time 
continued his efforts among other tribes. 

Various localities sought to secure the location of his 
Indian school. No less than three locations with land were 
offered him in Pennsylvania on the Susquehanna purchase — 
on the Susquehanna, on the Delaware and on the Lacka- 
wack. This was in 1769, but as the controversy between 
Connecticut and Pennsylvania rendered the title uncertain, 
it was necessary to go elsewhere. Hanover, X. II.. was 
finally agreed upon and there in 1770 Dartmouth G 
had its birth, with all the powers granted by royal charter. 



^r— 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 57 

3rd. Sir William Johnson declared that the Connecti- 
cut missionaries were more interested in the movement to 
colonize the Susquehanna at Wyoming than in the evange- 
lization of the Indians, which was not true. Jacob Johnson 
would not have interfered at the Fort Stanwix council if 
Connecticut had had a representative there. 

4th. The approach of the Revolution made it impos- 
sible longer to carry on the Indian school. 

5th. The school had gone through its chrysalis stage 
and was now about to develop into an institution of greateT 
usefulness, namely, into Dartmouth College, and if Jacob 
Johnson unwittingly hastened that end he is entitled to 
praise rather than censure. 

Goes to Pennsylvania. 

Undismayed by the Fort Stanwix treaty, the Connecti- 
cut claimants determined to take possession of Wyoming. 
They took it for granted that the Fort Stanwix deed of 1768 
to the Penns was obtained by fraud and they determined to 
maintain the ownership conveyed to them by the earlier 
Albany deed. Remembering how the Indians had destroyed 
the first settlement of Wyoming in 1763 and fearful, unless 
subjected to restraint, there might be a repetition of such a 
tragedy, Rev. Jacob Johnson wrote to Sir William Johnson 
from his home in Groton, Connecticut, concerning the affairs 
of the Connecticut claimants on the Susquehanna. This 
letter is among Sir William Johnson's manuscripts at 
Albany, and is as follows : 

"Groton, May 29, 1769. 
"Sir: 

"I have thot good to write a line to your Excellency, 
relating to the Susquehanna affair — Praying that cause may 
have a proper Tryal, not by lawless violence, but by the 
Law of Equity and Right, lest it throw the Governments 
which ought to be at peace among themselves as well as 
with the mother country, into a ferment and so the conse- 



I58 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

I 

quences be ill on all hands. I have no interest to serve in 
the case only as it concerns the common good and peace 
of my country to which I am a hearty friend but no bigot 
to any party, religious, civil or commercial. No, I heartily 
wish well to all mankind and have a feeling concern for 
Heathen Indians and others. I suppose this, if I may use 
the freedom, is agreeable to the sentiments of your excel- 
lency. Therefore Sir hoping you will not take up for the 
one against the other nor suffer but restrain the Indians 
from intermeddling in the affairs, I am Sir, 

"Your verv humble oblige servt, 

"J. W. Johnson. 
"To His Excellency, 

"Sir William Johnson." 

What Sir William Johnson thought of the settlement 
of the Susquehanna region is told by him as early as 1762 
in a letter to Dr. Wheelock, who hoped that as the Connecti- 
cut people were about to occupy the new purchase, there 
might be an open door for the establishment of the Indian 
school. (Documentary History of New York, iv, 206.) Sir 
William's warning is as follows : 

"It will be highly improper to attempt any settlement 
in their country as they are disgusted at the great thirst 
which we all seem to show for their lands, and therefore I 
must give it as my opinion that any settlement on the Sus- 
quehanna River may prove fatal to those who attempt to 
establish themselves thereon, as the Indians have threatened 
to prevent such settlement, so that I hope the dangers to 
which they may be exposed, together with your governor's 
proclamation against the same, will induce those concerned 
to drop their undertaking." 

The Susquehanna Company originated in Windham 
County, Connecticut, as a colonization scheme. In 1753 a 
petition was laid before the General Assembly for official 
recognition. The History of Windham says : 

"That spirit of enterprise and migratory impulse was 
early manifested in Windham County, but it was not until 
1750 that the spirit of emigration, long smouldering, broke 
out into open flame. Connecticut's chartered right to a 






REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 159 

strip of land, forty leagues wide, extending across the 
continent to the Pacific Ocean, had never been yielded. The 
marvelous richness and beauty of the Susquehanna Valley 
were already celebrated, and now it was proposed to plant 
a colony in this beautiful region and thus incorporate it 
into the jurisdiction of Connecticut. The originators of 
this notable scheme are unknown." 

A meeting for forming a company for the colonization 
of Quiwaumick (Wyoming) was held in Windham in 1753. 
Great enthusiasm was manifested and more than 250 per- 
sons signed the articles of agreement. 

However, the warning of Sir William Johnson was 
unheeded and it was resolved by the Susquehanna Company 
that five townships, each five miles square, should be granted 
to 200 settlers, 40 acres to each. That 40 settlers should 
start at once, the remainder later in the spring. 

It is worthy of note that three whole shares in each 
township were reserved for the support of religion and of 
schools. The first 40 men who came out were to have the 
first choice of one of the townships, and to become proprie- 
tors on condition of actual settlement and of defending 
themselves against rival claimants. 

When in February, 1769, the first 40 Connecticut set- 
tlers arrived in Wyoming Valley they found the Penn 
government had stolen a march on them and already had its 
representatives on the ground and in possession of the build- 
ings which had been erected by the ill-fated Connecticut 
adventurers who had attempted a settlement in 1762 and 
1763. It should be mentioned here that among those who 
perished at the hands of the Indians in 1763 was Rev. 
William Marsh, a Baptist minister, who had come with the 
first settlers as their religious teacher. And now when the 
second attempt at settlement was made the Susquehanna 
Company again sent a Congregational minister, Rev. George 
Beckwith, who remained about a year. 

At this juncture Jacob Johnson, who from his home in 
Connecticut had watched the Wyoming movement, deter- 



l6o REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

mined to identify himself therewith. He visited the valley 
in the summer of 1772 (Pearce wrongly says 1770), and 
was so favorably impressed that he sent the following letter, 
the original of which is in the possession of the Wyoming 
Historical and Geological Society. See also Harvey's 
"History of Wilkes-Barre," Vol. 11, p. 741-742. 

"Groton August 1 8th 1772. 

"To the Comte at Wilks Barre and People there and in 
the Towns on the Susquehanna. 

"Gentlemen and christian Friends. 

"All Love & Respect unto you. I lately received a Let- 
ter from Capt. Zn. Butler as also one from Col Elpt Dyer 
and Comte at Windham with an enclosed copy of a letter 
from Capt Butler to sd Comte Signifying the unanimous 
Request & Desire of the settlers on the Susquehanna that 
I would come among them in the character of a Preacher & 
Minister of christ. 1 have taken the very Important Request 
into the most serious consideration And find a complyance 
therewith is like to be attended with almost Infinite difficulty 
both in my Family & People under my present care 6c 
charge. However this notwithstanding (upon the whole 
view of the case) I am of the mind 'tis the voice of God in 
his Holy wise & aldisposeing Providence that I should come 
to you. Shall therefore endeaver by the Will of God to get 
things in Readiness for that Purpose as fast as conveniently 
may be. 

"You will therefore I hope take some care to provide a 
House or some convenient place for Religious Worship that 
may best commode the whole Body of the People for the 
present, some where near to which you will please to pro- 
vide me a House or Place of Residence for my selte & what 
small part of my Family I shall bring should any oi them 
come with me. As to any other Provision I shall leave the 
ordering of that to the Comte & People as they may think 
fit as or as occasion may call for. 

"In the mean Time I pray you not to ferget the Prin- 
ciple end & design of our Fathers coming into this wilder- 
ness — Nor be off your watch & guard & so be exposed to 
your spiritual or Temporal enemies. But above all by your 
Holy Lives & conversations Interest yourselves in the Divine 
Favor and Protection that God Himselfe may dwell with 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. ' l6l 

you & bless you and prepare the way for the Blessing of 
the Gospel Ministry & ordinances among you. 

"So wishes so prays & most sincerely Desires your real 
Friend & humle sert for chirsts sake with all affection, 
[Signed] "Jacob Johnson." 
"To the People in the 
Several Towns on the 
East Branch of the 
Susquehanna. 

"P. S. Possibly the Rumer of Peace & counter orders 
to Goverr [Penn] may be a Devise to put you off your 
Guard to make you a more easy Prey, be the more watchful 
that you may not be betrayed. 'Sure bind sure find' Is a 
Proverb as True as it is old. 'Trust not an Enemy too soon.' 
Make no man a Friend but upon sufficient Tryal, 'Such as 
have broken their Promise twice Dont believe tho' they 
should swear Thrice.' Never trust a Fox out of a cage — or 
a serpent 'till His Head is broke. When thine Enemy 
speaketh fair believe Him not, For there are Seven Abomi- 
nations in his Heart. — Proverbs of Solomon. The Lord 
give understanding in all things. — St. Paul." 

This letter was followed three weeks later by another 
accepting finally the pastorate of the church in Wilkes- 
Barre. The original has been placed by the present writer 
in the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. See 
also Harvey's "History of Wilkes-Barre," Vol. II, pp. 
742-743- 

"Groton, Septr 4th, 1772. 

"To the People, Setlers in the Towns, on the East 
Branch of the Susquehanna. 

"Brethren & Christian Friends 

"The Country where You are now Scttleing is undoubt- 
edly within the claim of Connecticut Charter And of vast 
importance to the Colony and more particularly so to you 
that are Settleing there not onely on account of your Tem- 
poral Interest but more especially so as it Respects the 
Kingdom of Christ & the Interest of the Christian Religion 
This hath lain with great weight on my mind for a number 
of years past that I could have no Rest in my Spirit 'till I 
made you a visit And I hope my Labors were not in vain 
in the Lord — 



1 62 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

"And whereas You have been pleased to Request & 
Desire me to come again — as also the Comte at Windham 
have Shewn their approbation thereof & full concurrence 
therein — And having opportunity the Day past to Confer 
with Capt. Butler on these things As also to receive from 
him a Subscription for my Temporal Support the Present 
year I do now in Addition to my other Letters Send you 
this Further to let you know my Purpose & Determination 
is to come & See you To preach the Gospel of Christ unto 
you Provided my Way be made plain by the Advise of 
Counsel & Concurrence of church & people here which I 
Shall next attend to Our People have had it under con- 
sideration for Some Time past — I have conferd with Some 
-& had the minds of others in the Ministry who all as far as 
I can learn well approve of & think it my Duty to Remove 
I have conferd with Several of our Principal People both of 
church & Society who much Desire my Continuation in the 
Ministry here But yet appear willing to Submit to my Re- 
move if it may be for the greater benefit & enlargement of 
Christs Kingdom elsewhere which I doubt not will be suffi- 
ciently plain & Evident before a Counsel If anything 
Should fall out to the Contrary I shall let you know by the 
first opportunity In the mean time shall be makeing all 
convenient Readiness to be on my Journey to you at least 
by the Middle of the next month or sooner if I can get the 
way open for my Remove 

"You will I hope provide Some Convenient House or 
Place for Public Worship that may best commode the Sev- 
eral Towns for the Present near unto which a House or 
Place for my Residence until things are further Settled I 
heartily thank you one & all for your Regards Shewn and 
kindnesses bestowed on me when with you As also for the 
Provisions you have generously made by Subscription 
Should I again come among You I heartily & sincerely 
pray a Blessing may descend down from Heaven upon you 
that the God of all Grace & everlasting consolation may be 
with you. That He would multiply seed to the Sower & 
Bread to the eater that you may encrease <x fill the Land 
be a Terror to all your Enemies a comfort to all your 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 63 

Friends Yea that You may be for a Name & Praise in all 

the Earth So wishes So prays Yonrs in 

"To the People "our Lord Jesus Christ 

at Wilks Barre & 

The other Towns on [Signed] "Jacob Johnson. " 

The Susquehanna 

East Branch. 

At an early day Mr. Johnson had acquired a landed 

interest in the Susquehanna purchase, as appears from the 

following : 

"Deed of Humphrey Avery of Norwich in the County 
of New London, Colony of Conn. : 

to 
"Revd. Mr. Jacob Johnson of Groton in the County 
and Colony aforesaid — 

for the consideration of the Love and good will I 
have and bear toward him, my right to a half right 
or share in the land on Susquehanna River called the 
Susquehanna purchase. 

II March, 1771 

signed, Humphrey Avery 
Witnesses Samuel Avery Christopher Avery acknowl- 
edged New London Co Oct. 22, 1773. 

Robt. Geer, Justice of Peace." 

The story of his removal to Pennsylvania is well told 
in an anniversary discourse delivered in 1853, by Rev. John 
Dorrance, D. D., on the occasion of the twentieth anniver- 
sary of his pastorate over the First Presbyterian Church, 
Wilkes-Barre, of which Jacob Johnson was the first pastor: 

"That part of Pennsylvania lying north of the 41st 
degree of latitude [passing through the southern portion 
of Luzerne County] was claimed by the province of 
Connecticut. As a natural consequence a portion of this 
territory, and especially that which is watered by the Sus- 
quehanna and its tributaries, was originally settled by emi- 
grants from New England, with the exception oi one 
township, viz. : Hanover. This was occupied in great part 
by emigrants from Lancaster and Dauphin counties, Penn- 
sylvania. Those from New England were generally Con- 
gregationalists in education and feeling. Those from Lan- 



164 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

caster and Dauphin were of Presbyterian stock, originally 
from the north of Ireland. From these two sources was 
derived the original population of northern Pennsylvania; 
better sources there are not. The ancestors of both the 
Puritan and the Scotch Presbyterian had been tried in the 
furnace of affliction, had suffered persecution in the old 
world, and endured hardships in the new. Their principles, 
confirmed by a long and painful experience of oppression. 
privation, exile and war, were inherited by their children. 
our fathers. Those were no common men who migrated 
to this terra incognita, through a howling wilderness, and 
battled with cold and hunger and poverty, with the hostile 
white man and the lurking Indian waylaying their path. 
Few in number, without resources and far from aid, they 
necessarily struggled for years against the power of the 
great Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, against the combined 
forces of Briton, Tory and savage, and they and their wives 
and children and aged ones, when forced from the land, 
after witnessing the terrible Massacre, returned again and 
again, through trackless forests, invincible in their courage 
and fortitude, and established for us a happy home. Their 
labors, their valor, their constansy are above all praise. 
Their moral virtues, honesty, sobriety, love of order, human- 
ity, and benevolence are abundantly set forth in the laws 
framed for their government and executed by themselves. 
They were the sons and daughters of the honest yeomanry 
of Connecticut, — not the refuse of towns, — not gold hunters, 
or greedy speculators or reckless adventurers ; but the 
young, the enterprising part of a rural population, whose 
parents were ministers, deacons and members of evangelical 
churches. They came to fell the forest, cultivate the land 
and establish a society on the banks of the Susquehanna. 
where under a more genial sun and on a more fertile soil, 
they might enjoy all the privileges of their ancestors and 
transmit to their posterity a home possessing all the charac- 
teristic excellence of New England. 

"As early as 1772, when as yet few of the pioneers had 
ventured to expose their families to the hardships and dan- 
gers of frontier life, they sought to obtain the settlement 
of Rev. Jacob Johnson as their pastor. On September 11, 
1772, the proprietors of the town meeting voted to give him 
and his heirs forever, in case he settled with them. 'Fifty 
acres of any land now undivided' in this township, wherever 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 65 

he may choose, and subsequently the island below town, 
then of considerable size, and valuable for culture and as 
a fishery, was added. Mr. Anderson Dana and Mr. Asa 
Stevens were appointed to confer with Mr. Johnson and 
with committees of other towns agreeably to vote of the 
Company of Settlers of the five towns." 

According to the Westmoreland Records, August 23, 
1773, after he had preached nearly a year, a formal call to 
Mr. Johnson was made and the salary was fixed at ^60 ster- 
ling, 1. e. $300, with a promise of raising it as they were able, 
to iioo (S333 Connecticut currency). This, with a house 
and land, was a most liberal provision. This, while it ex- 
hibits the solicitude of our ancestors for Gospel privileges, 
also brings to view another trait of character, freedom from 
intolerance. The salary was ordered to be assessed on the 
tax list. This was the invariable practice in Connecticut. 
They knew no other; but when a few who were not Con- 
gregationalists, but Baptists, remonstrated against this 
measure, the Congregationalists at once rescinded their 
resolution and raised the sum promised by voluntary sub- 
scription. This at the time was unprecedented. It was 
greatly in advance of the mother State, in which the stand- 
ing order was continued to a much later period. Having 
the power of law they voluntarily waived their advantage 
and took the additional expense and trouble upon them- 
selves. This was Christian charity. Rev. Jacob Johnson 
was a man of very considerable learning. * * * and 
eminent for sterling piety. 

"At the capitulation of Forty Fort Mr. Johnson was 
one of the commissioners who obtained, upon the whole, 
favorable terms from the victorious foe. He preached the 
Gospel, performed the marriage rite, administered baptism, 
shared the sufferings of the people in their expulsion by 
the Pennamites and the savages, comforted the bereaved 
mourning widow and orphan in their desolation and exile 
and returned with the afflicted remnant to build again the 
walls of Zion. 

♦Marsh and Beckwith, Mr. Johnson's predecessors In the f.eM. were 
sent out by the Susquehanna Company and were paid out of the com- 
pany treasury. Mr. Johnson's support was provided by a!l the citizens 
alike, by means of rates levied at town-meetine:. Marsh and Beck with 
were like chaplains, their ministrations were but temporary, not 
by the inhabitants, but by the parent land company in Cor.necticut. 

In a deed dated 17P5 Mr. Johnson states that he and his son. Je: 
P. Johnson, lived at the foot of Union Street, the father on the lower 
corner and the son on the opposite corner. 



1 66 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

"A house of worship, denominated a house for public 
use, had been commenced and almost completed when the 
desolating fury of the savage swept away habitation and 
men. [See infra, p. 179.] After the return of the inhabi- 
tants, a mere handful of the original number, Mr. Johnson 
renewed his labors as his advanced age and increasing 
infirmities permitted, until in the year 1797 he passed from 
earthly troubles and entered into rest." 

The following extracts are from the early records : 

"At a meeting held at Wyoming, 2nd Oct. 1772, Capt. 
O. Gore, Capt. Z. Butler and Maj. Ez. Pierce were ap- 
pointed a committee to provide a habitation for Rev. Jacob 
Johnson this winter." 

"At a meeting Nov. 18, 1772, voted: 'Mr. Christopher 
Avery is appointed to collect in those species that the pro- 
prietors and settlers have signed for the support of the Rev. 
Jacob Johnson, the year ensuing." 

"The Rev. Jacob Johnson is entitled to a settling right 
in some one of the settling towns." 

The method of calling these meetings is shown by the 
following warning, the original of which is in the possession 
of the Wyoming Historical Society. The fort referred to 
was Fort Wyoming, which stood on the river bank, near 
Northampton street. On the back is a tally list, probably 
the vote for the moderator of the meeting, of which "Capt. 
Butler" received 21 and "Capt. Gore" received 8: 

"These are to Warn all the Propriators Belonging to ye 
Susquehanna Purchase to meet at ye Fort In wiikes-barre 
on Wednesday ye 18th day of this Instant november (l77 2 ) 
at twelve a Clock on sd Day — 

1st. to se what meathod is Best to come into for our 
Guarding & Scouting this winter Season. 

2ly. to se what shall Be Done with those Persons that 
Complaint is made against their not attending their Duty 
when called upon — 

3ly. to appoint a collector to Receive in those Species 
that was signed by the Propriators and Setlers for ye Sup< rt 
of ye Revend Mr. Johnson, ye year Insuing — 

4ly. to notify those Persons that Holds Rights and 
Have ye care of sd Rights to acquaitn ye comtee forthwith 
who manned sd Rights. 



• 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 167 

5ly. to se what this Company will Do further in Cut- 
ting & Clearing a Rode to Delaware River &c : — 

61y. to act upon any other Business that Shall Be 
thought Proper to be Done Ralative to the settlement of scl 
Lands &c: — 

Zebulon Butleb 
Ezekiel Pierce 
Stephen Fuller 

Commttee. 
N. B. as their is Some Business of Importance to 
be acted on at sd meeting it is Hopeful you will Give your 
attendance." 

His labors started out so well that "At a meeting, 
February 16, 1773, voted to continue the Rev. Jacob John- 
son in the work of the gospel ministry among us." 

Mr. Johnson was pastor at first, not only of Wilkes- 
Barre, but of the adjacent towns of Kingston and Plym- 
outh, under engagement from the people in town meeting 
assembled. 

"At a meeting, December 8, 1773, Kingston and 
Plymouth are willing to dismiss the Rev. Jacob Johnson 
from his former agreement in dividing his labor in preach- 
ing the gospel among us." 

"Each town at town meeting shall appoint a committee 
of two men to confer with the Rev. Mr. Jacob Johnson 
concerning his preaching the gospel among us, and how his 
time shall be divided among us." 

In laying out the town two lots, containing about 400 
acres of back lands, had been set ofr for the first settled 
minister and for schools. One of these 400-acre lots and 
50 acres previously mentioned, together with a town lot of 
40 acres, will show the liberal provision made for Gospel 
purposes. (Miner.) 

Rev. Noah Wadhams, who visited Plymouth about that 
time, wrote a letter, in which he sad he found Rev. Mr. 
Johnson in the valley, and he hoped the latter would remain, 
as the people were as sheep without a shepherd. Mr. 
Wadhams subsequently accepted a call to the Plymouth 



1 68 RfiV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

congregation and served until his death in 1806. (Sec 
Harvey's History of Lodge 61.) 

In 1791 Rev. Nathaniel Thayer, M. A. (Harvard 1789) 
was pastor of the Wilkes-Barre church for six months. 

Following are extracts from the History of the Fir>t 
Presbyterian Church of Wilkes-Barre by Sheldon Reynolds, 
pp. 47-48: 

"We find in the ancient records of the town that the 
town meeting", composed in its membership of the proprie- 
tors and settlers of the district, deliberated upon and decided 
all business affecting the welfare of the people, whether of 
secular affairs or that which touched their religious con- 
cerns. The minutes of these meetings often contain the 
action taken to provide for the defense of the settlement 
against the imminent attack of the enemy, and in the next 
paragraph record the amount to be paid the "settled min- 
ister/' and the manner in which his salary is to be raised : 

"Nov. 18, 1772. Voted that those who belong to 
Hanover shall mount guard in ye block-house where Capt. 
Stewart now lives, and those that live in Kingston shall 
come over and do their duty in ye fort at Wilkes-Barre 
until they shall fortify and guard by themselves in Kingston. 
Voted that Mr. Christopher Avery is appointed to collect 
in those species that ye proprietors and settlers have signed 
to ye support of ye Rev. Mr. Jacob Johnson ye year ensuing. 

"May, 1773. Voted that there be a constant guard kept 
at the fort in Wilkes-Barre of 12 men and that they keep 
it day and night, and that they be relieved every 24 hours : 
Voted that the ferryman be obliged to carry the guard 
across on free cost ; and the people across on Sundays to 
meeting on free cost." 

The appended deed is an interesting document, inas- 
much as it is a conveyance made by the people in town 
meeting assembled. It settles definitely the claim that while 
other preachers of the Gospel had come and gone. Rev. 
Jacob Johnson was the first settled pastor of the Town oi 
Wilkes-Barre. The lot conveyed to him was along the 
upper side of North street, and reached from Main street to 
the river. The Memorial Church is on the lot. In the deed 
books it was spoken of for manv years as "the Fifty Acre 
lot." 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 69 

"WHEREAS the Susque- \ Timothy Pickering 
hanna Company among other / John P. Schott & 

regulations for the Settlement ) Zebulon Butler 

of the Town of Wilkes-Barre \ to 

(now in the County of Luzerne) / Jacob Johnson 

and certain other Towns adjacent, resolved that three rights 
or shares in each town should be reserved and appropriated 
for the public use of a Gospel Ministry and Schools in each 
of said towns one of which rights or Shares was Intended 
for the first settled Minister in fee simple. 

"AND WHEREAS the Reverend Jacob Johnson of 
Wilkesbarre aforesaid claimed one right or Share of the 
Tract of Land in Sd Town reserved and appropriated to the 
publick uses aforesaid, by virtue of his Settlement as the 
first Gospel Minister therein, 

"AND WHEREAS the proprietors of said Town of 
Wilkesbarre (originally called the district of Wilkesbarre 
in the Town of Westmoreland) at a meeting regularly 
warned according to the usages of the said Town or district 
and held on th seventeenth day of April A. D. 1788 
appointed a committee, to wit, Timothy Pickering, John 
Paul Schott & Zebulon Butler, to search the records and 
see what Title the reverend Jacob Johnson had to a right 
of Land in Wilkesbarre and also to State the evidence he 
should produce of such right and report the same at a future 
meeting. 

"AND WHEREAS at a meeting of the said proprietors 
regularly warned and held as aforesaid on the eighteenth 
day of April A. D. 1789, two of the said Committee, to wit. 
John Paul Schott and Zebulon Butler (the said Timothy 
Pickering being at that time absent) made report to the 
said proprietors that having made the Examination and 
Stated the evidence of the Reverend Jacob Johnson's Title 
to one of the publick Lots in the said Town, they found he 
had an undoubted right of one of them by virtue of his call 
atid Settlement there, whereupon the said report being ap- 
proved by the Said proprietors at their meeting last men- 
tioned, they passed a vote in these words, viz : That Colo. 
Timothy Pickering, Colo Zebulon Butler & Capt. John Paul 
Schott committee be empowered and Directed to divide the 
public Land in this Town into three Lots and put the rev- 
erend Jacob Johnson in possession of one of them, which is 
his property in fee simple, By virtue of his call and Settle- 



170 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

ment here as the first ordained minister, Now be it Known 
That the said Timothy Pickering, Zebulon Butler & John 
Paul Schott, in pursuance of the said vote have divided the 
Tract of Land in said Wilkesbarre reserved for public uses 
as aforesaid into three Lots by lines running Straight from 
front to rear and equally Dividing the front and Rear Lines 
of the said Tract of Land reserved as aforesaid and assigned 
the Southern Lot of the said three Lots to the reverend 
Jacob Johnson aforenamed, and do hereby put him in pos- 
session of the same, to hold to him and his heirs as an 
Estate in fee Simple. 

"IN WITNESS WHEREOF the Sd Timothy Picker- 
ing, Zebulon Butler & John Paul Schott do hereto set their 
hands and seals the eighteenth day of December in the year 
of our Lord one thousand Seven hundred and Ninety. 
Signed Sealed & delivered in \ Timothy Pickering (Seal) 
presence of us — | John P. Schott (Seal) 

by the Sd Timothy Pickerng J Zebulon Butler (Seal) 

Putnam Catlin ( 

Wra Ross \ 

And by the Sd Zebulon But- / 
ler & John Paul Schott in I 
presence of us — \ 

Rosewell Welles I Luzerne County ss 

Samuel Pease / 

"Two of the Grantors to the foregoing instrument viz. 
John P. Schott & Zebulon Butler come personally before 
me and acknowledged the Same to be their free act and 
Deed Also Putnam Catlin one of the Subscribing Witnesses 
personally appeared and Solemnly Declared and said that 
he saw Timothy Pickering sign Seal and as his free act 
Deliver the foregoing Instrument and the said Putnam 
Catlin also declared that he saw William Ross subscribe the 
Same as Witness 

Given under my hand and Seal this tenth dav of Deer 
A. D. 1793. 

(Seal) Arnold Colt Justice Peace 

Recorded Feby 18, 1797. (Book 4, page 420.) 

It also appears from Mr. Harvey's History, p. 746, that 
when the town voted to Mr. Johnson in 1773 the fifty-acre 
lot it reserved out of the same four acres at the south- 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. IJl 

easterly corner for a public burial ground, and that in lieu 
of this reservation the island known as Wilkes-Barre Island 
was voted to Mr. Johnson. 

"In addition to the "50-acre Lot" and "Wilkes-Barre 
Island" the proprietors of Wilkes-Barre subsequently 
granted to Mr. Johnson "Public Lot No. 1" (mentioned 
on page 656). This lot lay in that part of Wilkes-Barre 
Township which is now Plains Township, immediately 
adjoining the present northeastern boundary of Wilkes- 
Barre Township, and extended from the main, or middle, 
road near Mill Creek to the southeastern boundary of the 
township. It was certified under the Act of April 4, 1799, 
as containing 396 acres. Within eight or ten years after 
settling here Mr. Johnson acquired other real estate in 
Wilkes-Barre to a considerable amount. March 8, 1773, 
the proprietor of Wilkes-Barre bestowed upon him Lot Xo. 
9 in the town-plot. May 12, 1777, Mr. Johnson became the 
owner of Lot No. 10 in the town-plot, and Lot No. 45 (con- 
taining 181 acres) in the 3d Division of Wilkes-Barre. 
July 1, 1777, Mr. Johnson bought of James Stark, for £8, 
Lot No. 12 in the town-plot, and later in the same year, or 
early in 1778, he bought of John Abbott Lot No. 35 in the 
town-plot. 

From the Reynolds History of the First Presbyterian 
Church, pp. 52, 53, the following is quoted : 

"We have no record of the ministry of Mr. Johnson 
during his long and busy pastorate in Wyoming Valley. 
Whatever church records had been kept were doubtless 
destroyed, as were also nearly all other records of the time. 
We know, however, that services were regularly held when 
actual war was not being waged. Upon the return of the 
inhabitants after the flight from the valley they seem to 
have met for worship in the school houses, of which there 
were several, and at the humble homes of the settlers. Col. 
John Franklin, in his journal, says: "Sunday, 28 Feb., 
1789, I attended meeting at Mr. Yarrington's, Mr. Johnson 
preached;" and "Sunday, 2S March, 1789, attended meeting 
at Yarrington's to hear Mr. Johnson." 

"The field of labor to which Mr. Johnson had come was 
extended, as from his letter it seems he regarded all the 



1^2 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

towns of the "East Branch" as within his charge. This 
would include Lackawanna on the northeast and Plymouth 
and Hanover on the south and west. 

"During these years the Church was self-supporting, the 
organization was preserved, and its sustaining influences 
were felt in the community. Much more was probably 
accomplished, but we have now no means of knowing how- 
much, or in what way, or by what methods its activity was 
exerted. " 

After Mr. Johnson had been in Wilkes-Barre a year or 
two a movement was begun on the part of Connecticut to 
negotiate with Pennsylvania for the acquisition of the dis- 
puted territory of Wyoming. The Connecticut Assembly 
appointed commissioners to negotiate with Governor Penn 
a mode of bringing the controversy to an amicable conclu- 
sion. One of these commissioners whom Connecticut sent 
was Dr. William Samuel Johnson, to which distinguished 
statesman Rev. Jacob Johnson had the honor of being a 
kinsman. The commissioners eloquently argued the case, 
but the proposition of Connecticut was rejected, though 
Governor Penn went so far as to consent that the matter 
would be laid before the King for decision. The speedy 
outbreak of hostilities, however, between the colonies and 
the mother country interrupted this project. In the mean- 
time the Wyoming colonists were so encouraged by the fact 
that Connecticut had at last recognized the righteousness 
of their claim, by legalizing what they had done and prom- 
ising protection for the future, that they entered with 
increased enthusiasm upon the work of settlement. 

The Wyoming region was in 1774 erected into a town, 
called Westmoreland, and attached to the nearest Connecti- 
cut county, that of Litchfield, which was not much more 
than 100 miles away. Westmoreland had a population ( I 
about 2,000. The governor of Connecticut issued a procla- 
mation forbidding all settlements in Westmoreland, except 
under the authority of Connecticut, while the governor of 
Pennsylvania warned all intending settlers that the claims 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 73 

of Connecticut were only pretensions and that no authority 
other than that of the Penns must be recognized. The 
Wyoming people, now that Connecticut had assumed juris- 
diction, introduced the laws and usages of the civil govern- 
ment of the mother colony and peace and happiness reigned 
supreme for a time. 

This tranquillity was brought to an end by the outbreak 
of the Revolution. The growing troubles between Great 
Britain and the colonies had themselves served to strengthen 
the settlement at Wyoming, first by preventing any unfavor- 
able decision in the Connecticut claim then under consider- 
ation by the Crown, and second, by so occupying the time 
and thoughts of the Pennsylvania Proprietary government 
as to prevent interference with the Susquehanna settlers. 
Two resolutions of the people in town meeting assembled 
soon after the shock of Lexington and Bunker Hill deserve 
special mention. One was ''to make any accommodation 
with the Pennsylvania party that shall conduce to the best 
good of the whole, and come in common cause of liberty 
in the defense of America," and the other was "to act in 
conjunction with our neighboring towns within this and 
the other colonies, in opposing the late measures to enslave 
America and that we will unanimously join our brethren 
in America in the common cause of defending our liberty."' 

It is not going too far, perhaps, to venture the opinion 
that this resolution was written by Rev. Jacob Johnson, for 
it sounds strangely like the patriotic words which he spoke 
at the Fort Stanwix treaty seven years before. Certain 
it is, that Mr. Johnson's voice rang out everywhere for 
liberty and under his inspiring counsels Wyoming became 
one of the most active patriotic regions in all the colonics. 
So offensive did the young settlement become by reason of 
its aggressive patriotism that three years later (1778) it 
was made the object of an expedition of British, Tories 
and Indians and utterly destroyed. 



174 R EV - JACOB JOHNSON. 

Was Brant at Wyoming? The earlier historians 
thought he was, but we know now that he had left the main 
body of Butler's invading army and gone off with a war 
party to devastate the Cherry Valley region. At Wyoming 
the Indians were led by Old King, a Seneca warrior, whose 
name has caused confusion by being spelled Kayingwaurto, 
Gucingerachton and twenty-five other ways. Some his- 
torians thought that the two names mentioned stood for 
two different Indians, of whom Brant was one. But this 
long disputed point has now been conclusively settled by 
several manuscripts whose existence was not known to the 
early historians. One of these, now in possession of the 
Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, gives the terms 
of capitulation in one of the Wyoming forts, bearing the 
signatures of the British commander, Col. John Butler, and 
the leader of the Indians, Kayingwaurto. The whole matter 
has been covered by Rev. Horace E. Hayden in his pam- 
phlet, "The Massacre of Wyoming," 1895, in which it is 
proven by documentary evidence that Brant was not at 
Wyoming. Harvey's History of Wilkes-Barre, Vol. II, pp. 
968-974, also conclusively proves this fact. Ten years 
before Brant was supposed to be a meek and lowly Chris- 
tian, interpreting Jacob Johnson's preaching to the Indians 
at Canajoharie, and now in 1778 he was on the warpath 
against the "rebel" patriots on the frontiers. 

Steuben Jenkins, in his historical address July 3, 1878, 
estimated the number of slain at 300 and of those who 
perished during the flight across the mountains to Connecti- 
cut at 200. The British commander officially reported 227 
scalps taken at Wyoming and many fugitives were shot in 
the river and their scalps were not obtained. Historians 
dfffer in their estimates of the loss of life. 

After the defeat of July 3, 1778, Mr. Johnson remained 
with such of the settlers as had not fled from the valley, 
and it is said that he drew up the articles of capitulation 
between the contending- forces. Miner states in his "Hazle- 



"*"— 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 75 

ton Travelers" that Judge Scott said he had seen the docu- 
ment and that it was in the handwriting of Mr. Johnson." 
Col. Jenkins's diary records that Col. Denison and Mr. 
Johnson capitulated for the inhabitants. 

This very interesting series of articles by Charles 
Miner, "The Hazleton Travelers," appeared in the Wyo- 
ming Herald of Wilkes-Barre in 1838, and many of them, 
but not all, are attached to Mr. Miner's History of Wyoming 
as an Appendix. As the article devoted to Jacob Johnson 
is one of those omitted, by reason, as the author says, that 
the principal events are interwoven in the history proper, 
it is given in part in this paper (page 191). 

The original document of capitulation is probably not 
now in existence. There is a copy in the British State 
Paper Office in London, but the names were not accurately 
transcribed. Col. Denison's name is given as Denniston 
and Dr. Lemuel Gustin, one of the witnesses, is given as 
Samuel. The table on which the document was written is 
still preserved by Philip H. Myers of Wilkes-Barre. An 
illustration of the table is given in Lossing's Field Book of 
the Revolution. (Vol. I, p. 359.) 

The terms of the capitulation were not respected by 
the Indians and homes and farms were desolated by the 
torch. Not even the village of Wilkes-Barre was spared. 
Historians have stated that among the buildings burned was 
the little log church in which Mr. Johnson had been wont 
to preach the gospel, but Oscar J. Harvey, Esq., of Wilkes- 
Barre has in his possession an original letter written by 
Gen. John Sullivan in 1779, making it evident that the 
church was not entirely destroyed, as Gen. Sullivan directs 
Col. Zebulon Butler to use it for hospital purposes. The 
effect of the battle had been to leave the settlement naked 
to its savage enemies, and in consequence most of the set- 
tlers sought safety for a time in Connecticut. Those who 
had the hardihood to remain were exposed to constant 
<langer from lurking Indian foes. It was only a few months 



I76 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

after the Massacre that little Frances Slocum, whose pathetic 
story has been told in every language, was stolen from her 
home in Wilkes-Barre and forever lost to her agonized 
parents, though found by her brothers after she had become 
an old and wrinkled woman, who knew no other life than 
that of an Indian squaw. 

During the Revolutionary War the Wyoming settlers 
submitted to the Connecticut Assembly, pursuant to resolve, 
a bill of losses sustained by them from July 3, 1778, to 
May, 1780, and Jacob Johnson's share was £459. This 
amount was exceeded only by the loss of Matthias Hollen- 
back, £671; James Stark, £547; Josiah Stansberry, £603; 
Elijah Phelps, £550; John Jenkins, £598. The total of 
these Revolutionary losses was £38,308, and Congress 
never paid them. 

Soon after the battle Mr. Johnson took his family back 
to Connecticut, and it was not until June, 1781, that he felt 
it safe to return with them. 

"Glowing with ardor," says Miner, "for religion, lib- 
erty and the Connecticut claim, the return was welcomed 
by his flock, indeed by the whole settlement, with cordial 
congratulations. He went from place to place, awakening 
sinners to repentance, arousing the people to new efforts 
and sacrifices against the tyranny of England and exhorting 
them to adhere to and support their righteous claims to 
their lands. But the cup of joy, in coming to his devoted 
people, was almost immediately dashed from his lips by the 
death of his daughter Lydia, consort of Col. Zebulon Butler. 

"The year, like the preceding, was extremely sickly, 
typhus fever being added to the remittent and intermittent 
which had previously prevailed." 

The Wallingford, Conn., records show that Jacob 
Johnson made a journey from Wilkes-Barre to Wallingford 
just a few months prior to the massacre of 1778. The pur- 
pose of the journey on horseback across the wilderness was 
to be present at the settlement of the estate of his brother 
Caleb, who had died at Wallingford the year previous. 
The record shows that on March 31, 177S, "Jacob Johnson. 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 77 

clerk [clergyman], of Westmoreland, State of Conn.," made 
deed to Miles Johnson for the former's share in Caleb's 
estate, the consideration being £375, 15s and 7 d. Acknowl- 
edgment was made before another brother, Dan Johnson, 
justice of the peace. 

In Deed Book 23, p. 159, Enos and Sherborne Johnson 
in 1782 convey to Elihu Hall, Jr., land in Wallingford, west 
of river in South field, so called, containing 25J/2 acres, being 
the same and whole that Enos bought of the Rev. Jacob 
Johnson, as by a deed recorded Liber 12, folio 86, 1782. 
The latter reference shows that October 25, 1752, in ye 
county of New London and Colony of Connecticut conveyed 
this land to Enos Johnson for £882. The tract comprised 
2$y 2 acres "in ye great field on ye East and South by Capt. 
Elihu Hall's land on ye West with ye old field fence, on 
ye North by ye highway, being all ye land in great field 
as it anciently lay, belonging to Sergeant Jacob Johnson, 
deceased." 

Jacob Johnson of Groton, March 10, 1752, for £371, 
bills of credit old tenor, had conveyed to Isaac Johnson of 
Wallingford, 8 T 4 acres. This tract and the tract sold to 
Enos probably represented all or nearly all the inheritance 
from his father, Sergeant Jacob. 

By the great kindness of O. J. Harvey, Esq., the fol- 
lowing from pages 746 and 747 of Volume II of his 
exhaustive History of Wilkes-Barre are given here : 

It has already been stated that not until June, 17S1, did 
Jacob Johnson and his family return to Wilkes-Barre. 

"Having no house of their own which they could occupy 
they took up their residence at the corner of River and 
Northampton streets, in a part of the house of Colonel But- 
ler, then occupied by the latter's wife and children — he 
himself being absent on duty with his regiment at Peekskill. 
New York. Within three weeks after the arrival oi the 
Johnsons at Wilkes-Barre Mrs. Lydia (Johnson) Butler 
died. Mr. Johnson soon began the erection of a log house 
on his town-lot No. 9, at the southeast corner of the present 



I78 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

Union and River streets, and upon its completion in the 
spring of 1782 he and his family removed into it from the 
Butler house. (See frontispiece.) In 1791 Jacob Johnson, 
his wife and two of their children were still residing there, 
while Jacob Williamson Johnson (the eldest living child of 
the Rev. Jacob) was living with his newly- wedded wife in 
a small house across the street on town-lot No. 10. May 1, 
1792, the Rev. Jacob Johnson conveyed to his son Jacob 
Williamson, "in consideration of love and good will," Lot 
No. 35 in the town-plot, and other lands. Jacob Williamson 
thereupon removed to the house which stood on "No. 35" — 
a log house, standing at the southeast corner of the present 
Main and Union streets, where, many years later, the three- 
story brick building owned by the late Charles Roth was 
erected. About 183 the Rev. Jacob Johnson erected on Lot 
No. 10 — at the northeast corner of River and Union streets 
— a very substantial frame house, in which he and his wife 
lived until their respective deaths. Then the house was 
occupied by Jehoiada P. Johnson ; then for awhile by 
Charles Miner; next, for a number of years, by Arnold 
Colt, and lastly, for upwards of thirty years (having, in 
the meantime, been renovated and slightly remodeled), by 
Dr. Charles F. Ingham. In the summer of 1887 Dr. Ingham 
demolished the old building, and erected on its site the 
three-story, double building of brick now standing there. 

"In July, 1778, after the battle of Wyoming, when the 
houses of Wilkes-Barre were almost entirely destroyed by 
the savages, Mr. Johnson's house — which stood on Lot No. 
9 — was burned. Other property belonging to Mr. Johnson 
was destroyed at that time, and in the list of losses incurred 
at Wyoming — prepared and presented in October. 17S1. 
to the Connecticut Assembly, by its orders (see Chapter 
XIX) — the losses of Mr. Johnson were reported at £459, 
one of the largest amounts in the list. Mr. Johnson and his 
family fled from Wyoming, in common with the majority 
of the inhabitants of the valley, within a day or two after 
the surrender of Forty Fort, and made their way to Mr 
Johnson's native town of Wallingford, where they took up 
their abode. There, under the date of September 27. 1778, 
Mr. Johnson wrote to his son-in-law, Col. Zebulon Butler, 
addressing his letter in "care of Mrs. Butler, at the Public 
House of Mr. Wadkins, thirteen miles west of the North 
River — New Windsor." Mr. Johnson wrote: "If you 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1/9 

don't think it advisable for me to come on the Susquehanna 
this winter I shall engage in other business. How is it with 
you? Anything saved on the ground, as to the fruits and 
effects there, or what was hidden? Also, how is it with the 
dead bodies, or bones of the dead? * * Mrs. Johnson 
wants to know whether her clothes were found by the enemy 
— if not, that you would take care of them.' , 

''Under the date of November 10, 1778, Mr. Johnson 
wrote from Wallingford to Colonel Butler at Wilkes-Barre 
as follows : "I was in great hopes of seeing Colonel Deni- 
son, to hear more particularly by him, and write and send 
to you, but failed. Tho I went and sent to Hartford I could 
not see him, he being then gone to Windham. * * * 
We have heard since your letter [of September 25th] that 
you were again drove off, destroyed, and many of you killed 
by the enemy, tho this was afterwards contradicted. I have 
been not a little concerned about you and the people there, 
lest the enemy should get some advantage against you, there 
being now, as I am told, about 150 in all — soldiers and 
inhabitants — and in a little picket fort that could make no 
considerable defense against 700 or 800 or 1,000 Tories and 
Indians, and while so many of ye old enemies, the Penna- 
mites, are watching for an opportunity to do you a mischief, 
and would, no doubt, be glad and rejoice at it. Things 
being so with you I should by no means at present think it 
safe to come or send my negro or anything of value there 
where you be. If you had 500 or 700 men with a good 
strong fort, such as that at Fort Stanwix, and well laid in 
with all warlike stores, provisions, &c, I should think quite 
otherwise; and until that be done, as the day now is. it 
seems rather presumptive than prudence, to venture your 
lives and fortunes (the little left) in such a weak and 
defenceless state. * * * Continental Dollars, one thing 
with another, are at a discount of ten and twelve for one, 
and rarely answer to buy anything at all." 

"February 16, 1779, Mr. Johnson wrote from Walling- 
ford to Colonel Butler at Wilkes-Barre as follows : "I am 
not determined as yet whether it will be best for me to come 
or send any part of my family. * * * I have as yet 
school, and occasionally preach here and there as a door 
opens. I think it would be but reasonable you should have 
a Chaplain or minister with you in Continental pay. If I 
could come in that character I don't know but I would come 



l8o KEV. JACOE JOHNSON. 

and bring my negro and one of my boys with me. You and 
the people there may advise upon it and let me knew your 
mind, either by letter or when you come this way. If this 
can't be effected (tho I don't doubt but that it might by 
application to Congress, or even to Connecticut State) — I 
say, if this can't be done, I shall engage in some other way 
and lay by the thoughts of coming to Susquehannah, at 
least at present, tho the state of things here are uncommon. 
* * * I am concerned for my daughter's health — I 
mean Miss Butler [Airs. Zebulon Butler]. If I knew what 
she might want, and it was in my power to send it, I would 
not fail to do it. * * . * Let her not be concerned for us 
or her only son, Zebulon, Jr., for he is as our own." Mrs. 
Butler had, some time before, rejoined her husband at 
Wilkes-Barre, leaving her only child, Zebulon Johnson But- 
ler, then nearly three years old, with his grandparents at 
Wallingford, with whom Colonel Butler's daughter Hannah 
was also then residing. 

"September 30, 1779, Mr. Johnson wrote from Walling- 
ford to Colonel Butler at Wilkes-Barre, in part as follows : 
"Yours by Mr. Sills (18th inst.) I received. * * * As 
to my coming up with my family this Fall: Tho I had (be- 
fore the arrival of Mr. Sills and your letters by him) con- 
cluded otherwise, this notwithstanding I have since deter- 
mined, by the Leave of Heaven, to come, provided it ap- 
pears to be the mind of the People that I should come: 
as also that I come in the character of a Continental chap- 
lain, or be stationed at Wilksbarre or elsewhere in that 
Public Character, and that one of the Continental waggons 
be sent here to remove me with my family and necessary 
effects to Wilksbarre. Otherwise I shall not be inclined to 
come ; altho' for your sake, Miss Butler's sake, and some 
others of my Particular Friends I should be very glad to 
come, and bring your dear son and my grandson equally 
dear to me, to whom your bowells often times yearn to- 
wards, and who is so desirous once again to see his Daddy 
and mammy, and almost overjoy 'd to hear there was a pros- 
pect of going. * * * I have in this Letter said I would 
come to Wilksbarre provided it apears to be the mind oi 
the People I should come, for I would come by their desire 
and good will, & I know not I have any reason to distrust 
their Good will. I say further I will come provided I come 
in the Publick office & character of a Continental chaplain. 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. l8l 



For / mean to spend the Remainder of my Days in Preach- 
ing the Glorious Gospel of the great saviour of the world, 
and so many Doors stand open this way that I should not 
choose to come to Susquehannah except a Door opens there 
for Public usefulness." 

" About the same time that the Rev. Jacob Johnson wrote 
the foregoing letter his wife, Mrs. Mary Johnson, wrote to 
her daughter, Mrs. Zebulon Butler, as follows : "We had 
concluded to come to Wilksbarre when your father saw 
Captain Colt and Mr. Goold at Lyme. They told him they 
had heard eighteen men were a mowing of the Flats ; the 
Indians rose upon them and killed seventeen of them. 
* * ■*' That put a stop to our thoughts of coming till 
we heard further. I hope in six or seven weeks to be with 
you. *. * * Zebulon [Johnson Butler] is often talking 
about his daddy and mammy. You can't think what a man 
he is. He goes of arrants, cuts wood, husks corn, feeds 
hogs — does a great deal of work, he says. He is a charm- 
ing child. I could not have been contented had he not been 
with me. * * * I hope Colonel will send for us as soon 
as we have wrote, for it would be beyond account to get 
horses here for such a journey. * * * Your father 
went to town for Calico. Could get none. He sent to 
Hartford and got a patron [pattern] one. If you like it, he 
can get more. It was 25 Dollars a yard. It was the cheap- 
est I have seen." 



The Land Contest. 

The close of the war, following the surrender of Corn- 
wallis at Yorktown in 1781, brought peace with England, 
but it brought what was no less serious than the Revolu- 
tionary War, a renewal of the strife between Connecticut 
and Pennsylvania for the possession of Wyoming. How- 
ever, neither side was desirous of renewing the contest and 
both joined in an agreement to abide by the decision of a 
commission to be appointed by Congress. The court, known 
as the Council of Trenton, was duly appointed and on 
December 30, 1781, after a sitting of 41 days at Trenton, 
New Jersey, decided in favor of Pennsylvania. 



1 82 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

Though the Decree of Trenton terminated the jurisdic- 
tion of Connecticut it did not bring peace, and on the 
contrary there was to be a re-opening of the civil strife, or 
the "Pennamite and Yankee War," which the Revolutionary 
conflict had suspended. The proprietary landholders 
resorted to various measure to oppress and expel the Con- 
necticut claimants, who while declaring their loyalty to the 
sovereignty of Pennsylvania, yet maintained the private 
ownership of their lands. The landholders offered to give 
the Connecticut claimants temporary use of the lands, but 
at the expiration of the term they must vacate and disclaim 
all claims to title under Connecticut. The Connecticut 
settlers might remain on one-half of their lands, giving up 
immediate possession of the other half ; the widows of those 
who had fallen by the savages were to be indulged in half 
their possessions a year longer and Rev. Jacob Johnson was 
to be shown the special clemency of occupying his lands 
two years longer. 

As an evidence of the feeling of utter helplessness of 
the people of Wyoming at the time of the transfer of our 
Valley from the jurisdiction of Connecticut to that of Penn- 
sylvania, it will be of interest to give the following im- 
pressive letter from Rev. Jacob Johnson, who was acting 
in behalf of the settlers, to a committee of Pennsylvania 
landholders who claimed title to the Wyoming land under 
Pennsylvania patents. The letter is published in the Penn- 
sylvania Archives. It breathes forth the spirit of Christian 
forbearance and resignation in a manner creditable to the 
head and heart of that good old man, who had fought the 
Christian's fight amid hardships and suffering incident to 
the pioneer's life, and had received as an evidence of the 
appreciation in which he was held by his friends and neigh- 
bors some wild land, then of little value, but it was all that 
he possessed to stand between him and utter destitution. 
as the shadows of night and his failing energies admonished 
him that his time of labor was past. What a truly eloquent 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 83 

appeal was this in behalf of the widows of those hardy pio- 
neers, his neighbors, bereaved by the merciless savages in 
defending the little homes which they suffering and blood 
had won in this far-off wilderness !* 

"To the Committee of the Pennsylvania Land owners, &c: 
"Gentlemen : 

"I thank you for your distinguished Favor shewed to 
me the widows, &c, in a proposal of Indulgence, Permitting 
us to reside in our present Possessions and Improvements 
for the present & succeeding Year. I cannot Consistently 
accept the offer, having Chosen a Committee for that pur- 
pose, who are not disposed to accept of or Comply with 
your proposals. However, I will for myself (as an Indi- 
vidual) make you a proposal agreeable to that Royal Presi- 
dent, 2d Samuel, 9th, 16th & 19th Chapters; if that don't 
suit you and no Compromise can be made, or Tryal be had, 
according to the law of the States, I will say as Mephe- 
boseth, Jonathan's son (who was lame on both his feet) 
said to King David, yea let him take all. So I say to you 
Gentlemen if there be no resource, either by our Petition 
to the Assembly of the State of Pennsylvania or otherwise, 
Let the Landholders take all. I have only this to add for 
my Consolation and you Gentlemen's serious Consideration, 
Viz. : that however the Cause may be determined for or 
against me (in this present uncertain State of things,) there 
is an Inheritance in the Heavens, sure & Certain, that fadeth 
not away, reserved for me, and all that love the Saviour 
Jesus Christ's appearing. 

"I am Gentlemen, with all due Respect, & Good Will 
"your Most Obt Humble Servt, 

"Jacob Johnson. 

"Wioming, Apl 24th, 1783." 

"N. B. it is my Serious Opinon if we proceed to a 
Compromise, according to the Will of heaven that the lands 
(as to the Right of soil) should be equally divided between 
the two Parties Claiming, and I am fully Satisfied this 
Opinion of mine may be proved even to a demonstration 
out of the Sacred Oracles. I wish you Gentlemen would 
turn your thoughts and enquiries to those 3 Chapters above 
referred to and see if my Opinion is not well Grounded & 

•The introduction to this letter is from the pen of Wesley Johnson. 



184 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

if so, I donbt not but we Can Corr. F iumise in love and 
Peace — and save the Cost and Trouble of a Tryal at Law." 

Nearly four years later, there having been no abatemcnl 
of the controversy between the Connecticut and the Penn- 
sylvania people, Mr. Johnson addressed the following letter 
to Timothy Pickering, Esq. The original is among the 
Pickering Manuscripts in the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. It was discovered there by O. J. Harvey, Esq., and 
will be printed in full in the third volume of his History of 
Wilkes-Barre. It is through his generous kindness that it 
is permitted to appear first in these pages. 

"Sir: 

"I am fully persuaded the Lands in controversy apper- 
tain both in Law Equity and Justice to the State of Con- 
necticut and Proprietors who hold under that State. Never- 
theless for the sake of ending the unhappy controversy in 
Peace and Love I am rather inclined to come to a Division 
of the Lands agreable to the Precedent or Example set us by 
King David very similar to the present case. The King 
gave all the Lands appertaining to the House of Saul to 
Mephebosheth — Afterwards the King gave away The same 
Lands and even the whole to Ziba, upon which a controversy 
arose betwixt Mephibosheth and Ziba who was heir in Law 
to the aforsaid Lands being a grant was equallv made to 
both. The King ends the controversy by ordering a Division 
to each one as fellow commoners in Law to said Lands. 

"This medium of ending the Controversy I have pro- 
posed some time ago agreeable to the Divideing Lines 
drawn by Congress betwixt the East and west branches of 
Susquehanna Setting off the East branch to Connecticut 
Proprietors and the west to Pensylvania. 

"Tliis medium of compromisement I would still propose 
and urge agreeable not only to the Royal Example above 
But also a late settlement of Massachusetts and New York. 

"If it should be objected that the Decree at T:\ 
was Definitive and gave the Right of Jurisdiction and pre- 
emption to the State of Pensylvania consequently the Pro- 
prietors of the State of Connecticut have no right to a 
Division 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 185 

"Answr that Decree at Trenton was either Inclusive of 
the Right of Connecticut in common with that of Pensyl- 
vania or Exclusive. 

"If inclus'Ve then we have a Right of Division even 
by that Decree — or if supposed by the objector to be exclu- 
sive — we nevertheless have a Right in Law to plead the 
most favorable construction wherfore turn the Tables 
which way Soever the Object or pleases we have still a 
Right in Law to an equitable Division — And on this Basis 
we Rest the whole matter. 

"Do therefore Petition and plead only for Law Equity 
and Justice to be done us. If it should be farther objected 
that to make a Division of so considerable a tract of Country 
to so few and inconsiderable company of Proprietors would 
be too much. 

"Is it too much to pay for the Price of so much blood 
spilt and Treasure lost on this hostile and unhapp> ground 
Who — where — is the man in all Pensylvania would give 
such a price. I am sure If it was to do again I would not 
purchase it at so dear a Rate — 

"But what a great thing is it ! Seperate the Lands of 
worth from those of wast and worthless what have the Pro- 
prietors now on the ground but a moderate farm to be sure 
if we take in their Posterity with them. 

"If it be objected that the State of Pensylvania can't 
give away Lands that are the Property of Governor Pen or 
the Land holder under Him. Answr we want no such Gift 
But only what we have a Right to in Law equity and Justic. 
We don't come to the Assembly to begg a Gift but to protect 
and defend us in the enjoyment of our own. 

"Should it be said we are now a County &c Have or 
may have benefit of Common Law — what need we more — 
Be it so — As the present state of things are — this will not 
prevent Hostilities vexatious Law suits Tumults & Confu- 
sions among us — But I submit the Cause to the Supreme 
Arbiter of the universe and wisdom of the Assembly oi the 
State of Pensylvania — You will please Sir to enforce the 
Reason Law and equity of dividing these controverted 
Lands as above proposed. And you will in so doing be an 
Advocate in the suffering Cause of Right and oblige. &c., 

"Jacob Johnson." 

"Feb. 7, 1/87." 



1 86 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

It is needless to say that neither this letter nor any 
other of the appeals of the Connecticut claimants elicited 
any pity from the landholders claiming under Pennsylvania. 
Instead of pity, the oppression became more and more 
severe and the settlers at Wyoming seriously contemplated 
an exodus to the northward, with the hope of finding a 
retreat in the more hospitable government of New York. 
Indeed a petition was sent by the Wyoming settlers asking 
the Assembly of New York to grant them a tract of land 
on which settlement might be made. A copy of this peti- 
tion, which has never been published, is in the possession 
of the writer of this paper, and among the signatures is 
the name of Rev. Jacob Johnson. The petition was con- 
veyed to Albany by Obadiah Gore and a tract of land was 
granted at a merely nominal sum. In the meantime surveys 
and explorations had been made by Franklin, Jenkins and 
others, in the domain of New York. For some unexplained 
reason, probably because the Wyoming people were becom- 
ing more and more accustomed to the new regime, the 
exodus as a whole was never carried out, though the Gores, 
Spaldings and others left Wyoming Valley and settled some 
70 miles further up the river. 

The half dozen years following the Decree of Trenton 
were marked by a condition of civil war in Wyoming, lives 
being lost on both sides. Frequent arrests of Connecticut 
settlers were made and they were incontinently hurried off 
to the Northampton County jail at Easton, under guard 
and in irons, or their hands tied behind them. One oi the 
Connecticut men who thus suffered indignities at the hands 
of the Pennamites and was arrested on a charge of treason 
was Jehoiada Pitt Johnson, son of Rev. Jacob Johnson. As 
Miner says : 

"The conquest seemed complete, the pacification of the 
valley accomplished and tenants of the Pennsylvania claim- 
ants took possession of the empty dwellings. The only 
difficulty that remained was how to get rid of the wives and 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 87 

children of those in jail and of the widows and orphans 
whose husbands and fathers slept beneath the sod. Two 
years had elapsed since the transfer of jurisdiction by the 
Trenton Decree. Peace, which waved its cheering olive 
over every other part part of the Union, came not to the 
broken-hearted people of Wyoming. The veteran soldier 
returned, but found no resting place. Instead of a joyous 
welcome to his hearth and home, he found his cottage in 
ruins or in possession of a stranger and his wife and little 
ones shelterless in the open fields or in the caves of the 
mountains. " 

Discouraged at the hopeless efforts to secure justice, 
the Connecticut settlers sought to found a new State, and 
in this they were aided by Ethan Allen of Vermont. Stew- 
art Pearce says : 

"The attempt to establish a new State out of northern 
Pennsylvania, if not nipped in the bud, would have led to 
deplorable consequenies. All the wild spirits of New Eng- 
land would have flocked to Allen's standard and the people 
of Pennsylvania would have put forth all the energies of 
the Commonwealth to crush the efforts to dismember the 
territory. A violent and bloody civil war would have 
followed and would possibly have involved the Union in 
its conflagration." 

One of the incidents of this controversy was the ab- 
ducting of Timothy Pickering by the Yankees at YYilkes- 
Barre and holding him a prisoner 20 days in the northern 
wilderness. The participants were arrested, tried and con- 
victed of riot. 

"The trials being closed and sentence having been 
pronounced, the action of the court was denounced by the 
great body of the population. In particular Rev. Mr. John- 
son took occasion to condemn the whole proceedings from 
the pulpit. By order of Judge McKean he was brought 
before the court and required to give bonds for his good 
behavior." (Pearce's Annals, p. 280.) 

Miner says: "It is worthy of note that Rev. Jacob 
Johnson could not or would not suppress the ebullition of 
his Yankee and patriotic ire at the course of proceedings. 
He made the pulpit echo with his soul-stirring appeals. So 



1 88 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

open were the denunciations of the pious old man that he 
was arrested, called before Judge McKean and obligee' to 
find security for his peaceable behavior." 

Pearce describes Jacob Johnson in the words of 
Hudibras, 

"He was of that stubborn crew, 

Presbyterian true blue, 

Who prove their doctrine orthodox 

By apostolic blows and knocks." 

"As the feebleness of advancing years crept over the 
frame of their beloved pastor, other ministers occasionally 
came to visit and assist him in his work. Some were Con- 
gregationalists from Connecticut, and some Presbyterians 
from the lower Susquehanna. Rev. Elkanah Holmes, 
Rev. Noah Wadhams and Deacon John Hurlbut were 
among those who thus assisted." 

"The most important spiritual assistance, however, was 
by Rev. Elias Von Bunschoten, of the Presbyterian Church 
at Minisink, who came here about 1790, and in July, 1791, 
organized a church in Hanover. 

He was followed by Rev. Mr. Andrew Gray of Ireland, 
from Poughkeepsie, who was settled in 1792, a preacher of 
uncommon eloquence. He married Miss Polly, daughter of 
Capt. Lazarus Stewart." 

During Mr. Johnson's closing years a movement was 
set on foot through his exertions to build a church to take 
the place of the old log court house in which services were 
held, but he did not live to see it completed. So difficult 
was it to raise funds that in common with the custom of 
that day it was deemed necessary to resort to the instru- 
mentality of a lottery. But Jacob Johnson had been in his 
grave 15 years when the new edifice — the Old Ship Zion — 
after many delays, and after having been struck by light- 
ning three times, was ready for occupancy, in 1S12. 

In an autobiographic and unpublished diary of Colonel 
Timothy Pickering, covering about one month in the early 
part of 1787 and lately discovered by O. J. Harvey. Esq.. 
and to be printed in the third volume of his History ol 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 89 

Wilkes-Barre appears the following account of Jacob John- 
son, which Mr. Harvey with his wonted courtesy has per- 
mitted to be printed first in these pages : 

"Sunday, Jan. 14, 1787. There lives at Wilksborotigh 
[Wilkes-Barre] an old gentleman named Johnson, who was 
formerly a minister to the people here, who at this place had 
erected a church, which was burnt by Butler and his Indians 
in 1778. Mr. Johnson still preaches to the people in private 
houses here, and in all the neighboring settlements on both 
sides of the river. This day he preaches at Shawanee. He 
is said to be very constant in performing divine service on 
Sundays, but receives nothing for it from the people, except 
now and then a trifling present of a few bushels of grain. 
Neither are there any school-houses, tho here and there the 
people have employed a temporary school-master. * * 

"Jan. 25. * * * Parson Johnson was at the meet- 
ing [of inhabitants] to-day. He told Col. Butler that he 
could answer all my questions, &c. I proposed to the Col. 
to go and see him this evening. We did so. He imme- 
diately began on the subject. 

"I found him possessed of all the prejudices of the 
warm abettors of the Susquehanna Company's claim, and in 
full belief of all the falsehoods and misrepresentations which 
have been industriously raised and propagated to support 
it, and of some absurdities peculiar to himself. He be- 
lieved the Charter of Conn, was better than that of Penna. ; 
that the Indian deed was a good one ; that the original 
produced at Trenton was not the fair one, and was only 
kept by the Company but not intended to be used. That 
after receiving that of the Indians the Company got another, 
in a fuller assembly of Indians, and this was perfectly fair. 
That this had been sent to England. That it had been 
returned, and fell into the hands of the Pennsylvanians, who 
kept it and would not produce it at the Federal Court [at 
Trenton], and that they still had it. * * * I answered 
all these objections, but the old gentleman would believe 
no fact however plain or probable, if it contradicted his 
former belief. He crowned all with this remarkable declara- 
tion: 'You are of one opinion and I am of another. I am 
fixed, and shall never change, till the day that Christ comes 
to judgment !' " 



I90 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

"Sunday, Jan. 28. This morning Mr. Bailey informs 
me that Parson Johnson has changed his mind, and thinks it 
will be best to hold the election ! ! I" 

How did the civil strife end ? The Legislature of 
Pennsylvania finally, between the years of 1788 and 1800, 
enacted laws calculated to settle all diffrences fairly and 
justly, but the most important was the Compromising Law 
of 1799. By its provision all Connecticut claimants who 
were actual settlers on the land prior to the Decree of Tren- 
ton, were given title from Pennsylvania, on the payment 
of nominal sums, ranging from $2.00 per acre for the best 
land to 8 and 1-3 cents per acre for the least valuable land. 
Thus after 30 years of strife there was peace in Wyoming. 

In Charles Miner's sketch of Rev. Jacob Johnson in 
"Hazleton Travelers" he says: An interesting lady, far 
advanced in years, who was here when the call was given, 
and knew him well, still speaks with enthusiasm of their 
old Pastor. "If there ever was a Gospel minister on earth, 
I do believe Priest Johnson was one. He was so earnest — 
so sincere ; and a very learned man too. The Indians at 
that early day used to gather round to hear him." 

"Was he eloquent as a preacher?" 

"The habits of the clergy at that time were, in the 
pulpit and out of the pulpit, very staid, their style severe, 
their manners grave and demure. Like the old Puritans, 
they deemed it wrong to indulge in passionate declamation. 
or to study the graces of oratory. Argumentative, solemn 
and impressive, he was, generally, rather than eloquent ; 
that is in his regular discourses ; but in prayer his spirit, 
at times, would seem to break away from earth, warming 
and glowing with holy zeal, his wrapt spirit would ascend 
on the wings of hope and faith and carry you with him, as 
it were, to the very portals of Heaven. He was tall, slender, 
a little bent forward — very considerate in conversation — 
mild and sweet tempered. I was at the first wedding ever 
celebrated at Wilkes-Barre. It was that of Col. Denison. 
The bride was Miss Betsy Sill" 

"So you had a very sober time of it?" 

"Not so very sober either. They tempered a staid 
general conduct by occasional relaxation. We had a right 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. igi 

merry wedding. Mr. Johnson smiled with the rest, though 
the fashion of the times hardly allowed a minister to smille, 
much more, to laugh. But when the young folks began to 
be noisy, he took his hat and said he 'believed it was time 
for him to be at home.' " 

Mr. Johnson, though he lived long a bachelor, had 
married before he left Connecticut, a lady of much per- 
sonal beauty and highly accomplished, Miss Mary Giddings 
of Preston, Connecticut. She was of one of the old aris- 
tocratic families of that State. I have heard the elder 1 y 
ladies speak of her intelligence, her grace of manner, and 
with some slight envy of the beautiful gold locket which she 
displayed pendant to the chain of gold beads which she 
wore round her neck; and also of the more than common 
richly suit of curtains, gaily flowered by the needle on fine 
cambric, which decorated her bed. Their eldest daughter, 
Lydia, was married, soon after the commencement of the 
war, to Col. Zebulon Butler, who commanded the American 
forces in the Wyoming battle. As it was distinctly avowed 
by the enemy that they would make no terms with any 
Contitnental troops, Col. Butler with the 15 soldiers, the 
whole of that description left and retired through the wil- 
derness to Connecticut. He threw a bed on his horse instead 
of a saddle, and took Mrs. Butler behind him. It was all 
they saved 

The Iroquois Language. 

While in the Indian country Mr. Johnson made a study 
of their language and he had no doubt that with three 
months' more study he could speak the Oneida language 
complete, and that with six months' more practice he could 
speak all the languages of the Six Nations, as they were so 
similar. Their similarity is referred to by Sir William 
Johnson (Documentary History of New York, iv, 2~2), 
who says: "The difference of dialect among the Five Na- 
tions is little more than may be found in the provinces of 



I92 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

the large States of Europe." In a letter to Wheelock Mr. 
Johnson recommended that he get a teacher of the Indian 
language in his school, as he considered it more important 
than Latin for the equipment of a missionary. "These lan- 
guages, " he says, "may be reduced to the rules of grammar 
and be learned as soon as any other, especially by those who 
have any taste for the oriental languages. Was it the will of 
God that I should spend another half year with them I think 
I would be master of the language." Lossing states (Field 
Book i, 349) that at an Indian conference at Wyoming in 
1775, Rev. Jacob Johnson acted as interpreter. (Miner 183.) 

In 1776, when war rumors were afloat and both Ameri- 
cans and British were bidding for the support of the In- 
dians, several chiefs visited Wyoming, ostensibly for con- 
ference and presents, but as Miner thinks, to treacherously 
introduce the savages into the settlement without creating 
alarm, and then treacherously to destroy the whole. Such 
a visit was made by a Six Nation chief, whose speech was 
interpreted by Jacob Johnson. It professed to be friendly 
to the settlers, but carried suspicion on its face. 

Latin he wrote with correctness and ease. I have seen 
a petition to Congress drawn by him, the original draft of 
which is partly in Latin — a pardonable vanity in a scholar 
living so secluded. 

In quite advanced life he displayed what to the world 
might seem some of the eccentricities of genius, yet entirely 
consistent with the Christian character. For instance, he 
wore a girdle in imitation of camel hair, like John the Bap- 
tist : and his notions in respect to the second coming of our 
Saviour, to reign a thousand years, were somewhat peculiar. 
His faith was pure and lively, and he looked to that second 
advent as a scene the most glorious that imagination could 
conceive. Instead of regarding death with terror, such was 
the triumph of his faith, that he spoke of it as a desirable 
event — selected the spot for his grave ; and there he would 






REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 1 93 

sometimes be seen sitting at his devotions with his beloved 
Bible on his knee. Here the venerable patriarch chose his 
final resting place till the glad call of his Saviour's coming 
should arouse him to glory. 



Jacob Johnson as a Seer. 

It was not unusual at the time in which Jacob Johnson 
lived to attribute to preachers of the Gospel certain pro- 
phetic powers befitting their holy calling. The following 
words descriptive of William Augustus Muhlenberg (Rev. 
William G. Andrews in "Standard of the Cross,'' February 
22, 1882) would apply with equal force to Rev. Jacob John- 
son, who was wont to speak of himself as a "seer:" 

"If he was a saint he was also a seer. More than one 
of his friends ascribed to him a kind of prophetic gift, with- 
out thereby claiming for him supernatural knowledge about 
things future or hidden. But he undoubtedly possessed a 
spiritual insight, one fruit of his holiness, and a poetic tem- 
perament and activity of imagination, which together 
enabled him to see and to show with rare vividness, the 
things which ought to be and might be." 

"From early life Mr. Johnson 'claimed to possess the 
gift of prophecy. He became somewhat visionary, and ec- 
centric in his habits, in the latter years of his life;' he made 
himself a girdle of hair, which he wore, like John the Bap- 
tist,around his loins; he was a devout Second Adventist, 
and also believed himself to be endowed with a preter- 
natural knowledge of coming events. At length, in the 
eighty-fourth year of his life, the infirmities of age began 
to creep upon him and there came to him one night, in a 
'vision,' a mysterious forewarning of his death. This was 
so real and impressive that Mr. Johnson "not only made 
the usual preparations for dissolution,' but set about digging 
his own grave." 



194 rev. jacob johnson. 

Of His Death. 

Wesley Johnson, Esq., a grandson of Mr. Johnson, thus 
describes his declining days : 

"In extemporaneous pulpit oratory he did not excel, 
but in prayer, he seemed to throw his whole soul into the 
effort, forgetting surrounding objects; he was then truly 
eloquent. Many of his sermons were poetic effusions of 
no small literary merit, some of which, written in exceed- 
ingly neat and accurate chirography, the writer hereof has 
perused with much pleasure. The people called him Priest, 
a title they did not accord to the inferior clergy. * * * 

"In the fulness of time the infirmities of age creep 
on ; his stooping form and failing strength admonish him 
of the end of his earthly pilgrimage ; and now, a vision 
came upon him in the night time, informing him that he 
was about to die, and so certain was he of the truthfulness 
of the heavenly messenger that he informed his family 
next morning of the approaching change, with as much 
calmness and deliberation as though he was only to make 
preparation for a short journey, and as an earnest of his 
belief in the certainty of the event, having procured a 
mattock and spade, with heavy steps he climbed the steep 
ascent of the 'Redoubt' and passed up the ridge. It was 
in the early spring of 1797; snow lay in spots along the 
northern exposure, to the south the warm sunshine had 
quickened the early flowers, and the plants began to put 
forth tiny shoots of green ; the scattered leaves lay dead in 
the little hollows, or stranded in hazle thickets they rustled 
to the tread of the timid rabbit in its flight ; the bluebird 
was flitting here and there, and the robin was making a 
frugal meal from the scarlet cones of the sumac on the 
declivity ; a little glade or platform on the ridge is reached : 
it is a beautiful spot, just over his family burying place; 
the old man stopped to admire, as he had never done before. 



REV. JACOB JOHNSON. I95 

Looking to the east, he said, 'Here will the earliest beams 
of the morning as they slant down into the valley carress 
these slopes,' and raising his hands in rapt admiration of 
the western prospect, 'Here will departing day linger on 
this spot, while dark shadows fall across the intervale 
beyond, and here will I be buried.' His feeble health would 
not permit of protracted labor, and it required some days 
to complete the task. At length he had shaped the narrow 
home appointed for all the living, on the day preceding the 
one on which he had foretold his end. He informed his 
son Jehoiada of what he had done, gave some directions for 
the funeral in a cheerful and unconcerned manner, and 
retired to rest ; but ere the morning sun shone into his 
window the Angel of Death had passed by that peaceful 
cottage and breathed in the face of the good old man as he 
slept, and there was mourning in the little hamlet." 

Rev. Jacob Johnson died March 18, 1797. His wife, 
who was Miss Mary Giddings of Preston, Conn., and whom 
he married late in life, died January 18, 1805. 

Upon the death of Mrs. Johnson nearly eight years 
later her remains were interred by the side of those of her 
husband. As years passed these secluded and solitary 
graves were neglected, yet were not entirely forgotten. The 
spot was well known, although not marked by any monu- 
ment or the presence of other graves. Col. W. L. Stone, 
writing in 1839 of the eminence upon which these graves 
were situated, said (see "History of Wyoming," page 327) : 
"From its crest the landscape is as beautiful as fancy can 
paint. Upon the summit of this hill sleep the remains of 
the Rev. Mr. Johnson, the first clergyman of Wyoming. He 
was a good scholar and a man of talents — greatly beloved 
by the flock over which he watched for many years. He 
was, however, an eccentric man, entertaining some peculiar 
views in theology. He believed in the second coming and 



I96 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

personal reign of Christ upon earth, and insisted upon being 
buried here, facing the east, so that he could see the glori- 
ous pageant of the Messiah in His second descent.'' Some 
thirty-five years ago the remains of Jacob Johnson and his 
wife were removed from "Westfield's Hill," and now rest 
in Hollenback Cemetery underneath a substantial and 
attractive monument. 

Rev. Jacob and Mary (Giddings) Johnson had nine 
children, four of whom grew to maturity, viz.: (i) Lydia, 
born in 1756; became the wife of Colonel Zebulon Butler; 
died June 26, 1781. (ii) Jacob Williamson, (iii) Jehoiada 
Pitt. - (iv) Christiana Olive. The last named was born in 
1769 at Groton, Connecticut. She was married at Wilkes- 
Barre, March 25, 1801, by Dr. Matthew Covell, a justice 
of the peace, to William Russell, Jr. (born February 15. 
1774), son of William and Mehettabel (Cowen) Russell. 
For a number of years William Russell, Jr., owned and car- 
ried on a pottery on River street below Union, on a part of 
Lot No. 9, previously mentioned. He died in Wilkes-Barre 
June 2j, 1830, and his wife died here January 15, 183 1, 
aged 62 years. They had no children. 

"(ii) Jacob Williamson Johnson was born at Groton 
about 1765. Rev. Jacob Johnson sometimes, about the year 
1768, signed his name "Jacob Ws. Johnson." It is quite 
probable that his full name was Jacob Williamson Johnson, 
and that within a few years after naming his son Jacob 
Williamson he discarded the "Williamson" from his own 
name. Jacob Williamson Johnson, Jr., was married, pre- 
sumably at Wilkes-Barre, about 1790 or '91, to — 

Bailey. He died at his home, corner of Union and Main 
streets, May 22, 1807, and his wife died there September 2, 
1807. They were survived by two daughters: (i) Mary 
Bailey, who became the wife (ist) of Albon Bui ford, and 
(2d) of Phineas Nash Foster (born at Montpelier, Vermont 






REV. JACOB JOHNSON. IO7 

(in 1796). (2) Lydia, who in 1822 was married at Groton, 
Connecticut, to A. Smith of Aurelius, New York. 

"(iii) Jehoiada Pitt Johnson was born at Groton in 1767, 
and was about 6 years old when he came to Wilkes- Barre 
with the other members of his father's family. In 1789, at 
the age of 22 years, he was "Collector of Rates" for the 
district of Wilkes-Barre. In 1799 he was one of the poor- 
masters of the town, and prior to 1801 he held the office of 
Town Clerk of Wilkes-Barre for a year or more. In 1802, 
'03, and '04, and probably in other years about that period, 
he was Collector of State and County Taxes in the district 
of Wilkes-Barre. In 1802, and perhaps later, he was en- 
gaged in a small way in general mercantile business in 
Wilkes-Barre. In June of the year mentioned he advertised 
for sale an "assortment of crockery-ware" — perhaps the 
output of his brother-in-law's pottery. About 1810 or '11 
Jehoiada P. Johnson removed from his house at the north- 
east corner of Union and River streets (which had been 
conveyed to him by his father, and where he had continued 
to live after the latter's death) to Public Lot Xo. 1, which, 
also, had been conveyed to him by his father, in April, 1769. 
Upon that lot, by the side of Laurel Run, within the present 
bounds of the borough of Parsons, he built in 18 17 a small 
grist-mill, which he operated until 1825 — one Holgate being 
the miller. Later it was leased to and operated by other 
persons, as explained in a subsequent chapter. 

"Jehoiada P. Johnson was married January 19, 1840, by 
Lawrence Myers, Esq., a justice of the peace, to Hannah 
(born 1782), daughter of Robert and Sarah Frazer. 

Writings of Rev. Jacob Johnson. 

Although Mr. Johnson was one of the theological pam- 
phleteers of his time only a few of his writings remain. 



I98 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 



1754 



The Voice of God from the Dead to the Living. Being 
a Brief Account Of a Religious Life, Comfortable Death 
and last Words of Mrs. Sarah Williams, Who Departed 
this Life April 10, A. Dom. 1754 in the Eighty Eeighth 
Year of her Age. And in the evening of our Anniver- 
sary First Made Public as a Friendly Monitor to Saints ; 
And a Faithful Warning to Sinners. By Jacob Johnson 
A B Minister of the Gospel at Grafton in Connecticut in 
N England in America. Live Well ; and thou shalt Dye 
Well : And Live when thou art Dead. Bible Religion 
New London. Printed and sold by T. Green 1754 
12. mo. pp 2+26+2. 



1756 

Animadvisions, with some brief Remarks by way of 
Answer to John Bolles of New London &c by Jacob 
Johnson Pastor of a church at Groton Connecticut. 
Printed 1756 16 pp 30. 

This was a reply to a pamphlet entitled 
"To Worship God in Spirit & in Truth Is To Worship 
Him in the True Liberty of Conscience ; That is in 
Bondage to No Flesh And in this Spirit of Liberty I 
have composed the following Treatise And Recommend 
it to the Reader. John Bolles, a servant of Jesus Christ. 



1765 

3. Zion's Memorial of The present Work of God. The 
Two Witnesses. A Vission of Christ. An Essay on 
Vissions. Three Rules to Know a Work. The present a 
W r ork of Grace. An Address to All. By Jacob Johnson 
A M Minister of Christ at Groton, Connecticut, In New 






REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 199 

England This Day shall be for a Memorial, Moses on 
the Passions. This is the Work of God. Christ on the 
Gospel. Printed in the Year 1765. 4 to pp 67. 



1768 

Honours due to the Memory and Remains of pious and 
good Men at Death. Shewed and Applied In a Sermon, 
Preached at The Funeral of Col. Christopher Avery 
Esq: Late of Groton, (in the Colony of Connecticut) de- 
ceased. By Jacob Johnson A. M. Preacher of the Gospel 
at Said Groton. "All Judah and Jerusalem did Him 
honour at his Death." II. Chron 32. New London. 
Printed by Timothy Green, 1768 8° pp 30. 



No. 1 and 2 are in Princeton University Library, and 
Yale University Library. No. 3 is in the Libraries of Union 
Theological Seminary, New York, and the Connecticut 
Historical Society. No. 4 is in the Connecticut Historical 
Society and also in the American Congregational Associ- 
ation Library. 



Jacob Johnson wrote in one of his Fort Stanwix letters 
that he was sending to his family some verses he had writ- 
ten. They have not come down to us. In a pamphlet printed 
by him in 1754 are some verses that are doubtless his, and 
gloomy specimens of theology they are, but they express 
the religious spirit of that day. They appear to have been 
suggested by the death of Mrs. Sarah Williams, described 
in the funeral pamphlet above alluded to. They are as 
follows : 



200 REV. JACOB JOHNSON. 

The Dead Warning the Living. 

I'm come to Warn the Youth ; 

For you muf t Die ; 
Thofe fparkling Eyes, that rofy Blufh, 
Muft fink to hollow, change to pale, 

And be a Ghoft as I. — 

I'm come to Warn the Man, 

Whof e GOD is Gold ; 
Whofe Heaven is pomp'ous Pride & Scorn ; 
Your golden Scene, to leaden death muft change, 
And gloomy Horrors clafp your naked Soul, 
And wreaths of Lightning flafh, 

Infstead of Tempting Gold. 

I'm come to Warn the Hoary-Head, 

Whofe envious Soul with Avarice is lean ; 

You'r in the Suburbs of the Damn'd, & Dead, 

While livid Flame, & Darknefs waves between, 

And Ghofts around you hover, 
Waiting tho Unfeen. — 

Oh! Youth, Oh! Middle Age, and Old! 

All Souls, (I cry) Awake; 
To-Day, while it is Day, the Time, Behold, 

The Time to fcape, 
The gifly Horrors of the Burning Lake ; 
Redemption to Obtain, and Heaven, 

For JESUS'S Sake. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS. 

PERSONAL AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS. 
By Granville Henry, Esq. 

Corresponding Member. 

READ BEFORE THE WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 
MAY 14, 1909. 

The Pennsylvania German, otherwise the Pennsylvania 
Dutchman, has been the object of satire, ridicule and praise, 
according to the various whims of the numerous writers 
who sought food for the pen among these people. As a 
matter of fact, there are few of Dutch descent to come un- 
der the above designation. 

Their ancestors were principally emigrants from the 
Palatinate, Wertemburg, Baden, other parts of Germany, 
and Switzerland were also represented. 

Many American families have names literally translated 
from the German, and until in recent years, since genealogi- 
cal research has interested them, they were in many in- 
stances probably unaware of the original derivation. Some 
of them, indeed, were entitled to the ''von" of the nobility, 
but allowed the distinction to lapse as undemocratic. 

It is impossible for anyone who is not a descendant, or 
has not been born and grown up among them, or has not 
passed years in Germany, and become imbued with German 
thoughts and emotion, to write intelligently of their worth 
and character. The term "Pennsylvania German" is mis- 
leading. It is more correct to say Americans of German 
descent. We find by their family records that many are 
now in the seventh and eighth generation of native born 
Americans. They have, as citizens of the State, taken their 
places as clergymen, attorneys, jurists, doctors, and in the 
political field as Governors and legislators. It is, however, 
in the agricultural work of the State that they have laid the 
deepest and most enduring foundation. 

They are keen observers of nature and its laws, and while 
they do not always follow scientific methods, the system 



i0\ 



202 THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS. 

they employ, impirical though it may be in a certain wav, 
has resulted in the creation of farms that are models in 
their perfect appointments of house and barn, with all the 
necessary adjuncts, that are needed by the tiller of the 
ground. They have, as a body, constantly improved the 
land, so that in those parts of the State where they pre- 
dominate, and after nearly two centuries of cultivation, the 
wilderness of their early occupation has been cleared away 
and seed time and harvest have taken its place. In this 
respect particularly has their influence grown beyond the 
bounds of the State of their early adoption, for where the 
Pennsylvania German has chosen a new home in the South 
or West, his habits of industry and love of home surround- 
ings, are patent in the substantial house and barn, and well 
cultivated fields.* 

Emigrants from Holland and Sweden had settled on land 
bordering upon the Delaware river long before the Proprie- 
tor landed in 1682. Their numbers, however, were fewer. 
and their impress upon the destiny of the State was not 
important as has been that of the German element. Prof. 
Bolles, in his work, "Pennsylvania Province and State." 
informs us that in the year 1683, Francis Daniel Pastorius 
arrived with German emigrants, who settled in German- 
town. A few years after this the Germans numbered more 
than one thousand, most of whom had come from the vicin- 
ity of Worms, in Westphalia. Many Germans prior to 171 2 
had settled in Xew York State, but dissatisfied with their 
reception there, gradually drifted into Pennsylvania, where 
they founded new homes, greatly to the advantage of the 
State, as another writer tells us. 

Peter Kahn, who traveled in America in 174S. mentions 
that the Germans in Pennsylvania advised their relatives 

*The Pennsylvania German farmer has long known the va 
seed selection for obtaining the best results. The methods wort- 
more primitive than those now practiced under the scientific t 
of the agricultural colleges of the present time. Nevertheless, it wa* 
and is to-day a part of the farmer's work and progress. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS. 203 

and friends to avoid New York and settle in the former 
State, which many thousands did. The author of "Province 
and State" asserts that the Mennonites came from Cantons 
of Zurich, Bern, and SchafThausen, and after the growth of 
a generation in Alsace, emigrated to America, where they 
added to the already numerous German population. 

We see by these authorities that the German element in 
the State is nearly coeval with the English, Welsh, Scotch 
and Irish. This influx continued throughout the eighteenth 
and part of the last century, until the richer virgin soil of 
the great West offered greater inducements to those who 
sought new homes in the United States. 

As most of the Germans settled in close contact with 
each other and were in daily intercourse, it naturally fol- 
lowed that they should have preserved the language of the 
fatherland. Their church services were, and still are, in 
many instances, in German, and those of the Lutheran and 
Rerformed persuasion occupied the same church edifice, 
each taking an alternate Sunday. This dual use of the same 
building is yet followed by many congregations, the ex- 
penses, exclusive of the minister's salary, being shared by 
both sects. Where there are no cemetaries in which lots 
are private, the same burial ground is used by both con- 
gregations, and it often happens that Lutheran and Re- 
formed are laid side by side. As a general custom the ser- 
vices are attended by members of either church, so that the 
family unity is preserved, the husband and wife accompany- 
ing each other, though they may belong to the two denom- 
inations. The Holy Sacrament, however, while there are 
exceptions, is, as a rule, partaken of only by those who are 
of the denomination of the officiating minister. 

While occasional differences arise, they are comparatively 
rare, for their religious feelings are strong and deep. It 
is mainly in the urban centers where the two congregations 
have outgrown the capacity of the church that a change 
takes place and each has its own house of worship. In 



204 THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS. 

many districts the services are still held in the German, in 
some the English is gradually being adopted, generally alter- 
nating with the German. Though the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man is the language of his hearers, the preacher draws his 
inspiration and uses the language of the German Bible. 
When the clergyman is a native German, he is a purist 
more or less, but when the speaker is an American, it some- 
times happens that the discourse is uttered in words that 
would not receive the approval of the Weimar critics. 

A great deal of ignorance prevails about the dialect in 
use by the Teutonic descendants in Pennsylvania. Mr. 
Beidleman, in a work of modest title, "The Story of the 
Pennsylvania Germans,'' has given his readers in many re- 
spects the most intelligent picture available of the people 
he writes about. He admits that his work is far from com- 
plete and that the true history of the Pennsylvania Germans 
has never been written. As a descendant of the race, and 
with a thorough knowledge of the dialect, he made the sub- 
ject a study, having at various times visited the Palatinate, 
where the dialect is the language of the people at the present 
day. The author during his travels did not confine his 
observation to the towns and cities, but went into the coun- 
try homes of the people. He asserts that the infusion of Eng- 
lish words into the German American dialect has been largely 
caused by the abolition of German in our country schools, a 
change that is greatly to be deplored, as many young men 
who have gone from the farm to the town will acknowledge. 
Some of the words were in pure German and in use up to a 
generation ago ; they are now supplanted by corrupt Eng- 
lish. In a vocabulary Air. Beidleman gives the Pcnnsyl 
vania German with its equivalents in Pfalzisch. German. 
and English, showing in most of the words the identity ol 
the Pennsylvania German with the Palatinate dialect as it 
is used there and to some extent throughout south German) . 
It is to be understood, however, that the cultured German 
does not use the dialect in the Palatinate, or America. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS. 205 

There is no distinctive Pennsylvania German literature. 
Many lyrical effusions have been published in the dialect, in 
which the sentiments and pathos of German thought are 
well preserved in its most simple form and expression. Rev. 
Mr. Harbaugh wrote a number of poems, published in book 
form, and every one at all acquainted with the dialect has 
read "Das Alte Schulhouse on der Krick", where the 
grown man goes back to the days of his youth and gathers 
the flowers of early days, for they are fragrant to his mem- 
ory. Translations from English poetry into the dialect are 
also found, as, for instance, Poe's ''Raven'', printed in the 
Pennsylvania German Magazine, for August, 1908, in which 
the weird spirit of Poe's creation is transferred to the dialect 
with effect. The German Bible is held in reverence in 
nearly all homes of the people, and the reading of it often 
diligently pursued and quotations made. Formerly there 
were always some German works in their very limited 
libraries, generally of a religious cast. Now the younger 
generation are taught to read and write English, so that 
papers and magazines find a larger circulation in the coun- 
try than were at the disposal of their fathers and mothers. 

Some local newspapers are yet published in German and 
find a circulation in those counties where the German Amer- 
icans have their homes. In these papers, generally of weekly 
editions, some columns are devoted to the humorous cor- 
respondent who uses the dialect in its purity, but the reader 
must be a master of the language in order to understand 
what the writer intends to say. 

Depicting scenes from the life of these people has often 
been attempted for the benefit of the English reader, but 
they are, as interpretations almost always are. failures. It 
is impossible for anyone without a knowledge of their 
domestic and economic life, their obligations to and associa- 
tion with each other, their sympathy and helpfulness in 
times of sorrow and distress, and their proverbial hospital- 
ity, to give to the general reader a true impression of their 



206 THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS. 

inner and outer life, which is clothed altogether in German 
thought, emotion and expression. Strong and vigorous, if 
homely, it is the exponent and embodiment of the traditions 
that have come down from their emigrant ancestors, upon 
which the freedom of thought and action of American life 
has produced a striking influence. It has made them a peo- 
ple of honest purposes, independent in thought, resentful 
when their motives are assailed, claiming all that is due 
them, but no more. 

Subserviency, as that term is generally understood, is 
unknown to the Pennsylvania German farmer. The owner 
of broad acres considers himself the equal of anyone he 
meets, and will address him as such. In this fact and not 
only among this people, but in the hearts of the great agri- 
cultural community lies the strength of our republican in- 
stitutions. They are the only class who while they may be 
influenced are not dominated by the political manager, and 
in important political questions will vote according to con- 
victions and not dictation. When this conviction has not 
been aroused by a great political question, the Pennsylvania 
German is largely influenced by heredity, and the partisan- 
ship of the ancestor is upheld by his descendants. 

The Pennsylvania farmer, in his independent economic 
position, has no thought of class distinction; he certainly does 
not recognize it, and in this respect he already occupies 
one of the ends for which the German socialists of the pres- 
ent times are striving, the abrogation of class differences, 
but no thought of a community of goods enters his mind. 
He is a strict conservator of private property. Originally 
averse to the introduction of the common school, they are 
now advancing education wherever possible, and the latent 
mentality they possess manifests itself in the new genera- 
tion, many of whom have left, and in increasing numbers 
are leaving, the farms, ambitious for a wider sphere of 
action in the ministry, law, business, and political life. 

Modernity has invaded their homes, but any luxury that 



THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS. 207 

finds a place there is always subordinated to the economic, 
so that times of financial stress do not weigh as hard upon 
them as upon those whose homes are in the urban centers. 

Neatness and cleanliness in the house, the yard and field 
are a characteristic. The women love flowers, and it is 
rare to find even the most modest home without them in 
flower beds in summer and at the windows where the sun 
brings them life in winter. 

The love of music is almost universal among this people, 
inherited from the ancestors who brought with them those 
tuneful echoes of a far oft home, where the songs of the 
people are ingrained from the days of the troubadours. 
Some of these Folkslieder collected by Von Aminn and 
Brentano, both from printed and oral sources, in that re- 
markable work, "Das Knaben Wunderhorn" were still heard 
in the German Pennsylvania homes a generation ago. 

The violin, the organ, and of late years the piano, are 
found in many homes, and as wealth increases and better 
instruction is possible, proficiency gradually advances. 

The young generation is more thoroughly American than 
the preceding one, and adopts what is new with the greatest 
ease. The literature of the day has spread over the land 
largely through the rural free delivery. The electric road 
has brought many sections into closer contact with the larger 
towns and cities, which received their inspiration from the 
metropolis. This power of adaptability is very apparent in 
the improved taste in dress of both sexes, particularly in the 
young people. The girls find their field in the fashion maga- 
zines that circulate in nearly all the country homes. The 
illustrations make a vivid impression upon their plastic 
minds and the result is seen in the well made clothes, har- 
monious colors, and in the bearing of the wearers, conscious 
that they are well dressed. 

The plain interior of the farm house has yielded to the 
changed conditions. Many are now furnished with articles 
of furniture and pictures that show progress in the direction 



208 THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS. 

of a cultivated taste. A great deal of this is of moderate 
cost, though this varies with the wealth of the owner, but 
it all tends in the direction of art development in homes 
where as yet the critic has no place. 

Boorishness is at times apparent, but there is at the same 
time much native courtesy shown in many ways ; the team- 
ster driving along the single track on a snowbound road will 
always, w r hen possible, turn out for the pedestrian. 

The destructive tendency of the hoodlum is foreign to 
the Pennsylvania German, as they have a love of order and 
law and respect for private property. They have a keen 
sense of humor, sarcasm, and repartee. To attempt the 
task of rendering such conversations in English would end 
in total failure, as has been the fate of those writers of 
novel and tale when they try to give the dialect in an Eng- 
lish dress. During the past sixty years many changes have 
taken place in the economic life of the people here described. 
While the methods of the farmer were as thorough as they 
are to-day, the mechanical appliances were few. Reaping 
was done with the cradle, which had taken the place of the 
sickle, still used in the early part of the nineteenth century. 
Grass was cut with the scythe ; the horse rake was intro- 
duced in the late years of 1850. The historic flail was used 
until the horse power threshing machine became a part of the 
farmer's equipment. Flax was cultivated, and the sheep. 
of which a limited number were generally kept, furnished 
the wool. The carding machine was often an adjunct oi 
the local grist mill, where it was run by the same power. 
The farmer prepared the flax after the fall work on the 
farm was done. 

The spinning and wool wheel were found in nearly every 
farm house, and the flax and wool was prepared for the 
weaver by the housewife and her daughters. The weavers 
had their looms either in the house or shops nearby. The 
fabric thus produced was coarse, but strong and durable, 
and formed the every-day clothing for the farmer and his 



THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS. 2(X) 

family. As a rule, it was made up by the house wife and 
her daughters or by local tailors. The Sunday and holiday 
suit of finer material was carefully preserved and the styles 
were not subject to the rapid changes of the present day. 
The spinning wheel, the reel, and the wool wheel have be- 
come things of the past, and they are now found among the 
collected curios of a time that has passed away. They are 
at times to be seen in the homes of the refined and cultured, 
preserved as a curious link of the olden time. Does the 
fair owner, as she turns the wheel, realize that a gretchen 
in real life may have sat beside the same wheel and spun to 
her plaintive song : 

Mein ruh ist hin, 
Mein herz ist schwer, 

Ich finde sie nimme'r 
Under nimmer mehr? 

Have some of these wheels, too, like the talking oak of 
Sumner Chace, received and treasured the thoughts of 
those who guided the flax to the spindle, telling of their 
joys and sorrows, and the refrain echoes of the cradle song 
that mellowed the hum of the wheel to the little child to 
whose face the mother turned from her toil ? 

Many of these scenes are but two generations old. and 
there are yet living women who spun in their youthful days. 
We live in an age of quick change ; ev r ery successive genera- 
tion looks upon the life of the preceding one as a matter of 
history; the present man and woman is separated from the 
past and assumes the new role with astonishing adaptability. 
Except in cases of personal worthlessness, poverty and want 
are not found in these country homes, and when by reason 
of misfortune or sickness there is need, help always comes 
to them. Until within recent years, visiting the sick, whether 
the case was contagious or not, was a universal custom and 
sympathetic obligation. The new rules and information 
disseminated by the health department, have, however, to a 



210 THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS. 

great degree changed this practice, and there is now evinced 
a general desire to observe the law as its necessity is made 
clear to them. When death comes and the last rites are to 
be performed, relatives and friends gather at the house of 
mourning from all sides in numbers indicating their sym- 
pathy and respect for the deceased. In many, perhaps most 
instances, the traditions demand that the hospitality of the 
house should be exercised to its limit on these mournful 
occasions, and it is usual for the relatives and friends to be 
entertained not with "cold meats", but the best that the 
house can furnish. Professional grave diggers are not 
found in all the country congregations. Where there are 
none, this is generally done by neighbors at the request of 
the family, and these men also act as pall bearers. 

The Pennsylvania German farmer, with his dialect, will 
continue for years to come as an important element in the 
State. But the young generation will demand new condi- 
tions and a more liberal consideration from the State, par- 
ticularly in the way of education. They will demand, also, 
as a more liberal education broadens their minds and ex- 
pands the mental powers of which they are possessed, that 
their social position should be advanced and their economy 
in the sustaining of urban life receive due recognition. 

The cry "back to the farms" has no temptation to those 
who have been brought under the glamour of urban life. 
The young men and women who leave their homes to better 
their condition economically, socially or otherwise, go back 
to the country only in rare instances. The poor remunera- 
tion for the farmer in nearly all the Eastern States for a 
number of years, the difficulty of obtaining competent help 
both for the farmer and his wife, the spread of education. 
that most powerful agent of the time, and, not least, the 
social handicap, has influenced the young men and women 
to desert their homes for urban life, in which their great 
adaptability in so many ways promises greater rewards. 



MARRIAGE RECORD OF REV. WILLIAM K. MOTT, 

1832-1885. 



Elder Mott was pastor of the Baptist Church in and 
around Pittston, Pa., from 1833 to 1871. The following 
sketch of his life appeared in the Carbondale Leader, 1887. 
The list of marriages has been kindly copied and contributed 
by Mr. Arthur D. Dean, a member of this Society: 

"Elder William K. Mott was licensed to preach at Mid- 
dletown, Susquehanna County, in March, 1832, Rev. J. B. 
Parker, a missionary of the Xew York Baptist convention, 
having come into northeastern Pennsylvania as a general 
missionary. Their method of travel was on horseback. 
From Middletown they first went to Laceyville, thence 
down the Susquehanna to Mehoopany, Tunkhannock, Ex- 
eter, Northmoreland and Wilkes-Barre. At all these places 
meetings were held. From thence they traveled to Ply- 
mouth, called at that time Shawnee, Xanticoke, Hunlocks 
Creek, and held meetings. Two other missionaries came 
into the Wyoming Valley about this time. Revs. Charles 
Morton and Philip P. Brown. The latter located at Pitts- 
ton. In August, 1833, at the Bridgewater Association, in the 
church at Laceyville, Rev. W. K. Mott was ordained to the 
gospel ministry. He soon entered the Lackawanna Valley 
and began preaching. After three years of labor in this ex- 
tensive field many of his people moved out west of Chicago. 
They desired him to go along, but instead he removed to 
Hyde Park and took up his residence there, April 15, 1837. 
It contained then just twenty families, and only three mem- 
bers of the Baptist Church. His preaching stations were 
Pittston, Hyde Park, Providence, Blakely and Greenfield, 
and for a time he was the only minister in all this valley. 
From Pittston to Blakely he visited in two years every fam- 
ily on the route, and the population was less than 2,000. 

ill 



212 MARRIAGE RECORD REV. WILLIAM K. MOTT. 

On the east side of the Lackawanna, where Scranton is, was 
only a saw and grist-mill, and the Slocum house. There 
was a plank foot-bridge across the river at Dodgctown, and 
to get across the river where Lackawanna avenue now is he 
took off his shoes and stockings and waded across. He 
then went up to the saw-mill and got some lumber to build 
a barn. He got a man to haul it, and as they were fording 
the river at Dodgetown he sat on the load and said to Mr. 
Atherton, who was driving, 'These side hills and this valley 
will yet be covered by a great city.' He has lived to see his 
prophecy fulfilled. August 26, 1849, the First Baptist 
Church of Scranton was organized under his ministry. 
This is now located on Scranton street. His account of 
meetings, and his 'valley experiences,' as he called them. 
were thrilling. His references to praying loud as he went 
along the road through the then wilderness, were very 
touching. His toils and sacrifices were truly heroic, and 
to him is really due the first permanent establishment of 
Baptist worship in Scranton. On one occasion he lost his 
horse and had to go to his appointment 'on his feet,' as he 
quaintly expressed it. Elder Mott has attended over 1,000 
funerals, all the way from Wilkes-Barre to Carbondale. of 
persons who have been buried in seventy-live different 
grave-yards. He has married over 300 couples, and bap- 
tized several hundred converts. He paid a good tribute to 
Elder John Miller, the old pastor who settled in Waverly 
in 1800, for his noble endeavors for Christ. All through 
this and the adjoining valleys are many homes where the 
name Elder Mott is a household word. He has preached 
in all the other churches hereabouts, and has been the pastor 
of many of them." 

Adam Tedrick to Alary Armstrong. 
George McAlpine to Frances Giddings. 
James Giddings to Mary Ann Pratt. 
Samuel Price to Zilla Armstrong. 



MARRIAGE RECORD REV. WILLIAM K. MOTT. 213 

John Armstrong to Mary Wood. 
Timothy Goble to Elizabeth Ayres. 
Orlando Boardman to Ann Goble. 
Amos Jackson to Annis White. 
Palmer Jenkins to Jane Brown. 
Clark Wolfe to Alitheah Goss. 
Martin Dailey to Hannah Phillips. 
Milton G. Phillips to Sarah Hall. 
Thomas Slocum to Sarah Jenkins. 

James Knapp to W r ilbur. 

Joseph Atherton to Harriet Merchant. 
Freeman Moore to Caroline Hollenback. 
John Hollenback to Orpha Dart. 
Ashael Gardner to Olive Mills. 
Benjamin Bowen to Lucina Callender. 
Edmund Heemans to S. M. Slocum. 
William Stevens to Henrietta Slocum. 
William Miller to Eliza Vosburg. 

Newton to Parmelia Benedict. 

William Corbin to Lucretia Atherton. 
Samuel Vaughn to Harriet Stevens. 
Newell Callender to Harriet Ferris. 
Jonathan Jones to Hannah Phillips. 
Theron Ferris to Harriet Callender. 
Samuel Saylor to Julia Ferris. 
Milton G. Phillips to Phebe Vandeburg. 
E. A. Atherton to Phebe Lewis. 
Tracy Smith to Maria Rumerford. 
Albert Warner to Mary Bogard. 
Samuel Wheeler to Frances Miller. 
Aaron Silkman to Celestia Clark. 
Horton Callender to Tabitha Parker. 
Nathaniel Depew to Mary Perry. 
David Perkins to Mrs. Pettebone. 
William Mannes to Louisa Carpenter. 
Peter Snyder to Whaling. 



214 MARRIAGE RECORD REV. WILLIAM K. MOTT. 

George McAlpine to L. M. Giddings. 

Willet McDaniels to Sarah Wells. 

Daniel Brundage to M. L. Winton. 

Horace B. Simrell to Louisa Carpenter. 

William A. Miller to Caroline Wetherby. 

William Knapp to Ruth Knapp. 

Ira C. Atherton to M. I. Pulver. 

Henry Cross to Mary Bond. 

Henry Chase to Sarah Gardner. 

Edwin Fell to Ruby Bennett. 

Nathan C. Church to Rachel E. Downy. 

Andrew Kunsman to Emily Isby. 

Henry Bous to Viana Race. 

John Weaver to Margaret Lannan. 

Abel Bennett to Adelaide Johnson. 

John Hyde to Mrs. Wingard. 

Joseph Randolph to E. A. Dodge. 

Zeno Albro to Alary Clark, December, 1847. 

Milton Britton to Margaret Tedrick. 

Robert Mitchell to Mary Griffis. 

Henry Kilmore to Elizabeth Coon. 

Jerome Moon to Ann Jones. 

Egbert Snyder to Sabrina Wilsey. 

Silas Ellis to Caroline Adams, July 13, 1848. 

Felix Walter to Mary Griner, May 7, 1849. 

George W. Willets to Eliza Tennel, May 15, 1849. 

Joseph Knapp to Elmira Brown, June 7, 1849. 

LaGrange Damon to Mary I. Brown, June 7, 1849. 

Henry R. Manness to Sarah A. Axford, June 13, 1849. 

Pelatiah Miller to Diana Simrell. July 4, 1849. 

George W. Sands to Ruth Phillips, September 26. 1849. 

David Ckmons to Ruth A. Hitchcock, October 9, 1849. 

Charles Jones to Margaret Ripp, October 12, 1S49. 

W. S. Courtright to Catharine Washburn, Nov. 7. 1 849. 

Samuel Dolph to M indwell Ward, December 25, 1S49. 

James Gorsline to Williams, January 16, 1S50. 



MARRIAGE RECORD REV. WILLIAM K. MOTT. 21 5 

John Silkman to Sarah Shaver, February 5, 1850. 
Ezra Peters to Euthenia Ferris, April 4, 1850. 
Edward Spencer to Susan Hines, July 24, 1850. 
David Lewis to Mary Lewis, July 31, 1850. 
William Jayne to Sarah Case, September 20, 1850. 
Norman Wheeler to Eleanor Ringsdorf, October 19, 1850. 
A. I. Whaling to Catharine Brown, October 23, 1850. 
Almond Reynolds to Mary Wright, February 12, 1851. 
John Owens to Mary Ann Morgan, May 18, 1851. 
Moses Curtis to Mary Miller, October 19, 185 1. 
Eri Poor to Margaret Silvernail, November 6, 185 1. 
Cornelius Jacobus to Susan Nichols, November 9, 185 1. 
John Jones to Mary Ann Kenyon. 

Henry R. Bishop to Rebecca Colsher, December 25, 185 1. 
Henry Shumm to Lucretia Woding, December 25, 1851. 
Francis Gregg to Emily Davenport, February 17, 1852. 
Linus Gardner to Mary I. Dodge, February 22, 1852. 
Peter Blume to Ann Griffin, April 4, 1852. 
Silvius Wolcott to Ann Minerva Hines, July 1, 1852. 
William Miller to Polly Sears, July 3, 1852. 
James Green to M. A. Allen, July 22, 1852. 
Lewis Evans to Margaret W. Hitchinson, August 5, 1852. 
George Canday to Mahala Stevens, August 31, 1852. 
William Phillips to Catherine Merrifield, Sept. 14, 1852. 
James Knight to Mary Gray, September 24, 1852. 
Francis B. Davison to Nancy Gardner, October 7, 1852. 
Zenas Barnum to Maria Clark, October 26, 1852. 
William Wallace to Ann Agnes Austin, January 24, 1S53. 
William Blackman to Catherine Knickerbocker, January 

29, 1853. 
Curtis Hawes to Julia A. Woodruff, March 8, 1853. 
Christopher Felts to Harriet Atherton, March 24. 1853. 
James Sykes to Sarah Earp, April 10, 1853. 
I. A. Wilsey to Allie M. Kilmer, June 15, 1S53. 
Freeman H. Carey to Diana Stevens, June 21, 1S53. 
L. L. Griffin to Emeline Swartz, July 25, 1853. 



2l6 MARRIAGE RECORD REV. WILLIAM K. MOTT. 

Daniel Wagner to M. M. Spencer, August 18, 1853. 
Judson Clark to Amy Ann Sherman, September 14, 1853. 
L. H. Mills to Jane Kilmer, October 4, 1853. 
Jacob Whitbeck to Catherine Ferris, October 27, 1853. 
Edgar D. Dodge to S. M. Griffin, December 21, 1853. 
Henry Rumerfield to Catherine Phillips, January I, 1854. 
R. W. Luce to Adelia Tedrick, December 27, 1854. 
J. B. Kirkpatrick to M. I. Courtright, January 7, 1854. 

Norman Miller to Van Camp. 

John Faurot to Mary Wolfinger, April 1, 1854. 
James F. Friant to Amanda R. Krigbaum, April 6, 1854. 
John L. Chapman to Phebe A. Spencer, April 9, 1854. 
George W. VanLouvener to Harriet Agan, May 27, 1854. 
Benjamin F. Davis to Amelia Knapp, August 27, 1854. 
William Knapp to Catherine Arms. August 2j, 1854. 
Peter Marsh to Louisa M. Stevens, August 30. 1854. 
Orlando D. Sherman to Helen H. Kenner, Oct. I, 1854. 
J. H. Berge to Hannah Sisson, November 11. 1854. 
Seward E. Miller to Effie Ann Gardner, January 3. 1855. 
B. F. Ward to Lydia A. Taylor, July 4, 1855. 
W. H. Pier to Frances Throop, January 25. 1855. 
G. A. Tennant to Hannah Bloom, January 2j t 1855. 
Peter Pulver to Mary Brown, January 2j, 1855. 
William Wheeler to Polly Moore, February 17. 1855. 
Benjamin Bevan to Mary Ann Jones, February 22, 1855. 
Freeman Moore to Sarah Shafer, April 1, 1855. 
Andrew Leighton to Margaret Atwater. July 17. 1 S 5 5 
Charles Davis to Ellen Simrell, September, 1S55. 
Silas Osterhout to Catherine Tedrick, October 8. 1855. 
Jeremiah C. Clark to Amy Tedrick, December 20. 1855. 
Jared C. Warner to Achsah Kingsley, February 9. 1856. 
William H. Dolph to Elmira L. Wright, July 3. 1856. 
Zenas Hitchcock to R. A. Blume, September 7. 1856. 
Henry Ward to Sophia Geisler, September o. 1856. 
Ludwig Von Storch to Sarah McDaniels. October 1. ; v ^ 
J. H. Butler to Arminda Williams, October 12, 1856. 



MARRIAGE RECORD REV. WILLIAM K. MOTT. 21 J 

Russell Blanshan to M. A. Rice, November 27, 1856. 
Isaac Ellis to M. E. Coon, February 5, 1857. 
William Moscrip to Clarissa A. Porter, February 19, 1857. 
Micah Vail to C. A. Hubbard, March 26, 1857. 
Samuel Higby to Lucy Fuller, April 15, 1857. 
George Bass to Helen Mott, May 5, 1857. 
George Tompkins to Phebe J. Coleman, May 17, 1857. 
Augustus Z. Long to Mary Ann Grattan, July 2, 1857. 
Brundage C. Williams to Alary E. Lathrop, Aug. 12, 1857. 
William P. Burdick to Martha E. Hubbard, Sept. 2, 1857. 
Alfred Gotshaw to Caroline Hines, October 31, 1857. 
Oliver Coon to Sarah S. Murdock, November 21, 1857. 
J. W. Lanning to Sarah Little, December 31, 1857. 
Eliab F. Vail to Gertrude E. Taylor, January 27, 1858. 
Nelson Jenkins to Emeline Robinson, April 29, 1858. 
Russell L. Root to Mary Spoor, June 15, 1858. 
Windsor Foster to Martha Bush, June 27, 1858. 
Silas R. Moon to Mary E. Ward, September 11, 1858. 
Moses Magee to Jane Young, December 7, 1858. 
H. S. Cooper to Augusta Weed, December 29, 1858. 
James H. Coil to Elizabeth H. Sands, January 5, 1859. 
Clark Harrison to Catherine M. Decker, Feb. 22, 1859. 
William N. Sherman to Margaret M. Knapp, March 

17, 1859. 
William Case to Louisa Eurydice Leonard, April 7, 1859. 
Ziba Wood to Caroline Ryder, May 28, 1859. 
Judson T. Smith to Jerusha Street, June 29. 1859. 
W. L. Mace to Laura Isabel Douglas, June 29, 1859. 
Enoch A. Ryder to Julia A. Gray, October 13, 1859. 
Lafayette Decker to Julia Milton, November 19, 1859. 
J. C. Edwards to Ann Shinton, January 21, i860. 
Monroe B. Dean to Louisa M. Rice, February 9, i860. 
John Morgan to Elizabeth Evart, February 19, i860. 
William Prosser to Gwenny Lewis, May 25, i860. 
Robert O. Leas to Margaret Moore, July 3, i860. 
Stephen Killhorn to Mary A. Daily, August 23, i860. 



2l8 MARRIAGE RECORD REV. WILLIAM K. MOTT. 

Brooks A. Bass to Maggie A. Peckens, September 4, i860. 
James Montanye to Carrie Baldwin, September 11, i860. 
Philotus Snedicor to Martha O. Holcomb, Sept. 13, i860. 
Jacob Gisner to Harriet N. Tennant, November 1, i860. 
J. D. Peck to Delana Stone, November 17, i860. 
N. D. Barnes to Henrietta Gnoslin, December 23, i860. 
Sebold RofT to Chloe Gorman, March 16, 1861. 
Rittner Griffin to Frances A. Robinson, June 26, 1861. 
Robert Merrifield to C. J. Stark, September 11, 1861. 
William H. Giddings to Samantha Newman, October 24, 

1861. 
Joseph Church to Charlotte Stevens, January 6, 1862. 
Henry Knapp to Ann M. Smith, January 23, 1862. 
Christopher F. Ward to Phebe Ann Atherton, October 

18, 1862. 
Joseph M. Pruner to Martha Atherton, October 29, 1862. 
Dewitt C. Marean to Susanna Smith, November 1, 1862. 
A. L. Kenner to C. A. Marshall, November 21, 1862. 
D. P. Pierce to N. E. Giddings, December 11, 1862. 
Orlando Chapman to Ellen Decker, October 2, 1863. 
John R. Davis to Anna Davis, October 3, 1863. 
George W. Nogles to Rebecca A. Miller, Nov. 18, 1863. 
Joshua Robsonwin to Sarah Frances Wirts, November 

21, 1863. 
Matthew H. Dale to Sally Allis, December 22, 1863. 
Jesse G. Green to Jane M. Hunter, January 6, 1864. 
William McClave to Mary Rolland, April 11, 1864. 
Darius C. Aton to Elizabeth Davis, May 7, 1864. 
William McClave to Mary Young, May 9, 1864. 
H. Forsman to Kate Fellows, October 6, 1864. 
G. H. Spark to Mary A. Darran, December 2, 1864 . 
G. W. Carlton to Sarah S. Fellows, December 24. 1864. 
John McGuire to Melissa McNulty, February S. 1865. 
Alvin Ayres to Elizabeth Pugh, February 20, 1865. 
R. T. C. Knapp to Kate Wells, May 10,' 1865. 
Israel Vosburg to Sarah E. Collum, July 30, 1865. 






MARRIAGE RECORD REV. WILLIAM K. MOTT. 2IO, 

I. G. Maxwell to Julia McKeever, September 19.. 1865. 
F. W. Oram to E. E. Fellows, October 25, 1865. 
Elbert N. Barney to Sarah L. Carpenter, Nov. 23, 1865. 
John Delinott to Mary A. Guard, February 21, 1866. 
Austin Peckins to Addie Oran, April 11, 1866. 
Solomon VanSickle to Jane Vosburg, April 28, 1866. 
Albert S. Whittaker to Mary M. Frink, May 21, 1866. 
Lewis Campbell to Mary M. Peckins, May 24, 1866. 
J. C. Aton to E. S. Fuller, June 9, 1866. 
Frank E. Fuller to Anna Smith, September 15, 1866. 
T. J. Fisher to Alice Hower, December 18, 1866. 
Charles Miller to Roxana Barnes, January 30, 1867. 
George W. Barton to Lydia A. Potter, February 26, 1867. 
George W. Myers to Abi N. Slocum, March 9, 1867. 
Joseph Sweetser to Emma H. Chamberlin, March 14, 

1867. 
W. H. Everson to Olive A. Benedict, May 16, 1867. 
John Gehling to Martha Jeremiah, July 4, 1867. 
George W. Hutchinson to Mary E. Street, Dec. 12, 1867. 
Edgar Doremis to Anna J. Peckins, February 6, 1867. 
George Gathercole to Phebe A. Chapman, April 11, 1868. 
L. W. Deyoe to Catherine Masters, October 13, 1868. 
T. B. Sweetser to Sarah Chamberlin, November 12, 1868. 
Benjamin Slocum to Mary P. Waters, December 2, 1868. 
H. C. Watkins to M. J. Millius, March 31, 1869. 
Simeon Ringsdorf to Elizabeth Williams, Aug. 21, 1869. 
Samuel S. Smith to Georgia R. Oram, Sept. 29, 1869. 
John H. Getz to Sarah Deitrick, January 11, 1870. 
Benson Davis to Orpha Hoover, June 19, 1870. 
John Stout to Lydia J. Harris, July 10, 1870. 
Jacob D. Clark to Lauretta A. Reed, July 26, 1870. 
Joshua A. Maxwell to Rosa Wilson, September 22, 1870. 
Elijah R. Scureman to Ellen M. Igae, September 25. 1S70. 
Robert M. Lynch to Ellen B. Harris, October 13, 1870. 
Robert Von Storch to Arabel Rogers, October 25, 1S70. 
William A. Weaver to Josephine F. Rozell, Aug. 31, 1S71. 



220 MARRIAGE RECORD REV. WILLIAM K. MOTT. 

Losey Litis to Elizabeth C. Steward, May 10, 1872. 

Sidbottom to Hattie Frost, September 28, 1872. 

Hobart Hand ford to Henrietta Griffin, Nov. 25, 1873. 
John Coons to Eva J. LaRue, April 28, 1874. 
Peter Deitrick to Ella Sherman, May 7, 1874. 
George D. Leisenring to Mary H. Stevens, May 21, 1874. 
Stephen T. Farnham to Hannah Williams, Sept. 23, 1874. 
Harvey Gillett to Julia E. Cuyle, September 8, 1875. 
John Ringsdorf to Rosell Brownell, September 13, 1875. 
EH Snyder to Carrie Thompson, February 16, 1876. 
G. W. Rankin to Hattie Hartman, March, 1876. 
P. N. Cease to Anna Davis, December 13, 1876. 
George Ross to Elizabeth E. Davis, July 21, 1877. 
Joseph W. Patten to Mary E. Lewis, June 20, 1878. 
Oristus T. Hull to Annie E. Wells, November 7, 1878. 
Albert R. Sherman to Minna H. Weitzel, Oct. 22, 187S. 
Isaac Phillips to Lois L. White, March 7, 1880. 
John Keller to Mary E. Swallow, March 29, 1880. 
Thomas R. Owens to Jennie Millard, May 27, 1880. 
James D. Leach to Emma C. White, July 10, 1881. 
Eugene A. White to Mary E. Colvin, September 21, 18S1. 
S. P. Crossman to Laura C. Kennedy, October 9, 1881. 
Charles E. Winters to Mary Decker, June 4, 18S2. 
Truman E. Clark to Ella E. Smith, September 19, 1882. 
W. E. Hubbard to H. J. Lucky, December 24, 1882. 
Lafayette C. Ackerly to Elizabeth Morgan, Oct. 4, 18S3. 
Leslie H. White to Bell Branning, June 8, 1884. 
Alson L. Raught to Huldah Wetherby, March 14, 1SS5. 



VITAL STATISTICS OF THE WYOMING SECTION, 
PENNSYLVANIA. 






THE ROSS FAMILY. 

The Publishing Committee have fully realized the fact 
that the vital statistics of any settled section form a most 
important part of its history. Therefore, in the several 
volumes of the "Publications and Collections" of this 
Society much space has been accorded to the early records 
of births, baptisms, marriages and deaths of Wyoming. 

In Volumes IV, VII and X the marriages and deaths, 
carefully compiled from the newspapers of Luzerne county, 
from 1797 to 1 818, and from 1828 to 1836, have been pub- 
lished. Those which have not been compiled, from 1819 to 
1827, inclusive, and from 1836 to 1850, will be issued later. 

In the eleven volumes of the "Proceedings, etc.," of this 
Society, will be found the following valuable records : 

1. The First Presbyterian Church, Wilkes-Barre, 1802- 
1829, in Volume VI, pp. 295-307. 

2. The marriages in Abingdon Township, Luzerne County, 
1802-1850, by Rev. John Miller, in Volume VII, pp. 

^ 171-177. 

3. The marriages by Rev. Henry Hunter Welles, D. D., of 
Forty Fort, 1850-1894, in Volume VIII, pp. 292-299. 

4. The marriages of Rev. William K. Mott, of the Baptist 
Church, Pittston Township, Luzerne County, 1832- 
1885, in the present volume, pp. 211-220. 

The Publishing Committee has also in hand, ready for pub- 
lication in later volumes, the valuable records of St. 
Stephen's Church (Protestant Episcopal), Wilkes- 
Barre, 1814-1850. 

Also the vital statistics of that honoured Minister of the 
Gospel, the Rev. Davis Dimock, 1776- 1858, for fifty- 
five years a Baptist Minister in the Wyoming section, 
1803-1858, and for twenty-seven years an Associate 
Judge of Susquehanna County, whose interesting 
journal is in the keeping of this Society. 



W 



222 ROSS FAMILY RECORD. 

The Committee will be glad to receive and publish such vital 
statistics of early days from any clergyman or relig- 
ious body in this section. It will also welcome exact, 
verbatim, copies of Family Bible records prior to 
1850, relating to the early families of Northeastern 
Pennsylvania. One such record is herewith given 
from the Family Bible of the late General William 
Ross, whose name is one of high repute in this sec- 
tion. The records cover the period from 1725 to 
1844. The Bible is now the property of Mrs. Sidney 
B. Roby, of Rochester, N. Y. 

THE ROSS FAMILY RECORD. 

MARRIAGES. 

Jeremiah Ross was married to Ann Paine October 31, 1744. 
William Ross was married to Eliza Sterling. 

BIRTHS. 

Jeremiah Ross, son of Joseph Ross, by Sarah Utley, his 
wife, was born July 26, 1721. 

Aleph Ross, daughter of Jeremiah Ross and Ann Paine, his 
wife, born December 17, 1745. 

Ann, daughter to Do, born January 5, 1747. 

Perrin Ross, son to Do, was born July 4, 1748. 

Sarah Ross, daughter of Do, born February 11, 1750. 

Diana Ross, daughter of Do, born November 18, 1751. 

Mary Ross, daughter of Do, born December 21, 1753. 

Lucy Ross, daughter of Do, born October 14, 1755. 

Jeremiah Ross, son of Do, born January 6, 1759. 

William Ross, son of Do, born March 29, 1761. 

Elizabeth Ross, daughter of Do, born June 10, 1764. [Mar- 
ried — John Gore, born February 25, 1764. 

Samuel Sterling and Elizabeth Perkins, his wife. 

Irene Sterling, daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth, born 

October 17, 1758. 
Sarah Sterling, daughter of Do, born December 20, 1761. 
Caroline Sterling, daughter of Do, May 21, 1764. 
Samuel Sterling, son of Do, born September 17. 1766. 
Elizabeth Sterling, daughter of Do, born November 3, 170S. 
James Sterling, son of Do, born December 25, 1770. 



" 






: 



ROSS FAMILY RECORD. 223 

Ruth Sterling, daughter of the same, born September 27, 

1773- 
Lucy Sterling, daughter of Do, born December 9, 1775. 
Lord Sterling, son of Samuel Sterling and Sarah Stow, born 

April 3, 1780. 
Hannah Sterling, daughter of Do, born September 3, 1782. 

An infant son of William Ross and Eliza Sterling, his wife, 

born July 6, 1792 ; died July 9, 1792. 
Sarah Sterling, daughter of Do, born August 25, 17 — 
Caroline Ann, daughter of Do, born February 24, 1797. 
Eliza Irene, daughter of Do, born August 25, 17 — 
William Sterling, son of Do, born August 11, 1802. 

DEATHS. 

Mary Ross, aged about 79 years, died at Windham, Conn., 
November 8, 1725. 

Jeremiah Ross, died at Wilkes-Barre, February 8, 1777. 

Ann Ross, wif: of Do, died at Wilkes-Barre, March 22, 
1813. 

Aleph, daughter of Do, died at Wilkes-Barre, February 8, 
1814. 

Perrin and Jeremiah, sons of Do, both killed in Wyoming 

Massacre, July 3, 1778. [Perrin Ross, m 1770, 

Marcy Otis, of Montville, Conn., born June 5, 1747.] 

Diana Wadhams, wife of Rev. Noah Wadhams, died Octo- 
ber — , 1804. [Rev. Noah Wadhams died in Plym- 
outh, May 22, 1806, aged 80.] 

Sarah, wife of Giles Slocum, died at Saratoga, N. Y., No- 
vember 26, 1820. 

Ann Baker, wife of Zebulon Baker, departed this life No- 
vember 9, 1805. 

Zebulon Baker, departed this life December 18, 1818. 

William Ross, died August 9, 1842. 

Lucy Davis, died January 6, 1844. 

Elizabeth Gore, wife of John Gore, died — 



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531 



OBITUARIES. 



SAMUEL LeROl BROWN. 

Life member of this Society and Trustee, died Wilkes- 
Barre, December 23, 1906. He was born Mount Pleasant, 
Pa., February 5, 1833, son of Thomas Hancock and Lucy 
(Howe) Brown, Stonington, Conn., and Mount Pleasant, 
Pa. He began his commercial life at twenty years of age 
under the firm of S. L. Brown & Co. Tn 1863 he bought and 
worked the Mount Pleasant tannery until the financial crisis 
of 1867; then became general manager of Conyngham & 
Paine in the oil business, Wilkes-Barre. When this firm dis- 
solved in 1879. having recovered much of his lost capital, he 
bought the plot on Market street, erected what is still known 
as the Brown Block — two hundred feet front and four 
stories high — and established there a successful wholesale 
oil trade. He also bought and successfully established what 
was known for many years as the "Brown Book Store", on 
the present site of the First National Bank. He was a man 
whose energies could not be cramped ; progressive and prac- 
tical, with a courage that always sustained him : hence he 
was actively engaged in many other ventures. He was an 
organizer and President of the Keystone Coal Company in 
1887 at Mill Creek; an organizer and Director of the Lang- 
cliffe Coal Co., Pleasant Valley; Director First National 
Bank, Wilkes-Barre, 1886-1909; Wilkes-Barre Electric 
Light Co.; Hazard Manufacturing Co., serving as Treasurer 
and Secretary, 1899-1909. He was also Trustee and Vice 
President Wilkes-Barre Board of Trade for over twenty 
years, and one of its organizers. His church activities were 
equally as numerous. An incorporated Trustee of the Dio- 
cese of Central Pennsylvania, and Bethlehem ; member Board 
of Missions, Deputy to the Conventions ; Communicant, 
Vestryman and Warden of St. Stephen's Protestant Episco- 
pal Church; member Lodge 218, F. and A. M.. 1855-1000: 
member of the Westmoreland Club. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Wyoming Historical-Geological Society, 18S2, and 



22ft OBITUARIES- 

served as Trustee, 1890-1909; filling every office he held with 
fidelity and active service. He married, first, 1S55, Miss 
Almira Gritman, who died 1871. He married, second, Mrs. 
Ella May Woodward Chapman, who died May 3. 1905. He- 
had by the first marriage Thomas W. Brown and Russell S. 
Brown ; by the second marriage, Carlton Conyngham Brown, 
Robert Chapman Brown, and Stanley Wardwell Brown. 



LIEUT. JOSEPH WRIGHT GRAEME, U. S. N. 

Life member of this Society, died April 14, 1906. He was 
born New York City, August 14, 1875, son oi Thomas 
Graeme, Esq., of Wilkes-Barre, Insurance Adjuster, and 
his wife, Ellen Hendrick (Wright) Graeme; and grandson 
of John Graeme, b. at Gorthy, Perthshire. Scotland, for 
many years a leading merchant of Richmond. Virginia, and 
of Hon. Hendrick Bradley W'right, of Wilkes-Barre. for 
many years a member of the Luzerne County Bar and of the 
United States Congress. 

Descended on both sides from prominent ancestors, Lieu- 
tenant Graeme proved himself worthy of his lineage. He 
graduated from the Hillman Academy. Wilkes-Barre, 1S93. 
Was appointed Cadet to the United States Naval Academy. 
September 6, 1893; graduated 1897 and served as Xaval 
Cadet on the U. S. S. Iowa in the Spanish-American War. 
commanding the forward port turret in the brittle with 
Cevera's fleet, 1898. Commissioned Ensign July 1, 1890. he 
served on the U. S. S. Marietta from August 5, iS")9. in the 
Philippines and in Chinese waters ; commissioned Lieutenant 
(Junior Grade) July 1, 1902, he was transferred to the 
U. S. S. Monterey until November 10. 1902, when he was on 
duty at the Navy Yard, D. C. Promoted December 27. 
1903, Lieutenant, and attached, April 18. 1005. to the I". 5. 
S. Maryland in Cuban waters, where he was killed by an 
explosion on the U. S. S. Kearsage while on inspection duty 
April 14, 1906. He was a communicant of St. Stephen's 
Church. He was a noble character, full of unusual promise 
as a man and an officer, and deservedly so in ever}- sphere oi 
his young life. He married January 17. 1903. Ethel Robin- 
son, daughter of James Attmore Robinson, of New York. 
who with one child, Alice, survives him. Lieutenant Graeme 
became a Life Member of this Society September 4, 1904. 



OBITUARIES. , 233 



COL. EL.ISKA ATHERTON HANCOCK. 



Life member of this Society, who died Philadelphia, May 
18, 1906, was born Plains Township, Luzerne County, June 
12, 1839, son of James and Mary (Perkins) Hancock, and 
grandson of Jonathan and {Catherine (Young) Hancock of 
Luzerne County. Educated at Wyoming Seminary, intend- 
ing to study mechanics, when the Civil War opened for him 
a military career he entered the United States service Octo- 
ber 29, 1861 as First Lieutenant, 9th Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
He was promoted Captain May 22, 1863; Major, January 
10, 1865; honorably discharged July 18, 1865. Serving with 
the Army of the Cumberland he lost a leg while commanding 
the 3d Battalion of his regiment March 16, 1865. Return- 
ing home, he engaged in the mining supply business from 
1865-1875, when he organized the firm of Hancock & Co., 
grain merchants. Philadelphia, 1875-1906. He was an or- 
ganizer and Director of the People's Bank, Wilkes-Barre. 
In Philadelphia he was President of the Commercial Ex- 
change ; a founder and Director Fourth Street National 
Bank; Director Merchants' Beneficial Association; Penn'a. 
& N. Y. Canal & Railroad Co. ; Director and Vice President 
Union League ; member of the Loyal Legion, the Council of 
the Commandery, the Grand Army of the Republic, and the 
Rittenhouse, and Country Clubs, Governor Hoyt appointed 
him Quarter Master General of the State of Pennsylvania, 
with rank of Colonel. 

He married 1st, 1866, Julia A. Reichard ; 2d, Lydia Chap- 
man Woodward, who died 1887 ; 3d, Rose Grier Simonton. 
He had by his first marriage James Hancock, of Philadel- 
phia. 

Col. Hancock was elected Life Member of this Society in 
1901. 



ROBERT BAUR. 



A member of this Society, died in Wilkes-Barre. Pa., May 
31, 1906. He was born at Wurtemburg, Germany. Decem- 
ber 25, 1825. His grandfather. Rev. Samuel Baur. tor thirty 
years pastor of the Lutheran Church in Gottingen. was edu- 
cated at the Universities of Jena and Tubingen, a soldier and 



234 OBITUARIES. 

an author of note, whose eldest son, Rev. Frederick Jacob 
Baur, born Gottingen, 1796. educated at Tubingen, suc- 
ceeded his father as pastor at Gottingen for more than fifty 
years. He married Catherine Hahn. Of their children, 
Robert Baur, the eldest son, educated at Ulm. came to Phila- 
delphia, 1848, and thence to Wilkes-Barre, where, until his 
death, he conducted a binding and printing business. For 
forty-six years he was the proprietor and editor of "The 
IVaechter'' and other German publications. He was a mem- 
ber of St. Paul's Lutheran Church. He was President of the 
Wilkes-Barre Manaerchor ; and for six years was a soldier 
in the Jaeger Military Company, and was widely known 
throughout this section. 

He married. October 15. 1854, Pauline Hassold. of Phila- 
delphia, and had Gustav Adolph Baur, his only son. 

He was made a member of this Societv in Maw i8s8, re- 
taining his membership for forty-eight years. 



EDWARD STERLING LOOP. 

Life member *of this Society, died Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 
October 26, 1906. He was born Elmira, X. Y.. February 11. 
1823, a son of Peter P. Loop of Elmira and his wife Eliza 
Irene, daughter of General William Ross, of Wilkes-Barre, 
and grandson of Peter Loop, Jr., one of the Commissioners 
appointed by the Susquehanna Company September 2?. 
1786. Educated in Wilkes-Barre. at his maturity he entered 
the mercantile house of Warner Loop & Co.. Xew York 
City, until May 7, 1853. when he became clerk in the Wyo- 
ming Bank of Wilkes-Barre. He was elected Cashier Novem- 
ber 21, 1S53. and a Director November 2S, 1850. After 
serving twenty-one years as Cashier he resigned September 
3, 1874, and retired from business life. He married Decem- 
ber 28, 1852, Cornelia B., daughter oi Samuel and Lydia 
(Wadhams) French, of Plymouth. They had one child. 
Estelle, now the wife of Major Charles F. Larrabee oi 
Washington. Mr. Loop was elected a resident member of 
this Society April 4, 1859, and Life Member April 11, 1899. 



OBITUARIES. 235 



THEODORE STRONG. 



Resident member of this Society, died West Pittston, Pa., 
March 28, 1907. Born Somers, Conn., January 25, 1820, 
son of Rev. William L. and Harriet (Deming) Strong, he 
was of the seventh generation from Elder John and Abigail 
(Ford) Strong, of Dorchester, Mass., 1630, among the most 
prominent of the early settlers of Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut. 

Mr. Strong was a brother of Hon. William Strong, 
LL. D., Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Edu- 
cated at Geneva, N. Y., he moved to Pittston, Pa., 1843, 
where he was connected with the Butler-Coal Company, and 
other coal and mercantile ventures. He was an organizer 
and for forty years President of the First National Bank, 
Pittston ; President Pittston Bridge Company ; and of the 
Bankers' Association of Luzerne and Lackawanna counties ; 
Director Delaware, Lackawanna and Bloomsburg Railroad. 
In 1869 he was the Republican candidate for the U. S. Con- 
gress against Hon. G. W. Woodward. 

He was elected a member of this Society February 11, 
1898. Mr. Strong married 1st, October 3, 1854, Mary Eliza- 
beth Benedict, who died 1869 ; 2d, Elizabeth D. Wilson, who 
with three children survives him. 



WILLIAM GLASSELL ENO. 

Resident member of this Society, died Wilkes-Barre. May 
16, 1907, where he was born July 16, 1852, the son of Josiah 
William and Louisa Brown (Glassell) Eno. He descended 
on his paternal side in the seventh generation from James 
Eno and Hannah Bidwell, of Windsor, Conn., 1646; on his 
maternal side from John and Mary (Calter) Glassell, of 
Scotland, 1670, and Virginia, 1756. 

From 1869 to 1874 Mr. Eno was engaged in the coal busi- 
ness with his father. 

In 1874 he became a member of the insurance firm oi 
Biddle & Eno, continuing most successfully until his death. 

He was a member of Lodge 324, F. & A. M.. Plymouth; 
Dieu le Veut Commandery; the Thirty-second Degree Scot- 



236 OBITUARIES. , 

tish Rite; the Mystic Shrine, and the B. P. O. E. He 
was also a communicant of St. Stephen's Church, and be- 
came a member of the Wyoming Historical Geological 
Society. 

Married June 12, 1889, to Marian Borden, of Pottsville, 
Pa., they had two children, Josiah William and Jean, who 
survive him. 



GUSTAV ADOLPH BAUR. 

Life member of this Society, and son of Robert and Paul- 
ine (Hassold) Baur, died Wilkes-Barre, Pa., May 27, 1907. 
He was born, Wilkes-Barre. in 1861. In 1881, having learned 
the printing business with his father, he was admitted to the 
firm of Robert Baur & Son. He succeeded to the business 
after his father's death. He married Kate Davis, who with 
three children survive him. He became a member of this 
Society, February 11, 1886, and was made a Life Member 
March 4, 1908. 



WILLIAM LORD CONYNGHAM. 

Life member of this Society, died Wilkes-Barre. Pa.. 
December 29, 1907. He was born Wilkes-Barre, November 
21, 1829, son of Hon. John Nesbitt Conyngham. LL. D.. of 
that city, and his wife, Ruth Ann Butler, daughter of Gen- 
eral Lord Butler, eldest son of Col. Zebulon Butler and 
Anne (Lord) Butler of Revolutionary fame. 

Mr. Convngham on his father's side was grandson of 
David Hayfield Conyngham of the Revolutionary firm oi 
Convngham, Nesbitt & Co., of Philadelphia, who saved 
Washington's Army at Valley Forge by a donation of 5.000 
pounds of pork when the Army was on the verge oi starva- 
tion. In the Conyngham "Reminiscence," Vol. YIII. Pro- 
ceedings of this Society, p. 182, will be found fuller refer- 
ence to the ancestry of that family. 

Colonel Zebulon Butler, great grandfather of W. L. Con- 
yngham, was the Continental officer who commanded the 
Wyoming forces at the battle of July 3, 1778. His military 



OBITUARIES. 237 

record will be found in Vol. VII, Proceedings of this 
Society, p. 150. (See also for Conyngham, pp. 9-14, and for 
Butler, pp. 47-54, Vol. I, "Genealogical and Family History 
of Wyoming Valley, etc." 

William L. Conyngham was for many years a member of 
the firm of Ebey, Conyngham & Herr, Philadelphia, later 
Ebey & Conyngham, produce merchants. He was also for 
some years a coal operator with Charles Parrish, in the firm 
of Parrish & Conyngham. These two were the pioneers in 
developing the coal trade in the Wyoming Valley. Together 
they operated the Empire colliery in Wilkes-Barre ; the 
South Wilkes-Barre colliery, and the Sugar Notch collier) 7 . 
and others — which they subsequently sold to the Lehigh & 
Wilkes-Barre Coal Company ; also the Pine Ridge colliery, 
which they sold to the Delaware & Hudson Coal Company. 
Mr. Conyngham was also extensively engaged in the sale of 
coal for thirty-six years with Joseph Stickney under the 
firm names of Conyngham & Co., Stickney & Conyngham. 
Stickney, Conyngham & Co. at Xo. 1 Broadway. X. Y., 
and 19 Congress street. Boston, also J. Hilles & Co.. Balti- 
more; James Boyd & Co. in Philadelphia, and J. Boyd & 
Co., Harrisburg; also Boyd, Stickney & Co., Harrisburg, 
Chicago & St. Louis, agents for the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Co. anthracite coal, north, south, east and west. Stickney 
& Conyngham opened and operated the Lytle Coal Com- 
pany of Pottsville, Pa. ; the Union Coal Company, Shamo- 
kin, Pa., and the William Penn colliery near Pottsville. He 
was also associated with L. C. Paine in the firm of Conyng- 
ham & Paine, commission merchants, Wilkes-Barre. 

Mr. Conyngham was also largely associated with the busi- 
ness and civil life of Wilkes-Barre and the valley in many 
ways — as President for many years, until 1S86, of the 
Wilkes-Barre Gas Company; a Manager of the Hollenback 
Cemetery Association ; Trustee and Vice President Oster- 
hout Free Library; President of the Hazard Wire Rope 
Works; Vice President Miners' Savings Bank: member of 
the City Council ; Trustee of the B. I. A. ; Vestryman of St. 
Stephen's Church and a large contributor to its charities, and 
general work; a charter member of the Wilkes-Barre City 
Hospital. 1873. 

Mr. Conyngham married December 6. 1864, Olivia Hil- 
lard, daughter of Oliver Burr and Harriet A. (Roberts) 



238 OBITUARIES. 

Hillard of Charleston, South Carolina, and Wilkes-Barre. 
Mrs. Conyngham descends through Captain David Hilliard 
of Little Compton, Rhode Island, son of William, 1650: 
from Lieutenant Thomas Miner of Salem, Massachusetts, 
1630, and many others of prominence in early New England 
history. They have had two sons, John Xesbitt Conyngham 
and William Hillard Conyngham of Wilkes-Barre, both Life 
Members of this Society. Mr. Conyngham (whose brother, 
Colonel John Butler Conyngham, was a founder of the 
Society,) was made a member 1866, Vice President 1881, 
and Life Member 1884. 



MRS. ESTHER TAYLOR (FRENCH) WADHAMS. 

Life Member of this Society, died Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 
February 12, 1908. She was born in Plymouth, Pa., Feb- 
ruary 12, 1830, her death occurring on her seventy-eighth 
birthday. 

She was the widow of Hon. Elijah Catlin Wadhams. who 
was born in Plymouth, July 17, 1825, and who died Wilkes- 
Barre, January 18, 1899. son of Calvin Wadhams. and 
grandson of Rev. Noah Wadhams, an early Methodist 
clergyman in Plymouth from 1772 to 1806, and the fourth in 
descent from John Wadhams, who came from England to 
Connecticut 1650. 

Hon. E. C. Wadhams, a graduate of the University of 
New York, 1847, was a prosperous merchant for twenty-rive 
years, Justice of the Peace for twenty years. Burgess of 
Plymouth seven years, a Director of the Wyoming National 
Bank, and the First National Bank, Wilkes-Barre, and for 
years President of the last named. He was also prominent 
in Masonic Circles, and an active member and officer of the 
Central M. E. Church, W T ilkes-Barre. He represented 
Luzerne County in the Pennsylvania Senate in 1S76 

Mrs. Esther T. Wadhams was the daughter of Samuel 
French, born Bridgeport, Connecticut. July 0, 1S03. He 
married May 21, 1829, Lydia Wadhams, born October 23, 
1803, daughter of Moses and Ellen (Hendrick) Wadhams. 
who came to Plymouth 1799, the sixth child oi Rev. Noah 
Wadhams, supra. 



L__. 



OBITUARIES. 239 

Samuel French was an early resident of Plymouth, com- 
ing there from Connecticut 1808, with his mother and his 
stepfather, John Smith, one of the pioneers in coal opera- 
tions in Plymouth. He was the son of Samuel French of 
Weston, Conn., and his wife, Frances (Holberton) French, 
widow of John Smith, and grandson of Samuel French of 
Weston, 1766, a soldier of the Revolution, and his wife, 
Sarah Hall, daughter of Nathaniel Hall. He was a descend- 
ant of Captain William French of Billerica, Mass., 1634 — 
thus William — Thomas — Frances — Samuel. 

Mrs. Esther T. Wadhams was educated at the Wyoming 
Seminary under Rev. Dr. Reuben Nelson, and at the Mora- 
vian Seminary, Bethlehem. 

She was a lady of a quiet, retiring disposition, of refined 
and historic tastes, for many years an active, consistent 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church ; one of the 
Managers of the Home for Friendless Children in Wilkes- 
Barre, and a charter member and a Manager of the Wyom- 
ing Valley Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution. 

She married Mr. Wadhams October 17. 185 1, and is sur- 
vived by seven children, three sons, Samuel French, Ralph 
Holberton, and Moses Waller, all members of this Society, 
and four daughters, Ellen Hendrick, Cornelia French, Stella 
Catlin, and Lydia French. 

Mrs. Wadhams was elected a member of this Society in 
1872, the first lady member to be elected into the Society, 
and was placed on the Life Member list in 1908. 



240 OBITUARIES. 



MEMBERS DECEASED SINCE ISSUE OF VOL. X. 



LIFE. 

Levi Ives Shoemaker. M. D., died September 27, 1909. 
Hon. Charles Dorrance Foster, died September 29, 1909. 
Mrs. Mary (Conyngham) Parrish, died October 9, 1909. 
Percy Rutter Thomas, died March 15, 1910. 
Joseph Habersham Bradley, Jr., died — 

ANNUAL. 

Mrs. Augusta (Dorrance) Farnham, died February 7, 1909. 

Samuel Henley Lynch, died April 19, 1909. 

Col. George Nicholas Richard, died September 2, 1909. 

John Laning, died September 27 ,1909. 

Mrs. Maud (Baldwin) Raub, died October 23, 1909. 

Mrs. Stella (Shoemaker) Ricketts, died November 16, 1909. 

George Shoemaker, died February 3, 1910. 

Miss Elizabeth H. Rockwell, died April 26, 1910. 

Charles Law, died July 11, 1910. 

Edward Franklin Payne, died October 17, 191 o. 

HONORARY. 

Mrs. Andrew Jackson Griffith, died May 22, 1910. 
Hon. Henry Martyn Hoyt, died November 20, 1910. 

CORRESPONDING. 

Rev. Sanford Hoadley Cobb, died 

Horace See, died December 14, 1909. 

Capt. John M. Buckalew, died May 30, 19 10. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 19 10. 



PRESIDENT. 

IRVING ARIEL STEARNS. 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

Rev. HENRY LAWRENCE JONES, S. T. D. 
Dr. LEWIS HARLOW TAYLOR, 
WILLIAM HILLARD CONYNGHAM, 
DORRANCE REYNOLDS. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN. 

Rev. HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN. 

ASSISTANT LIBRARIAN. 

Miss ERNESTINE MARTIN KAEHLIN. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

SIDNEY ROBY MINER. 

TREASURER. 

CHARLES WELLES BIXBY. 

TRUSTEES. 

ANDREW FINE DERR, ANDREW HUNLOCK, 

EDWARD WELLES, RICHARD SHARPE, 

HENRY HERBERT ASHLEY. 

CURATORS. 

Archaeology— CHRISTOPHER WREN. 
Numismatics— Rev. HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN. 
Mineralogy— WILLIAM REYNOLDS RICKETTS. 
Palaeontology— JOSHUA LEWIS WELTER. 
Palaeobotany— WILLIAM GRIFFITH. 

HISTORIOGRAPHER. 

FREDERICK CHARLES JOHNSON, M. D. 

PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. 

Rev. HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN. 

Miss MYRA POLAND. 

GEORGE FREDERICK CODD1NGTON. 



■tyX 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



HONORARY. 



Hon. Samuel Abbott Green, LL. 
♦Mrs. Andrew Jackson Griffith. 
Rev. Samuel Hart, D. D. 
*Hon. Henry Martyn Hoyt. 
*Rev. Henrv H. Jessup, D. D. 
Rt. Rev. J. M. Levering, D. D. 
Thomas Lynch Montgomerv. 
Frederick B. Peck, Ph. D. 



Hon. Samuel W. Pennypackcr. 
Joseph George Rosengarten, LL. D. 
William Eerryman Scott, Ph. D. 
Lion Gardener Tyler, LL. D. 
Rev.Ethelbert Dudley Warfield.LLD. 
David White, Washington, D. C. 
Edward H. Williams, Jr., F. G. S. A. 
Rev. William M. Beauchamp, S. T. D. 



CORRESPONDING. 



Edwin Swift Balch. 

Thomas Willing Balch. 

Edmund Mills Barton. 

T. V. Braidwood. 

D. L. Belden. 

Alfred Franklin Berlin. 

Mavnard Bixby. 

Robert Alonzo Brock, F. R. H. S. 

Philip Alexander Bruce, LL. B. 

George Butler. 

Pierce Butler. 

*Capt. John M. Buckalew. 

Gen. John S. Clark. 

*Rev. Sanford Hoadley Cobb. 

D. M. Collins. 

Stewart Culin. 

Samuel L. Cutter. 

John H. Dager. 

Charles Edmund Dana. 

Harry Cassel Davis, A. M., Ph. D. 

Gen. W r m. Watts H. Davis. 

Rev. Samuel Bayard Dod, A. M. 

Elnathan F. Duren. 

George M. Elwood. 

Prof. William Frear, Ph. D. 

Hon. John Gosse Freeze. 

Frank Butler Gay. 

William Griffith. 

P. C. Gritman. 

Francis Whiting Halsey. 

Stephen Harding. 

David Chase Harrington. 

A. L. Hartwell. 

Christopher E. Hawley. 

♦Deceased. 



Granville Henry. 

Thomas Cramer Hopkins, Ph. D. 

Ray Greene Hilling, Sc. D. 

Hon. William Huntling Jessup. 

Charles Johnson. 

John Wolfe Jordan, LL. D. 

Rev. Charles H. Kidder. 

Rev. Cornelius Rutser Lane, Ph. D. 

Dr. J. R. Loomis. 

Hon. John Maxwell. 

Edward Miller. 

Millard P. Murray. 

Arthur C. Parker. 

John Peters. 

James H. Phinney. 

Rev. J. J. Pearce. 

William Poillon. 

S. R. Reading. 

J. C. Rhodes. 

Joseph Trimble Rothrock, M. D. 

H. X. Rust, M. D. 

Lieut. Henry M. M. Richards. 

William M. Samson 

Mrs. Gertrude (Griffith) Sanders 

♦Horace See. 

W. H. Starr. 

Thomas Sweet, M. D. 

S. L. Thurlow. 

Hon. Charles Tubbs. 

Samuel French Wadhams. 

Abram Waltham. 

Mrs. Margaret (Lacoc) White. 

William Alonzo Wilcox. 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



243 



tLIFE MEMBERS. 

By payment of $100. 

FOUNDERS. 

*James Plater Dennis. 
*Col. John Butler Conyngham. 
*Hon: Henry Martyn Hoyt. 
*Hon. Stanley Woodward. 



George Slocum Bennett. 
Eckley Brinton Coxe, Jr. 
Mrs. "Sophia E. (Norris) Coxe. 
Mrs. Sophie G. (Fisher) Coxe. 
Miss Amelia Baird Hollenback. 
John Welles Hollenback. 
Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden. 
Andrew Hunlock. 
Fred Morgan Kirby. 



1BENEFACTORS. 

*Hon. Charles Abbott Miner. 

Abram Xesbitt. 

*Isaac Smith Osterhout. 

*Mrs. Elizabeth (Laning) Smith. 

Irving Ariel Stearns. 

*Gen. William Sterling Ross. 

Lewis Harlow Taylor, M. D. 

Edward Welles. 



Miss Lucy W. Abbott. 

*Lucius Ashley. 

*Mrs. Caroline (Beadle) Ashley. 

Henry "Herbert Ashley. 

Thomas Henry Atherton. 

*Miss Emily Isabella Alexander. 

*Gustav Adolph Baur. 

*Joseph Habersham Bradley, Jr. 

Mrs. Emily Fuller Bedford. 

George Reynolds Bedford. 

*Mrs. Priscilla (Lee) Bennett. 

*Miss Martha Bennet. 

Charles Welles Bixby. 

*William Brisbane, M. D. 

Robert Packer Broadhead. 

*Samuel LeRoi Brown. 

Mrs. Emily (Ryman) Burlingham. 

Mrs. Anna Bennett ( Phelps) 'Burrows. 

Hon. Sterling Ross Catlin. 

John Nesbitt Conyngham. 

William Hillard Conyngham. 

*William Lord Cnnyngham. 

*Mrs. Mae (Turner) Conyngham. 

♦Alexander Brinton Coxe. 

*Hon. Eckley Brinton Coxe. 

*John M. Crane. 

*Hon. Edmund Lovell Dana. 

* Edward Pay son Darling. 

Thomas Darling. 



*Mrs. Alice (McClintock) Darling. 

Mrs.Dorthy Ellen (Dickson) Darte. 

Andrew Fine Derr. 

Andrew Fine Derr. Jr. 

Miss Elizabeth Lowrie Derr. 

Miss Katherine Dickson Derr. 

Mrs. Mary D. (Fell) Derr. 

Mrs. Harriet (Lowrie) Derr. 

" :< Henry Haupt Derr. 

Thompson Derr. 2d. 

Mrs. Kate (Pettebone) Dickson. 

*Rev. John Dorrance, D. D. 

^Hon. Jesse Fell. 

*Liddon Flick. 

*Hon. Charles Dorrance Foster. 

Mrs. Mary Jane ( Hoagland) Foster. 

Alexander Farnham. 

*Lt. Joseph Wright Graeme. L'.S.X. 

Mrs. Sarah H. (Wright) Guthrie. 

*Col. Elisha Atherton Hancock. 

*Hon. Garrick Mallery Harding. 

Henry Harrison Harvey. 

* Jamison Harvey. 

Mrs. Jennie (DeWitt) Harvey. 

James C. Haydon. 

Frederick Hillman. 

George Baker Hillman. 

♦Henry Baker Hillman. 



244 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



Miss Anna Welles Hollenback. 

Miss Julictta Geneve Hollenback. 

♦George Matson Hollenback. 

♦Miss Elizabeth Waller Horton. 

♦Francis William Hunt. 

♦Charles Farmer Ingham, M. D. 

Frederick Charles Johnson, M. D. 

Frederick Green Johnson. 

♦Edwin Horn Jones. 

♦Richard Jones. 

*Ralph Dupuy Lacoe. 

Woodward Leavenworth. 

♦Woodward Leavenworth, Jr. 

George Cahoon Lewis. 

♦Edward Sterling Loop. 

Charles Nbyes Loveland. 

Miss Elizabeth Shepard Loveland. 

♦George Loveland. 

♦William Loveland. 

♦William Ross Maffet 

Col. John Miner Carey Marble. 

Alvin Markle. 

Andrew Hamilton McClintock. 

♦Mrs. Auemsta (Cist) McClintock. 

Col. Asher Miner. 

Mrs. Eliza Ross (Atherton) Miner. 

Charles Howard Miner. M. D. 

Sidney Roby Miner. 

♦Charles Morgan. 

♦Lawrence Myers. 

Abram Goodwin Xesbitt. 

Frederick Xesbitt. 

♦George Francis Xesbitt. 

♦Mrs. Sara Myers (Goodwin) Xesbitt 

Daniel Edwards Newell. 

Mrs. Esther (Shoemaker; Xorris. 

♦Lewis Compton Paine. 

♦Rev. Xathan Grier Parke, D. D. 

♦Charles Parrish. 

♦Mrs. Marv (Convneham) Parrish. 

Mrs. Ella (Reets) Parish. 

♦Calvin Parsons. 

Maj. Oliver Alphonsa Parsons. 

Joseph Emmet Patterson. 

William Grant Payne. 

William Theodore Payne. 

♦Payne Pettebone. 

Francis Alexander Phelps. 

♦John Case Phelps. 

Mrs. Martha (Bennett) Phelps. 

William John Raeder. 

♦John Reichard, Jr. 

•Deceased. 



Benjamin Reynolds. 

♦Mrs. Annie B. (Dorrance) Reyn 

Dorrance Reynolds. M. A., LL. B. 

Miss Edith Lindsley Reynolds. 

♦Col. George Murray Reynolds. 

Schuyler Lee Reynolds. 

♦William Champion Reynolds. 

Robert Bruce Ricketts, 2d. 

William Reynolds Ricketts. 

♦Ferdinand Vandevere Rockafellow. 

Mrs. Charlotte M. (Rose) Ryman. 

♦William Penn Ryman. 

Miss Rosalys Ryman. 

Theodore F. Ryman. 

Joseph John Schooley. 

Miss Caroline Johnston Sharpe. 

Miss Elizabeth Montgomery Sharpe. 

Miss Mary A. Sharpe. 

♦Richard Sharpe, Sr. 

Richard Sharpe. 

Richard Sharpe, Jr. 

♦Mrs. Sally (Patterson) Sharpe. 

Miss Sallie Sharpe. 

Miss Rosa Duncan Sharpe. 

♦Arthur Yeager Shepherd. 

Miss Esther Shoemaker Stearns. 

Addison Alexander Sterling. 

Forrest Garrison Stevens. 

Mrs. Sarah Covell (Maffet) Stevens. 

Walter S. Stewart, M. D. 

Charles Jones Shoemaker. 

Mrs. C. W. (Scranton) Shoemaker. 

Miss Jane Augusta Shoemaker. 

♦Hon. Lazarus Denison Shoemaker. 

♦Levi Ives Shoemaker, M. D. 

Thomas Kirkbride SturdevanL 

James Sutton. 

♦John Henry Swoyer. 

Mrs. Sarah '(Xesbitt) Smyth*. 

Miss Katharine Conynghatn Snyder. 

Miss Eleanor Parrish Snyder. 

Mrs. Emily (Hollenback) Taylor. 

♦Percy Rutter Thomas. 

Miss Sallie Brinton Thomas. 

♦Ephriam Troxell. 

Miss Rosa Troxell. 

Mrs. Martha (Sharpe) Tucker. 

John Augustus Turner. 

Louis Hollenback TwyerTorth. 

♦Hon. Samuel Gonsalus Turner. 

♦Stephen Buckingham Vaughn. 

♦Mrs. Esther T. (French) VVadh 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



245 



*Calvin Wadhams. 

Raymond Lynde Wadhams, M. D. 

*Rcv. David Jcwett Waller. 

Edward Welles, Jr. 

*Rev. Henry Hunter Welles, D. D. 

George Woodward, M. D. 

Christopher Wren. 

Anthony Lawrence Williams. 



*Mrs. Emily L. (Cist) Wright. 
♦Harrison Wright, M. A., Ph. D. 
Harrison Wright, 3d. 
George Riddle Wright. 
♦Hon. Jacob Ridgway Wright. 
Mrs. Margaret M. (Myers) Yeager. 
♦Elias Baylits Yordy. 



'Deceased. 



Total Life Members 
Subscriptions due . 



198 
7 



-205 



EXTRACT FROM BY-LAWS. 

f"The payment of one hundred dollars at one time by a member not in 
arrears, shall constitute him a life member, with an exemption from all future 
payments. 

"All moneys received on account of life membership, shall be securely in- 
vested by the Trustees in the name of the Society, and shall form a fund to 
be called The Life Membership Fund,' the interest only of which shall be 
available for the uses of the Societ}'. 

$"Any person contributing to the society at one time a fund of one thou- 
sand dollars or more shall be placed on the list of Life Members with the title 
of 'Benefactor.' The Life Membership list shall be published annually." 



The life member is entitled to all the publications and privileges of the 
Society, free, and by the payment of his fee establishes a permanent memorial 
of his name which never expires, but always bears interest for the benefit of 
the Society. His is therefore always a living membership. 



246 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



William Murray Alexander. 
Felix Ansart. 

Mrs. Mary S. (Butler) Ayres. 
Jesse Beadle. 
Andre Alden Beaumont. 
Col. Eugene Beauharnais Beaumont, 
Paul Bedford. [U. S. A. 

Reuben Nelson Bennett. 
Stephen Beers Bennett. 
Ziba Piatt Bennett. 
Miss B. Isabel Bertels. 
James Martin Boland. 
Miss Ella Bowman. 
Prof. Jacob P. Breidinger. 
Thomas W. Brown. 
John Cloves Bridgman. 
Elmer Ellsworth Buckman. 
Ernest Ustick Buckman, M. D. 
J. Arthur Bullard, M. D. 
E. L. Bullock. 
Douglass Bunting. 
Edmund Nelson Carpenter. 
Walter Samuel Carpenter. 
Benjamin Harold Carpenter. 
George H. Catlin 
Frederick M. Chase. 
Miss Sara Wood Crary. 
George Frederick Coddington. 
Herbert Conyngham. 
Mrs. Bertha (Wright) Conyngham. 
Johnson R. Coolbaugh. 
Prof. James Martin Coughlin. 
Franck George Darte. 
Luther Curran Darte. 
Mrs. Louise (Kidder) Davis. 
Arthur D. Dean. 
Harold Davenport Deemer. 
Chester Berger Derr. 
J. Benjamin Dimmick. 
Benjamin Dorrance. 
♦Deceased. 



Miss Anne Dorrance. 

Gen. Charles Bowman Dougherty. 

Francis Douglass. 

Mrs. Ella (Bicking) Emory. 

Barnet Miller Espy. 

*Mrs. Augusta (Dorrance) Farnham. 

George H. Flanagan. 

Alexander Gray Fell, M. D. 

Daniel Ackley Fell, Jr. 

Hon. George Steele Ferris. 

Harry Livingston French. 

James Henry Fisher. 

Ferdinand S. Fowler. 

Henry Amzi Fuller. 

Mrs. Annette (Jenkins) Gorman. 

Thomas Graeme. 

Charles H. Gillam. 

Edward Gunster. 

Mrs. Mary Richardson Hand. 

Maj. John Slosson Harding. 

Miss Caroline Ives Harrower. 

Charles D. S. Harrower. 

Miss Mary Harvey. 

Oscar Jewell Harvey. 

Lord Butler Hillard. 

Oliver Charles Hillard. 

Tuthill Reynolds Hillard. 

Arthur Hillman. 

John Justin Hines. 

S. Alexander Hodge. 

F. Lee Hollister, D. D. S. 

John T. Howell. M. D. 

Miss Augusta Hoyt. 

Charles Frederick Huber. 

Miss Anna Mercer Hunt. 

Charles Parrish Hunt. 

Lea Hunt. 

Edmund Hurlburt. 

Miss Emma J. Jenkins. 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



247 



James E. Jenkins. 

Albert Beardsley Jcssup. 

Mrs. Georgia P. Johnson. 

Mrs. Grace (Derr) Johnson. 

Rev. Henry Lawrence Jones, S. T. D. 

Miss .Ernestine Martin Kaehlin. 

Mrs. Amelia Maria (Carter) Kennedy. 

Frederick Charles Kirkendall. 

Ira Mandeville Kirkendall. 

Elliott P. Kisner. 

Charles P. Knapp, M. D. 

George Brubaker Kulp. 

James F. Labagh. 

*John Laning. 

William Arthur Lathrop. 

*Charles Law. 

Elmer Henry Lawall. 

Charles Wilbur Laycock. 

George Washington Leach, Sr. 

George Washington Leach, Jr. 

Edwin T. Long. 

Charles W. Lee. 

Henry Lees. 

Charles Jonas Long. 

Mrs. Dora (Rosenbaum) Long. 

*Samuel H. Lynch. 

Miss Martha Adelia Maffet. 

George Roberts McLean. 

William Swan McLean, Sr. 

William Swan McLean, Jr. 

Miss Frances C. Markham. 

Enoch Wright Marple. 

Granville Thomas Matlack, M. D. 

Mrs. Helen (Reynolds) Miller. 

Benjamin Franklin Morgan. 

Charles Evans Morgan. 

*Thomas Milnor Morris. 

Eugene Worth Mulligan. 

Charles Francis Murray. 

Theodore L. Newell. 

Robert VanAlstine Xorris. 

Mrs. Anna (Miner) Oliver. 

♦Deceased. 



Miss Frances J. Overton. 

Miss Priscilla Lee Paine. 

Edward FYanklin Payne. 

Hon. Henry W. Palmer. 

Frank Pardee. 

Major Harry W. Pierce. 

Israel Piatt Pardee. 

Frank Ellsworth Parkhurst. 

William Henry Peck 

Mrs. Frances (Overfield) Piatt. 

Miss Myra Poland. 

Frank Puckey. 

Robert A. Quin. 

John W. Raeder. 

William Lafayette Raeder. 

*Mrs. Maud (Baldwin) Raub. 

*Col. George Nicholas Reichard. 

Benjamin Reynolds. 

John Butler Reynolds. 

Mrs. Mabel (Doudge) Reynolds. 

Hon. Charles Edmund Rice. 

William H. Richmond. 

Mrs. Elizabeth (Reynolds) Ricketts. 

Col. Robert Bruce Ricketts. 

*Mrs.Stella M. ( Shoemaker) Ricketts. 

Robert Patterson Robinson. 

J. Irving Roe, M. D. 

*Miss Elizabeth H. Rockwell. 

Arthello Ross Root. 

Leslie Sturdevant Ryman. 

John Edward Sayrc. 

Rev. Marcus Salzman. 

Christian H. Scharer. 

Charles William Spayd, M. D. 

Rev. Levi L. Sprague, D. D. 

Miss Cornelia Wilcox Stark. 

Capt. Cyrus Straw. 

Seligman J. Strauss. 

Harry Clayton Shepherd. 

William Carver Shepherd. 

E. H. Stevenson. 

Mrs. Lydia (Atherton) Stites. 



248 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



Harry B. Schooley. Mrs. Frances D. Lynde Wadhams. 

Archie Carver Shoemaker, M. D. Moses Waller Wadhams. 

*George Shoemaker. Ralph Holberton Wadhams. 

Harold Mercer Shoemaker. Levi Ellmaker Waller. 

William Mercer Shoemaker. Samuel D. Warriner. 

Hon. William J. Scott. William O. Washburn. 

Archibald DeWitt Smith. Hon. Louis Arthur Watres. 

Dr. Louise M. Stoeckel-Lunquist. Hon. Frank W. Wheaton. 

Frank Sturdevant Stone. Henry Hunter Welles, Jr. 

William Romaine Stall. Mrs. Stella H. Welles. 

Edward Warren Sturdevant. Theodore Ladd Welles. 

Miss Ella Urquhart Sturdevant. Joshua Lewis Welter. 

William Henry Sturdevant. James Pryor Williamson. 

Walter Coray Sutherland. William Dwight White. 

Prof. William E. Traxler. John Butler Woodward. 

William Stark ^ompkins. John B. Yeager. 
Mrs. Ellen Elizabeth (Miner) Thomas. Frederick E. Zerby. 
Rev. Frederick von Krug, D. D. 

♦Deceased. Annual Members . 198 
Died 7 

Living 191 

Life Members ... 198 

Total 389 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF THK 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, 

Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. 



PROCEEDINGS AND COLLECTIONS. Vols. i-io. Wilkes- 
Barre, 1858-1909. 8vo. pp. 248-[-298-|-i28-|-243-!-268-|-346-|-26o- 
1 -329- 1 -250- 1 -256. $39.00. 

CONTENTS. 

—Vol. I, No. 1. Mineral Coal. Two Lectures, by Volney L. Max- 
well. 1858. pp. 52. Reprinted as follows: 2d edition, N. Y., 
1858; 3d edition, with a preface, N. Y., i860, pp. 52; 4th edition, 
with a preface, Wilkes-Barre, 1869, pp. 51. $1.00 each. 

No. 2. Proceedings at the Annual Meeting, February 11. 
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dress, by Steuben Jenkins. 1881. pp. 58. Out of Print. 

No. 3. Proceedings for the year ending February 11, 1882; 
List of Contributors: Communication of John H. Dager (of 
gauge readings at Wilkes-Barre bridge for 1880) ; Meteorologi- 
cal observations for May, iSSi-January, 1882, by E. L. Dana; 
Incidents in the life of Capt. Samuel H. Walker, Texan Ranger, 
by Gen. E. L. Dana. 18S1. pp. 58. $0.50. 

No. 4. A Memorandum Description of the Finer specimens 
of Indian Earthenware Pots in the collection of the Society. By 
Harrison Wright, Ph. D. 18S3. pp. (10). Seven heliotype 
plates. Out of Print. 

No. 5. List of Palaeozoic Fossil Insects of the United States 
and Canada, with references to the principal Bibliography of the 
Subject. Paper read April 6, 18S3, by R. D. Lacoc. 1883. PP- 
21. $0.50. 

No. 6. Proceedings for the Year ending February it. 1S83; 
List of Contributors; Meteorological Observations. February, 
1882-January, 1SS3, by Gen. E. L. Dana. pp. 70. $075. 

No. 7. Isaac Smith Osterhout. Memorial. 1883. pp. 14. 
Portrait. $0.75. Out of Print. 

No. 8. Ross Memorial. General William Sterling Ross and 
Ruth Tripp Ross. 18S4. Two portraits. 1858-1884. $vo. pp. 
17. $1.00. 

Title page. Contents. Index, pp. xi. Wilkes-Barre, 1884. 






250 PUBLICATIONS. 

— Vol. II. Part I. Charter; By-Laws; Roll of Membership; Pro- 
ceedings, March, 1883-February, 1884; Meteorological Observa- 
tions taken at Wilkes-Barre, 5larch, 1883 -January, [884, by K. 
L. Dana; Report of the Special Archaeological Committee on 
the Athens locality, by Harrison Wright ; *Local Shell Beds, by 
Sheldon Reynolds; Pittston Fort, by Steuben Jenkins: *A Bib- 
liography of the Wyoming Valley, by Rev. Horace Edwin 
Hayden; Calvin Wadhams, by Geo. B. Kulp. Illustrated. 

Part II. Proceedings. May 9, 1884-February 11, 1SS6: Arch- 
aeological Report, by Sheldon Reynolds; Xumismaticii Report 
by Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden ; Palaeontological Report, by R. 
D. Lacoe ; Mineralogical Report, by Harrison Wricht: Con- 
chological Report, by Dr. Charles F. Ingham ; Contributions to 
Library; Meteorological Observations taken at Wilkes-Barre 
February, 1884-January, 1886, by E. L. Dana : *Rev. Bernard 
Page, by Sheldon Reynolds; ^Various Silver and Copper Medals 
presented to the American Indians by the Sovereigns of Eng- 
land, France and Spain, from 1600 to 1800. by Rev. Horace 
Edwin Hayden ; *Report on some Fossils from the lower coal 
measures near Wilkes-Barre, by E. W. Ciaypoie : *Repcrt on the 
Wyoming Valley Carboniferous Limestone Beds, by Charles A. 
Ashburner ; Obituaries, by George B. Kulp. Index. 1SS6. pp. 
294. Illustrated, $3.00. 

— Vol. III. In Memoriam. Harrison Wright, A. M. Ph. D. ; Pro- 
ceedings of the Societv; Biographical Sketch bv G. B. Kulp: 
♦Literary Work, by Sheldon Reynolds, M. A.: Poem, by D. M. 
Jones; Luzerne County Bar Proceedings; Trustees of Oster- 
hout Free Library Resolutions; Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, proceedings. 1886. 8vo., pp. 128. Portrait, $3.00. 

— Vol. IV. Proceedings, 1893-1898; Reports of Orncers: Memoir of 
Sheldon Reynolds, Esq. ; *History of First Presbyterian Church. 
Wilkes-Barre, S. Reynolds; * Addresses by President Wood- 
ward, Opening of the New Building of the Society, and The 
Yankee and Pennamite in Wyoming Vallev. 1801 : The Bell of 
the Old Ship Zion, Rev. N. G. Parke, D. D. : *the Connecticut 
Charter and the Declaration of Independence, Rev. W. G. 
Andrews, D. D. ; Marriages and Deaths in Wyoming Yailey. 
1826-1836, Geo. C. Lewis; Obituaries of Members, W. E. Wood- 
ruff; *Charter, By-Laws and Officers. 185S-180Q: Orncers and 
Members 1S99; Portraits; Papers read, 185^-1800. 8vo. pp. 243. 
Index. Plates. Wilkes-Barre, 1899. $3.00. 

— Vol. V. Proceedings, 1898-1S99; Reports of orncers: *Rev. John 
Witherspoon. D. D.. Mrs. C. E. Rice: The Defence oi the . 
ware River in the Revolutionary War, Capt. H. H. Bellas, U. S. 
A.; *The French at Asylum. Rev. David Craft: *The Early 
Grist-Mills of Wyoming Valley, Hon. C. A. Miner: Drift 
Mounds of the Susquehanna Valley. Dr. Frederic Corss : Fos- 
sils in the River Drift at Pittston. Dr. Frederic Corss: Buried 
Valley and Pot Holes in the Wyoming Coal Fields, Dr. Freder:o 
Corss; *Lacoe Collection of Palaeozoic Fossils: Lis: of Ttx- 

*Papers privately printed. 



PUBLICATIONS. 25 1 

ables, Wyoming Valley, 1776-1780, Rev. H. E. Hayden; Obitu- 
aries, W. E. Woodruff; Officers and Members, 1900; Contribu- 
tors. 8vo pp. 264. Index. Plates. Wilkes-Barre, 1900. $3.00. 

— Vol. VI. Proceedings, 1900; Reports of officers; Investigation of 
the Buried Valley of Wyoming (Map), by Mr. William Griffith; 
*Memorial Ralph Dupuy Lacoe, Sketch of Ralph Dupuy Lacoe, 
by Rev. H. E. Hayden ; *Mr. Lacoe's Relation to Science, by 
Mr. David White; Centennial of Luzerne County, 1786-1886; 
Chevalier De La Luzerne, by Hon. E. L. Dana, annotated by 
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W. H. Egle, M. D. ; The Progress of Printing in Luzerne 
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by W. P. Ryman, Esq. Illustrations; Original Draught of the 
Public Commons and the Public Square of Wilkes-Barre, Rev. 
H. E. Hayden; Records of the First Presbyterian Church, 
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of Susquehanna Co. (1819), Rev. H. E. Hayden; Obituaries of 
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by Wesley E. Woodruff, James Henry Bowden ; Officers and 
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Contributors and Exchanges. Index. 8vo., pp. 346. Wilkes- 
Barre, 1902. Plates. $5.00. 

— Vol. VII. Proceedings, 1901 ; Reports of officers; *Kansas Gla- 
ciation and its effects on the River System of Northern Penn'a. 
Prof. E. H. Williams, Jr.; Anthracite Coal in Wyoming Valley; 
"Cist vs. Fell" or the Domestic Use of Anthracite Coal, W. P. 
Miner; Reminiscences of Early Wilkes-Barre, S. H. Lynch; 
Annual Address of the President, Hon. S. Woodward; Educa- 
tional Value of the Society, Rev. Dr. H. L. Jones; Echoes of 
the Massacre of Wyoming, David Washburn's account. Elisha 
Harding's account, Rev. H. E. Hayden ; Orderly Book of Col. 
Zebulon Butler, August-October, 1778, Rev. H. E. Hayden; 
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ber, 1778, Rev. H. E. Hayden; Early History of Putnam Town- 
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S. Judson Stark; Marriage and Death Record of Rev. John 
Miller, Abington, Pa., 1802-1856, A. D. Dean; Records of Mar- 
riages and Deaths, Wyoming, 1797-1810, Rev. H. E. Hayden; 
Obituaries of Deceased Members, Rev. H. E. Hayden; Officers 
and Members, 1902. Contributions. Publications. Index, pp. 
260. Plates. 1902. $3.00. 

— Vol. VIII. Proceedings, 1902; Reports of Officers: *The Atlan- 
tosaur and Titanotherium Beds of Wyoming, Prof. F. B. Peck, 
Ph. D. ; *The Buried Valley of Wyoming, Frederic Corss, M. 
D.; *A Day at Asylum, Pa., Rev. Dr. Craft; The "Gravel Creek" 
Indian Stone, Rev. H. E. Hayden ; *The Stone Age, Remains of 
the Stone Age in the Wyoming Valley and along the Susque- 

*Papers privately printed. 



252 PUBLICATIONS. 

hanna River, Christopher Wren; Jesse Fell's Experimental 
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Wyoming Valley, 1742-1763, F. C. Johnson, M. D. ; *The Rem- 
iniscences of David Hayiield Conyngham, 1750-1834, Rev. H. E. 
Hayden ; Wyoming Valley Marriages, 1850-1890, Rev. H. H. 
Welles, D. D. ; Obituaries of Deceased Members, Rev. H. E. 
Hayden; Officers and Members, 1903-1904. Contributions. Pub- 
lications. Index, pp. 330. 1904. Plates. $5.00. 

— Vol. IX. Proceedings; Reports of Officers; Geology and Pale- 
ontology of Patagonia, Prof. William Berryman Scott, Ph. D. ; 
*Pioneer Physicians of Wyoming Valley, 1771-1825, Frederick 
C. Johnson, M. D. ; Early Smoking Pipes of the North American 
Indians, Alfred F. Berlin ; ^Aboriginal Pottery of the Wyo- 
ming Valley — Susquehanna River Region, Penn'a, Christopher 
Wren; Roman Catholic Indian Relics in the Society Collec- 
tions, Charles F. Hill; The Early Bibliography of Pennsylvania. 
Hon. Sam'l W. Pennypacker ; The Expedition of Col. Thomas 
HartW against the Indians in 1778, Rev. David Craft; The 
Zebulon Butler Tablet, and the Zebulon Butler Ethnological 
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— Vol. X. Proceedings; Reports of Officers; Wyoming Anthracite 
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Address, John W. Jordan, LL. D. ; Results of Judge Fell's Ex- 
periment, William Griffith, C. E. ; Remarks on the same, with 
illustrations, William Griffith, C. E. ; Account of the Anthracite 
Mines about Wilkes-Barre, 1821. Jacob Cist; Glacial Rock on 
Shawnee Mountain, Plymouth, Dr. Frederic Corss ; Muster 
Roll of Capt. Henry Shoemaker's Co., Northampton. Pa. 
Rangers, 1781. Olden Times in Bradford County, Pa., Joseph 
W. Ingham; Original Letter from William Penn, Rev. H. E. 
Hayden ; Captive and Rescue of Rosewell Franklin"s Family, by 
Indians, 1782, Rev. David Craft; Marriages and Deaths. Wyo- 
ming Valley, 1810-1818, Rev. H. E. Hayden: Continental Com- 
mission of Col. Zebulon Butler, 1779. Editor. Turtle Shell Rattles 
from Indian Graves, Bradford County. Penn'a, Christopher 
Wren; Memorial Tablet to Frances Slocum. Rev. H. E. Hay- 
den; Memorial Tablet to Lt. Col. George Dorrance. Rev. H. E. 
Hayden; U. S. Revolutionary Pensioners, Bradford and Lui 
Counties, Penn'a, 1S35, Rev. H. E. Hayden; Bi« 
Sketches of Deceased Members, Rev. H. E. Hayden and Dr. F. 
C. Johnson; Officers and Members of the Society. Index., pp. 
256. 38 illustrations. $3.50. 

•Papers privately printed. 



PUBLICATIONS. 253 

PAMPHLET TITLES. 

A Circular of Inquiry from the Society respecting the old Wilkes- 
Barre Academy. Prepared by Harrison Wright, Ph. D., Wilkes- 
Barre, 1883. 8vo., pp. 19. $0.25. 

The Old Academy. Interesting Sketch of its forty-six trustees. 
Harrison Wright, Ph. D. Broadside, 1883. $0.25. 

Circular on Life Membership. 1884. 4to., p. 1. 

Charter, By-Laws and List of Members of the Society, Wilkes- 
Barre, 1885. 8vo., pp. 24. $0.25. 

Circular of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Erection of 
Luzerne County. 

Coal, its Antiquity. Discovery and early development in the Wyo- 
ming Valley. A paper read before the Society, June 27, 1890, by 
Geo. B. Kulp, Historiographer of the Society, Wilkes-Barre, 
1890. Seal. 8vo., pp. 27. $0.50. 

Notes on the Tornado of Aug. 19, 1890, in Luzerne and Columbia 
counties. A paper read before the Society Dec. 12, 1890, by 
Prof. Thomas Santee, Principal of the Central High School. 
Seal. 8vo., pp. 51. Map. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1891. $1.00. 

In Its New Home. The Wyoming Historical and Geological Society 
takes formal possession of its new quarters. Address of Hon. 
Stanley Woodward. Nov. 21. 1893. 8vo., pp. 4. 

The Massacre of Wyoming. The Acts of Congress for the defense 
of the Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, 1776-177S; with the 
Petitions of the sufferers by the Massacre of July 3, 177S, for 
Congressional aid. With an introductory chapter by Rev. 
Horace Edwin Hayden, M. A., Corresponding Secretary Wyo- 
ming Historical and Geological Society. Seal. 8vo.. frontis- 
piece, pp. 119. Printed for the Society. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1895. 
$1.50. 

Bibliography of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1896. 8vo., pp. 4. 

Pedigree Building. Dr. W r illiam H. Egle. 1S96. pp. 4. 

The Yankee and the Pennamite in the Wyoming Valley. Hon. 
Stanley Woodward, 1896; pp. 4. 

The Frontier Forts within the Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania. A 
report of the Commission appointed by the State to mark the 
Forts erected against the Indians prior to 1783, by Sheldon 
Reynolds, M. A., a Member of the Commission, and President 
of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. With a 
brief Memoir of the author, by Andrew H. McClintock. M. A. 
* Read before the Society December, 1894, an d reprinted from 
The State Report, 1896. Seal. Wilkes-Barre, Penn'a, 1S96. 
8vo., pp. 48. Illustrations. $1.00. 

The Frontier Forts within the North and West Branches of the 
Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania. A Report of the Commis- 
sion appointed by the State to mark the Frontier Forts erected 
against the Indians prior to 17S3, by Captain John M. Buckalew, 
a Member of the Commission, and Corresponding Member of 
the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. Read before 



254 PUBLICATIONS. 

the Society October 4, 1895, and reprinted from the State Report, 
1896. Seal. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1896. 8vo., pp. 70. Illustra- 
tions. $1.00. 

The Military Hospitals at Bethlehem and Lititz, Penn'a, during the 
Revolutionary War, by John Woolf Jordan. A paper read be- 
fore the Society, April 10, 1896. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1896. 8vo., 
pp. 23. $1.00. 

The Palatines ; or, German Immigration to New York and Pennsyl- 
vania. A paper read before the Society by Rev. Sanford H. 
Cobb of Albany, N. Y. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1897. 8vo., pp. 30. 
$0.50. 

John and Sebastian Cabot. A Four Hundredth Anniversary Me- 
morial of the Discovery of America, by Harry Hakes, M. D. 
Read before the Society June 24, 1897. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1897. 
8vo., pp. 14. $0.40. 

Address by Mrs. John Case Phelps, on the occasion of the erection 
of a monument at Laurel Run, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. 
September 12, 1896, to mark the spot where Capt. Joseph Davis, 
and Litutenant W'illiam Jones of the Pennsylvania Line were 
slain by the Indians, April 2^, 1779; with the *Sketch of these 
two officers by Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, M. A. Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa., 1897. 8vo., pp. 41. $1.00. 

The German Leaven in the Pennsylvania Loaf. Read before the 
Society May 21, 1897, by H. M. M. Richards. 8vo., pp. 27. 
Wilkes-Barre, 1897. $0.50. 

A Honduras Trip, Hon. J. Ridgway Wright, 1S98. pp. 10. 

Charter, By-Laws and Officers, 1S58-1899; Members. Papers, 1S58- 
1899; Contributors, &c, 8vo., pp. 36. Wilkes-Barre, 1899. $0.25. 

History, Charter, By-Laws and List of Officers, Members, etc., with 
Bibliography of the Society, etc., etc. 8vo., pp. 44. Wilkes- 
Barre, 1907. $0.25. 

•Papers privately printed. 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



ZSJ 



The Membership List is Alphabetically Arranged. 



Abbott, John, 171. 
Ackerly, Lafayette C, 220. 
Adams, Asa, 227. 
Adams, Caroline, 214. 
Adams, Jedediah, 225. 
Agan, Harriet, 216. 
Akers, William, 229. 
Albro, Zeno, 214. 
Allen, Ethan, 187. 
Allen, M, A., 215. 
Allis, Sally, 218. 
Alsop, George, 78. 
Anderson, Dr. Jos., 95. 
Andrews, Rev. W. G., 194 
Armstrong, John, 213. 
Armstrong, Mary, 212. 
Armstrong, Ziha, 213. 
Arms, Catherine, 216. 
Arnold, Jonathan, 229. 
Ashbow, Samuel, 108. 
Atherton, Mr., 212. 
Atherton, E. A., 213. 
Atherton, Harriet, 215. 
Atherton, Ira C, 214. 
Atherton, Joseph, 213. 
Atherton, Lucretia, 213. 
Atherton, Martha. 218. 
Atherton, Phebe A., 218. 
Aton, Darius C, 218. 
Aton, J. C, 219. 
Atwater, Margaret, 216. 
Austin, Ann A., 215. 
Avery, Christopher, 164, 

199. 
Avery David, 126, 127, 
Avery, Humphrey, 164. 
Avery, Capt. James, 107. 
Avery, Samuel, 164. 
Axford, Sarah A., 214. 
Ayres, Alvin, 219. 
Ayres, Elizabeth, 213. 

Bailey, Miss, 197. 

Baleom, Nathaniel, 227. 

Baldwin, Carrie, 218. 

Baker, Ann, 223. 

Baker, Zebulon, 223. 

Ballard, Isaac, 227. 

Barber, Jonathan, 116, 123. 

Barnes, N. D., 218. 

Barnes, Nehemiah, 225. 

Barnes, Roxana, 219. 

Barnum, Zenas, 215. 

Barney, Elbert N., 219. 

Bass, Brooks A., 218. 

Bass, George, 217. 

Bass, Henry, 220. 

Barton, George \V., 210. 

Baur, Rev. Frederick j., 234. 

Baur, Gustav Adolph, 234, 236. 

Baur, Kate, 236. 

Baur, Robert, 233, 234. 236. 

Baur, Rev. Samuel, 233. 

Blackman, William, 215. 



167, 169, 
36, 140. 



Blausham, Russell, 217. 

Bradley, Abraham, 23. 

Bradley, Jos. H., 240. 

Branning, Bell, 220. 

Brant, Joseph, 70, 120, 146, 148, 

BeagVe, H. M. S., 47- 

Beauchamp, Rev. W. M., 93. 

Beckwith, Rev. Geo., 160, 166. 

Beehee, Reuben, 227. 

Bennett, Abel, 214. 

Bennett, Amos, 227. 

Bennett, Elias, 225. 

Bennett, George S., 10, 24, 26. 30. 

Bennet, John, 229. 

Bennett, Ruby, 214. 

Bennett, Stephen. 229. 

Benedict, Mary E., 235. 

Benedict, Olive A., 219. 

Benedict, Parmelia, 213. 

Benham, Zedekiah, 229. 

Benson, Peter, 224. 

Berge, J. H., 216. 

Berlin, A. F., 87. 

Bevan, Benjamin, 216. 

Bigelow. James, 229. 

Bisbee, M. D., 118. 

Bisbee, Seth, 225. 

Bishop, Henry R., 215. 

Brighthaupts. Charles, 27. 

Bremmer. Mr., 149, 150. 

Britton, Milton. 214. 

Boardman. Orlando, 213. 

Bogard. Marv, 213. 

Bolles, John, 198. 

Bond, Mary, 214. 

Bonnell, John, 229. 

Borden, Marian, 236. 

Bous, Henry, 214. 

Bow en, Benjamin, 213. 

Bowman. E., 14. 

Boyd. James, 237. 

Bloom, Hannah. 216. 

Brodhead, Garrett. 224. 

Brown, Almira. 232. 

Brown, Carlton C. 232. 

Brown, Catharine. 215. 

Brown, Elmira, 214. 

Brown, Isaac, 22,-. 

Brown, Jane, 213. 

Brown, Mary O., 214. 

Brown, Mary, 216. 

Brown, Philip P.. 211. 

Brown, Robert C, 232. 

Brown, Russell S., 232. 

Brown, Samuel L.. 231. 

Brown, Stanley W., 2.; 2. 

Brown, Thomas W.. 232. 

Brownell, Etosell, tao. 

Brownson, Isaac. 1*5. 

Buchanan, Alexander. 124. 

Buckalew. John M., 240. 

Budd, Bristoll. 225. 

Buel, Nathan. 2--. 

Bulford, Albon, 197. 



256 



INDEX. 



Bulford, Mary, 197. 

Burdick, William P., 217. 

Bush, Martha, 217. 

Butler, Anne, 236. 

Butler, Mrs. Lydia, no, 177, 182, 

192. 
Butler, Charles E., 23. 
Butler, Col. John, 25, 120, 175. 
Butler, J. II.. 217. 
Butler, Gen. Lord, 140, 236. 
Butler, Ruth Ann, 236. 
Butler, Steuben, 23. 
Butler, Waiter N., 71, 120. 
Butler, Col. Zebulon, 23, 24, 25, 30, 

71, no, 127, 130, 161, 167, 168, 

1/6, 177, i/9> 192, 236. 
Butler, Capt. Zebulon, 92. 
Blame, Peter, 215. 
Blume, R. A., 217. 
Brundage, Daniel, 214. 

Callender, Harriet, 213. 
Callender, Hortcn, 213. 
Callender, Lucina, 213. 
Callender, Newell, 213. 
Calter, Mary, 2-55. 
Calvert, Lord, 12. 
Campbell, Lewis, 219. 
Canday, George, 215. 
Canfleld, Andrew, 227. 
Carey, Freeman H., 216. 
Carlton, G. W., 219. 
Carpenter, Louisa, 214. 
Carpenter, Sarah L., 219. 
Case, Rev. Benajah, 114. 
Case, Sarah, 215. 
Case, William, 217. 
Catlin, Eli, 225. 
Catlin, George, 88. 
Catlin Putnam, 171, 228. 
Chamberlain, Daniel, 225. 
Chamberlain, Moses, 225. 
Chamberlain, William, 225. 
Chamberlin, Emma H., 219. 
Chamberlin, Sarah, 219. 
Chapman, Ella M. W., 232. 
Chapman, I., 14. 
Chapman, John L., 216. 
Chapman, Phebe A., 219. 
Chapman, Orlando, 218. 
Chase, Henry, 214. 
Chase, 154, 156. 
Clark, Celestia, 213. 
Clark, George C. J., 114. 
Clark, Jacob D., 219. 
Clark, Jeremiah, 216. 
Clark, Judson, 216. 
Clark, Maria, 215. 
Clark, Mary, 214- 
Clark, Truman E., 220. 
Cease, P. X., 220. 
Clemons, David, 214. 
Cleveland, Mr., 115, 140. 
Cobb, Rev. S. H., 240. 
Coil, James II., 217. 
Coleman, Phebe J., 217. 
Colsher, Rebecca, 215. 
Colt, Arnold. 171. 179. 182. 
Collum, Sarah E., 219. 
Colvin, Mary E., 220. 
Congdon, Henry, 227. 
Conyngham. David H., 236. 
Conyngham, Col. John B., 238. 
Conyngham, Hon. John X., 236. 
Conyngham, John X., 9, 23S. 



Conyngham, W. H., 9. 

Conyngham, William L., 231, 236. 

Converse, Mrs. H. M., 92. 

Cook, Enos, 224. 

Coolbaugh, John, 224. 

Coon, Elizabeth, 214. 

Coon, M. E.. 217. 

Coon, Oliver, 217. 

Coons, John, 220. 

Cooper, II. S., 217. 

Corbin, William, 213. 

Corss, Dr. F. C, 19. 

Cory, Gabriel, 224. 

Courtright, M. I., 216. 

Courtright, W. S.. 215. 

Covell, Dr. Matthew, 197. 

Cowen, Mahettabel, 197. 

Cox, William, 224. 

Coxe, Mrs. A. B., 22. 

Crocker, Dyer, 227. 

Cross, Henry, 214. 

Cross, W., 44. 

Crossman, S. P., 220. 

Culin, Stewart, 27. 

Curtis, Henry, 229. 

Curtis, Moses, 215. 

Cushing, F., 97. 

Cuyle, Julia £., 220. 

Church, Joseph, 218. 

Church, Nathan C, 214. 

Dailey, Martin, 213. 

Daily, Mary A., 218. 

Dale, Matthew H., 218. 

Damon, La Grange, 214. 

Dana, Anderson, 166. 

Darran, Mary A., 218. 

Darwin, Erasmus, 45, 53. 

Darwin, Sir F., 45, 48. 

Darwin, Charles, 8, 22, 45, 64. 

Darwin, R. W., 45. 

Darrow, John, 227. 

Dart, Orpha, 213. 

Dartmouth, Lord, 147. 

Daud, Isaac. 225. 

Davenport, Emily. 215. 

Davenport, Rev. James, 107. 

Davis, Anna. 21S, 220. 

Davis, Benjamin F., 216. 

Davis, Benson, 219. 

Davis, Charles, 216, 

Davis, Elizabeth E., 218, 220. 

Davis, Tohn R. 218. 

Davis, }osiah. 227. 

Davis, Kate, 236. 

Davis, Lucy. 223. 

Davison. Francis B.. 215. 

Dean, Arthur D., 211. 

Dean, Monroe B., 21S. 

Decker, Catherine, 217. 

Decker, Ellen, 218. 

Decker, Lafayette. 217. 

Decker. Marv. 220. 

Deitrich. Peter, 220. 

Deitrick, Sarah, no. 

Delmott. John. : 1 o. 

Denning. Harriet, 235. 

Demock, David. 22J. 

Denison, Col. Xathan, 1. 76, 180. 

191. 
Denew, Xathaniel. 213. 
Pcxtcr. F. B., 106. 
Dej oe, L. W., 119. 
Dickey. Peter, tmj. 
Dimock, Kev. Davis, 221. 



INDEX. 



257 



Dimraick, B. J., 15. 
Dimmick, Edward, 227. 
Dimmock, J. B., 8. 
Dinyman, Andrew, 224. 
Dodge, E. A., 214. 
Dodge, Edgar D., 216. 
Dodge, Mary 1., 215. 
Dolph, Samuel, 215. 
Dolph, William H., 217. 
Dorrance, Miss Anne, 8, 22 t 45. 
Doremis, Edgar, 219. 
Doty, Ezra, 225. 
Downey, Rachel E., 214. 
Dyer, Elpt, 161. 

Earp, Sarah, 216. 
Edwards, Jonathan, 225. 
Edwards, J. C, 218. 
Eels, Rev. John, 114. 
Eldred, John, 225. 
Eicholst, Jacob, 24. 
Eldridge, James, 227. 
Ellis, Isaac, 217. 
Ellis, Silas, 214. 
Eliot, John, 121. 
Emerson, Stephen, 224. 
Emory, Mrs. Louis, 23, 27. 
Eno, Hannah B., 235. 
Eno, James, 235. 
Eno, Miss Jean, 236. 
Eno, Josiah W., 235, 236. 
Eno, Mrs. Louisa B., 235. 
Eno, William G., 235. 
Evans, Lewis, 215. 
Evart, Elizabeth, 218. 
Everson, W. H., 219. 

Fairchilds, H. L., 31. 

Farnham, Mrs. A. D., 26, 240. 

Farnham, Stephen T., 220. 

Faurot, John, 216. 

Franklin, Col. John, 172. 

Franklin, Gov. William, 136. 

Franklin, 187. 

Frazer, Hannah, 198. 

Frazer, Robert, 198. 

Fraber, Sarah, 198. 

Fell, Judge Jesse, 13, 14. 

Fell, Edwin, 214. 

Fellows, Kate, 218. 

Fellows, E. E., 219. 

Fellows, Sarah S., 219. 

Felts, Christopher, 215. 

Ferris, Euthenia, 215. 

Ferris, Harriet, 213. 

Ferris, Julia, 213. 

Ferris, Theron, 213. 

French, Cornelia B., 234. 

French, Esther T., 22S. 

French, Francis, 239. 

French, Lydia, 234. 

French, Samuel, 234, 238. 239. 

French, Capt. William, 239. 

Finley, Samuel. 115. 

Fish, George W., 19. 

Fish, Pardon, 227. 

Fisher, T. J., 219. 

Fitzroy, Capt., 47. 

Friant, James F., 216. 

Frink, Mary M.. 219. 

Foot, Simeon, 227. 

Foote, Miss S. C, 19. 

Ford, Abigail, 235. 

Forsman. H., 218. 

Foster, Hon. C. D., 26, 240. 



Foster, Phineas Nash, 197. 
Foster, Windsor, 217. 
Fouler, Jacob, 108. 
Fowler, Silas, 227. 
Frost, Hattie, 220. 
Fuller, Consider, 225. 
Fuller, E. S., 219. 
Fuller, Frank E., 219. 
Fuller, Lucy, 217. 
Fuller, Stephen, 168. 
Fullerton, Rev. E. G., 15. 

Galton, F., 46. 
Galton, G., 46. 
Gardner, Ashael, 213. 
Gardner, Efhe Ann, 216. 
Gardner, Linus, 215. 
Gardner, Nancy, 215. 
Gardner, Sarah, 214. 
Gates, Sylvanus, 229. 
Gathercole, George, 219. 
Glassell, John, 235. 
Glassell, Louisa B., 235. 
Glassell, Mary C, 235. 
Graeme, Alice, 232. 
Graeme, Ellen H. W., 2^2. 
Graeme, Ethel R., 2^2. 
Graeme, John, 232. 
Graeme, Lieut. Joseph W., 232. 
Graeme, Thomas, 232. 
Graham, Col., 136. 
Grattan, Mary Ann, 217. 
Gray, Rev. Andrew, 189. 
Gray, Asa, 54. 
Gray, Julia A., 217. 
Gray, Mary, 215. 
Gray, Polly, 189. 
Geisler, Sophia, 217. 
Gehling, John, 219. 
Gelat, George, 227. 
Getz, John H., 219. 
Green, James, 215. 
Green, Jesse G., 218. 
Green, T., 198, 199. 
Gregg, Frances, 215. 
Gregory, Asahel, 227. 
Grennell, Michael. 229. 
Giddings, Frances, 212. 
Giddings, James, 212. 
Giddings, L. M., 214. 
Giddings, Marv, 192. 
Giddings, N. E., 218. 
Giddings. Wm. II., 218. 
Gillett, Harvey, 220. 
Gisner, Jacob, 218. 
Griftin, Ann, 215. 
Griffin. Henrietta, 220. 
Griffin. L. L., 216. 
Griffin, S. M., 216. 
Griffin, Rittner. 218. 
Griffis, Mary. 214. 
Griffis. Stephen. 227. 
Griffith, Mrs. A. J.. 240. 
Griffith, W., 14. 
. Griner, Mary. 214. 
Griswold, John, 229. 
Gritman, Almira. 232. 
Goble, Ann, 113. 
Goble, Timothy. 213. 
Goold. Mr.. 18a. 
Gore, Elizabeth. 223. 
Gore, John. -•-•-. 
Gore, Obadiah. 187- 
Gorman, Chloe. 218. 
Gorsline, James, 215. 



258 



INDEX. 



Goss, Alitheah, 213. 
Gotshaw, Alfred, 217. 
Gnoslin, Henrietta, 218. 
Guard, Mary A., 219. 
Gustin, Dr. Lemuel, 176. 
Guthrie, Mrs. G. W., 25. 

Haines, Benjamin, 229. 

Hawes, Curtis, 215. 

Hahn, Catherine, 234. 

Hall, Elihu, Jr., 177. 

Hall, Jane, 105. 

Hall, John, 105. 

Hall, Nathaniel, 239. 

Hall, Sarah, 105, 213, 239. 

Hall, VVakeman, 229. 

Halls, Timothy, 225. 

Hancock, Col. Elisha A., 233. 

Hancock, James, 233. 

Hancock, Jonathan, 233. 

Hancock, Katherine, 233. 

Hancock, Mary, 233. 

Hancock, Thomas, 231. 

Handford, Hobart, 220. 

Harris, Arabel, 220. 

Harris, Lydia J. 219. 

Harrison, Clark, 217. 

Harrington, M. R., 92. 

Harrower, Miss C. I., 9. 

Hartman, Hattie, 220. 

Harvey, O. J., 9, 70, 71, 101, 139, 

140, 161, 169, 175, 176, 185, 189. 
Hassold, Pauline, 234, 236. 
Hayden, Rev. H. E., 26, 30, 70, 175. 
Helm, Samuel, 224. 
Heemans, Edmund, 213. 
Hendrake, Andrew, 225. 
Hendrick, Ellen, 238. 
Henry, Granville, 8. 
Hewitt, Israel, 225. 
Higby, Samuel, 217. 
Hilliard, Capt. David, 238. 
Hillard, Harriet A.,. 237. 
Hillard, Miss Olivia, 237. 
Hillard, Oliver B., 237. 
Hilliard, William, 238. 
Hillman, Arthur, 9, 25. 
Hillman, Mrs. J. W., 19, 25. 
Hilles, J., 237. 
Hills, R. C, 44. 
Hinds, Bartlett, 225. 
Hines, Ann M., 215. 
Hines, Caroline, 217. 
Hines, Susan, 215. 
Hitchcock, Abigail, 104. 
Hitchinson, Margaret W., 
Hitchcock, Ruth A., 214. 
Hitchcock, Zenas, 217. 
Hoadley, Silas, 229. 
Holberton, Frances, 239. 
Holcomb, Martha O., 218. 
Holland, Sir Henry, 46. 
Hollenback, Caroline, 213. 
Hollenback, John, 213. 
Hollenback, J. Welles. 14. 
Hollenback, Col. Matthias, 8, 14, 

176. 
Holmes, Rev. Elkanah, 188. 
Holmes, Dr. W. H., 87. 
Homan, John, 229. 
Hooker, 54. 
Hoover, Orpha, 219. 
Hopkins, T. C, 3. 8. 15. 3«« 
Hower, Alice, 219. 
Howe, E., 44. 



215. 



30, 



Hoyt, Edward E., 19. 
Hoyt, Gov. Henry M., 233, 240. 
Hubbard, C. A., 217. 
Hubbard, Martha E., 217. 
Hubbard. W. E., 220. 
Hull, Aristus T., 220. 
Hunlock, Andrew, 30. 
Hunter, Jane M., 218. 
Hurlbut, John, 188. 
Hutchinson, George W., 219. 
Hyde, John, 214. 

Igae. Ellen M., 219. 

Ingham, Dr. Charles F., 30, 178. 

Isbell, Garner, 227. 

Isby, Emily, 214. 
Tacobus, Cornelius, 215. 
fackson, Amos, 213. 
Tackson, Joshua, 226. 
Tayne, William, 215. 
Fenkins, Palmer, 213. 
Fenkins, John, 175, 176. 

jnkins. Nelson, 217. 
fenkins, Sarah, 213. 
Fennings, Jonathan, 229. 
leremiah, Martha, 219. 
Fohnson, Abigail, 104. 
Fohnson, Adelaide, 214. 
Johnson, Caleb, 176. 
Johnson, Christiana O., 196. 
Johnston, David, 224. 
Johnson, Dan, 177. 
Johnson, Enos. 177. 
Johnson, Dr. F. C., 9, 13. 17. 24, 

103. 
Johnson, Guy, 147. 
Johnson, Rev. Jacob, 9, 13, 30, 103- 

109. 
Johnson, Jehoiada P., 178, 180, 196, 
Johnson, Lydia. 196, 197. 
Tohnson, Mrs. Mary, 181, 197. 
[ohnson, Miles, 177. 
lohnson, Priest, 190. 
Tohnson, Sherborne, 177. 
Fohnson, Sgt. Jacob, 104. 
Johnson, Thomas, 103. 
Johnson, Sir William. 69, 117, 154- 

160. 
Tohnson, William. 104, 106. 
Johnson, Dr. William S., 172. 
Tohnson, YYingie, 103. 
lohnson. Wesley, 194. 
[ones, Ann, 214. 
[ones. Charles. 214. 
Tones, Tohn. 215. 
[ones. Rev. Henry L., 9. 
Fones, Jonathan, 213. 
Tordan, John W.. 14. 
joy, Gershom, 229. 

Kallam, Luther. 197. 
Knapp, Amelia, 2tb. 
Knapp, Henry. 218. 
Knapp. Tames, 213. 
Knapp, Joseph. 214. 
Knapp. Margaret M.. 217. 
Knapp, R. T. C. 219. 
Knapp, Ruth. 214- 
Knapp, William, 214, 210. 
Keller. John. ::>. 
Kellogg. Eliphalet. :;<). 
Kennedy, Laura C. 220. 
Kennedy, Mrs. W. D., 17. 
Kenner,' G. L., 218. 



INDEX. 



259 



Kenner, Helen H., 216. 
Kent, Rev. Elisha, 114. 
Kenyon, Mary A., 215. 
Kilhorn, Stephen, 218. 
Kilmer, Allie M., 216. 
Kilmer, Janes, 216. 
Kilmore, Henry, 214. 
Kingsley, Achsah, 216. 
Kinne, Aaron, 121, 124. 
Kirby, F. M., 30. 
Kirkendall, F. C, 15. 
Kirkland, Rev. Samuel, 116, 

136-146, 152, 156. 
Kirkpatrick, J. B., 216. 
Knickerbocker, Catherine, 215. 
Knight, James, 215- 
Krigbaum, Amanda R., 216. 
Kunsman, Andrew, 214. 

Lacoe, Ralph D., 30. 

Lannan, Margaret, 214. 

Laning, A. C, 30. 

Laning, John, 26, 240. 

Laning, J. W., 217. 

Larrabee, MaJ. Charles F., 234. 

Larrabee, Estelle, 234. 

La Rue, Eva J., 220. 

Law, Charles, 24U. 

Lawrence, Daniel, 226. 

Lathrop, Mary E., 217. 

Leach, Hezekiah, 226. 

Leach, James D., 220. 

Leas, Robert O., 218. 

Ledyard, Robert, 230. 

Leet, Luther, 227. 

Leighton, Andrew, 216. 

Leisenring, George D., 220. 

Leonard, Louisa E., 217. 

Lewis, B. W., 15. 

Lewis, David, 215. 

Lewis, Gwenny, 217. 

Lewis, Mary E., 220. 

Lewis, Mary, 215. 

Lewis, Phebe, 213. 

Lewis, Richard, 224. 

Lines, Rufus, 227. 

Litts, Losey, 220. 

Little, Sarah, 217. 

Lock, John, 227. 

Lord, Anne, 236. 

Long, Augustus Z., 217. 

Loop, Cornelia B., 234. 

Loop, Edward S., 234. 

Loop, Eliza I., 234. 

Loop, Estelle, 234. 

Loop, Peter P., 45. 

Luce, R. W., 216. 

Lucy, Brown, 231. 

Lucy, Howe, 231. 

Lucky, H. J., 220. 

Lyell, Sir Charles, 54. 

Lynch, Robert M., 220. 

Lynch, S. H., 26, 240. 

McAlpine, George, 212, 214. 
McClave, William, 218. 
McDaniels, Sarah, 217. 
McDaniels. Willet, 214. 
McGuire, John, 219. 
McKeever, Julia, 219. 
McNulty, Melissa, 219. 
Mace, \V. L., 217. 
Marian, Dewitt C., 218. 
Maffet, Miss M., 24. 
Magee, Moses, 217. 



Main, Eztkiel, 227. 
Mannes, William. 214. 
Mannes, Henry EL, 214. 
Mapes, Henry, 224. 
Marsh, Peter, 216. 
Marsh, Rev. William, 160, 166. 
Marshall, C. A., 218. 
Mason, Capt. John, 107. 
Mason, Otis T., 19. 
Masters, Catherine, 219. 
Mathes, Mr., 139. 
123, Maxon, Nathan, 227. 

Maxwell, Joshua A., 220. 

Maxwell, I. G., 219. 

Maxwell, Yolney L., 14. 

Merchant, Harriet, 213. 

Merrirield, Catherine, 215. 

Merrifield, Robert, 218. 

Merriman, Nathaniel, 104. 

Mills, Rev. Jedediah, 105. 

Mills, Josiah, 226. 

Mills, L. H., 216. 

Mills, Olive, 213. 

Middough, Henry C. T., 224. 

Millard, Jennie, 220. 

Miller, Charles, 219. 

Miller, Frances. 213. 

Miller, Rev. John, 212, 221. 

Miller, Mary, 215. 

Miller, Nicholas, 228. 

Miller, Norman, 216. 

Miller, Pdatiah, 214. 

Miller, Rebecca A., 218. 

Miller, Seward E., 216. 

Miller, William, 213, 214, 215. 

Mitchell, Robert, 214. 

Millins, M. J., 219. 

Milton, Julia, 217. 

Miner, Asher, 23. 

Miner, Hon. Charles, 23, 30, 175, 

176, 179, 188, 191. 
Miner, Lieut. Thomas, 238. 
Mogg, Rev. C. E., 9. 
Montgomery, T. L., 9. 
Montanye. James, 218. 
Moore, Margaret, 218. 
Moore, Polly, 216. 
Moorehead, Prof. W. K., 23, 27. 
Moon, Jerome, 214. 
Moon, Silas R.. 217. 
Moore, Freeman. 213, 216. 
Morgan, Elizabeth. 220. 
Morgan, John. 2>S. 
Morgan, Mary Ann. 215. 
Morton, Rev. Charles. 211. 
Moscrip. William, 217. 
Mott. Helen. 21-. 
Mott. Rev. W. K., 211, 212. 221. 
Muhlenberg. Rev. William A., 194. 
Munson. Almond, 226. 
Munson, C. L., 15. 
Murdock. Sarah S.. 217. 
Murray. Miss T. G.. 24. 
Murray, Miss }. B.. 24. 
Murray, Steuben B.. Jr., 24. 
Myers, decree \\\, 210. 
Myers, Lawrence. 19S. 
Myers, Philip H.. 176. 

Nelson, Rev. Dr. Reuben, 239. 
Nesbitt, Abram, 10. 30. 
Nesbitt, 236. 
Newman, Jonathan. 226. 
Newman, Samantha. 218. 
Newton, 213. 



260 



INDEX. 



Nicholls, Robert, 226. 
Nichols, Susan, 215. 
Nicherson, Jsaacher, 228. 
Noglcs, George W., 218. 

O'Brien, William, 230. 
Occom, Samson, 107, 115, 119. 
Oram, Georgia 'R., 219. 
Oram, F. W., 219. 
Oran, Addie, 219. 
Osgood, Jeremiah, 230. 
Osterhout, Silas, 216. 
Otis, Marcy, 223. 
Owens, John, 215. 
Owens. Thomas R., 220. 

Paine, Lewis C., 231, 237. 

Parker, Arthur C, 9, 27, 65. 

Parker, Rev. J. B., 211. 

Parker, Tabitha, 213. 

Parrish, Charles, 237. 

Parrish, Mrs. Mary Conyngham, 240. 

Patten, Joseph W., 220. 

Payne, E. F., 240. 

Pratt, Mary Ann, 212. 

Prayme, Henry, 228. 

Pearce, Stewart, 24, 187. 

Pease, Samuel, 170. 

Peck, J. D., 218. 

Peckins, Anna J., 219. 

Peckins, Margaret E., 218. 

Peckins, Mary M., 219. 

Peet, Thaddeus, 228. 

Penn, John, 117. 

Penn, Thomas, 117. 

Penn, William, 121. 

Perkins, David, 213. 

Perkins, Elizabeth, 222. 

Perkins. Mary, 233. 

Perry, Mary, 213. 

Peter, Good, 142. 

Peters, Ezra, 215. 

Pettebone, Mrs., 213. 

Phelps, Elijah, 177. 

Phelps, F. A., 24. 

Pierce, D. P., 218. 

Pierce. Ezekiel, 167, 168. 

Pickering, Timothy, 169, 170, 184, 

188. 
Pier. W. H.. 216. 
Phillip. King, 106. 
Phillips, Catherine, 216. 
Phillips, Hannah, 213. 
Phillips, Isaacs, 220. 
Phillips, Milton G., 213. 
Philips, Ruth, 214. 
Phillips. William. 215. 
Price, Samuel. 213. 
Priner, Joseph M., 218. 
Poor, Eri. 215. 
Porter, Clarissa A., 217. 
Prosser, William, 218. 
Potter, Joseph, 228. 
Potter, Lydia A., 219. 
Peckins, Austin, 2iq. 
Punderson, Rev. Ebenezer, 108. 
Pugh, Elizabeth, 219. 
Pulver, M. I., 214. 
Pulver, Peter, 216. 
Putnam, Prof. F. W., 88. 

Race, Viana. 214. 
Randolph, Joseph, 214. 
Rankin. G. W., 220. 
Ransford, Joseph, 226. 



Raub, Mrs. M. B., 26, 240. 

Raught, Alson L., 220. 

Reed, Lauretta A., 219. 

Reichard, Julia A., 233. 

Reichard, Col. G. X., 26, 240. 

Reid, J. Max, 71. 

Reynolds, Almond, 215. 

Reynolds, John, 228. 

Reynolds, Sheldon, 10, 30, 168, 171. 

Rice, Louisa M., 218. 

Rice, M. A., 217. 

Richardson, Caleb, 228. 

Ricketts, Mrs. Stella M. S., 26, 240. 

Ricketts, Col. R. Bruce, 17, 23. 

Ringsdorf, Eleanor, 215. 

Ringsdorf, John, 220. 

Ringsdorf, Simeon, 219. 

Ripp, Margaret, 214. 

Robinson, Emeline, 217. 

Robinson, Ethel, 232. 

Robinson, Frances A., 218. 

Robinson, James A., 232. 

Robinson, Joshua, 218. 

Roby, Mrs. Sidney B., 222. 

Roberts, Harriet, 237. 

Rockwell, Miss E. H.. 240. 

Rockwell, Jabez. 225. 

Roff, Sebold, 218. 

Rogers, John, 109. 

Rogers, Samuel, 230. 

Rolland, Mary, 218. 

Root, Russell L., 217. 

Roser, Abraham, 224. 

Ross, Aleph, 222, 223. 

Ross, Ann, 222, 223. 

Ross, Caroline A., 223. 

Ross, Diana, 223. 

Ross, Eliza I., 234. 

Ross, Eliza S., 223. 

Ross, Elizabeth, 222. 

Ross, George, 220. 

Ross, Jeremiah, 222, 223. 

Ross, Lucy, 222. 

Ross, Mary, 222, 223. 

Ross, Perrin, 222, 223. 

Ross, Sarah, 222. 

Ross, Sarah S., 223. 

Ross, Gen. William, 24. 97, 234. 

Ross, Gen. William S.. 223. 

Ross, William, 170, 222, 223. 

Roth, Charles. 178. 

Rozcll. Josephine F., 220. 

Russell, Mehettabel. 196. 

Rumerford, Maria. 213. 

Rumerticld. Henry. 216. 

Russell, William. 196. 

Russell, William, Jr., 196. 

Ryder, Caroline. 217. 

Rynearson, Isaac, 226. 

Sampson. Bristol. 225. 
Sands, George W.. 214. 
Sands. Elizabeth H.. 217. 
Saylor, Samuel, 21 ;. 
Shafer, Sarah. 216. 
Shaver, Sarah. 215. 
Spark. G. H.. 
Stark, C. T.. 218. 
Starke. Miss C. M.. 9. 
Stark. James. 176. 
Stansberry. Josifth, 176. 
Swallow, Mary F... ISO. 
Swartwood, Rarnardius. 
Swartz, Emeline. 216. 
Sears. Polly, 21s. 



INDEX. 



26l 



Seaver, Ichabod, 226. 
See, Horace, 26, 240. 
See, Mrs. Horace, 24. 
Seeley, Samuel, 224, 229. 
Shearer, David, 226. 
Sherman, Albert R., 220. 
Sherman, Amy Ann, 216. 
Sherman, Christopher, 228. 
Sherman, Ella, 220. 
Sherman, Orlando D., 216. 
Sherman, William N., 217. 
Smedley, Lemuel, 225. 
Snedicor, Philotus, 218. 
Spencer, Edward, 215. 
Spencer, Herbert, 53. 
Spencer, M. M., 216. 
Spencer, Phebe A., 216. 
Stearns, Capt. L. Denison, 30. 
Sterling, Caroline, 222. 
Sterling, Eliza, 223. 
Sterling, Elizabeth, 222. 
Sterling, Irene, 222. 
Sterling, James, 222. 
Sterling, Hannah, 223. 
Sterling, Lucy, 223. 
Sterling, Ruth, 223. 
Sterling. Samuel, 222. 
Sterling, Sarah. 22?. 
Sterling, Lord Wnliam, 223. 
Stevens, Asa, 166. 
Stevens, Charlotte, 218. 
Stevens, Diana, 216. 
Stevens, Harriet, 213. 
Stevens, Louisa M., 216. 
Stevens, Mahala, 215. 
Stevens, Mary H., 220. 
Stevens, William, 213, 226. 
Steward, Elizabeth C, 220. 
Stewart, Capt. Lazarus, 168, 189. 
Stewart, Polly, 188. 
Street, Jerusha, 217. 
Street, Mary E., 219. 
Sweetser, Joseph, 219. 
Sweetser, *T. B., 219. 
Sidbottom, 220. 
Sill, Betsey, 191. 
Silkman, Aaron, 213. 
Silkman, John, 215. 
Silvernail, Margaret, 215. 
Simonton. Rose G., 233. 
Simrell, Diana, 214. 
Simrell, Ellen, 216. 
Simrell, Horace B., 214. 
Sisson, Hannah, 216. 
Shinton, Ann. 218. 
Smith, A., 196. 
Smith, Anna, 219. 
Smith, Ann M., 218. 
Smith, Ella F... 220. 
Smith, Capt. John, 77, 78. 
Smith, John. 239. 
Smith, Tudson T., 217. 
Smith, Lydia. 107. 
Smith, Samuel S., 219. 
Smith, Susanna, 218. 
Smith, Tracy, 213. 
Stickney, Joseph, 237. 
Scott, Samuel, 22S. 
Scott. Zeriah, 22S. 
Schott, Capt. John P., 170, 171. 
Shoemaker, George, 26, 240. 
Shoemaker. Dr. L. I., 9, 240. 
Southwell, Ashwell, 228. 
Slocum, Abi N., 219. 
Slocum, Benjamin. 219. 
Slocum, Francis, 24, 25, 176. 



Slocum, Giles, 223. 
Slocum, Miss H. E., 24. 
Slocum, Henrietta, 213. 
Slocum, Sarah, 223. 
Slocum, S. M., 213. 
Slocum, Thomas, 213. 
Spore, Mary, 217. 
Stone, Delana, 218. 
Stone, G. II., 44. 
Stone, Col. W. L., 195. 
Stout, John, 219. 
Strong, Abigail, 235. 
Strong, Elder John, 235. 
Strong, Elizabeth D., 235. 
Strong, Harriet, 235. 
Strong, Mary E., 235. 
Strong, Theodore, 235. 
Strong, Hon. William, 235. 
Strong, Rev. William L., 235. 
Sullivan, Gen. John, 176. 
Scureman, Elijah R., 220. 
Shuff, Frederick, 224. 
Shumm, Henry, 215. 
Shundler, Robert, 226. 
Snyder, Egbert, 214. 
Snyder, Eli, 220. 
Snyder, Peter, 214. 
Strunk, John, 224. 
Sykes, Celia, 95. 
Sykes, James, 216. 
Sykes, Nathaniel, 95. 

Taylor, Gertrude E., 217. 
Taylor, Lydia A., 216. 
Taylor, Dr. Lewis H., 30. 
Thatcher. John, 228. 
Thatcher, Obadiah, 226. 
Thayer, Eseck, 228. 
Thayer, Nathaniel, 16S. 
Tedrick, Adam, 212. 
Tedrick, Adelia, 216. 
Tedrick, Amy, 216. 
Tedrick, Catherine. 216. 
Tedrick, Margaret, 214. 
Tennant, G. A., 216. 
Tennant, Rev. Gilbert, 106, 113. 
Tennant, Harriet N., 218. 
Tennel, Eliza, 214. 
Tiffany, Hosea, 228. 
Tiffany, John, 229. 
Tiffany. Thomas, 228. 
Tompkins, George. 217. 
Townsend, H. W\, 25, 27. 
Townend. J. E., 20. 
Tower, Nathaniel, 228. 
Tozer, Peter, 226. 
Thomas, Joseph, 226. 
Thomas, Dr., 144. 
Thomas, Percy R., 2.10. 
Thompson, Carrie, 220. 
Throop, Frances, 216. 
Tuhbs. Benjamin, 27. 
Turrell, Isaac. 2jS. 
Tuttle. Rev. Mr., 109. 
Thurston, Gen., 85. 
Tyler, L. G.. 9- 
Tyler, Moses, 226. 
Tyler, Silas, 229. 

Vail. Eliab F.. 217. 
Vail. Micah. 2x7. 
Vaughn, Samuel. 213. 
Vanaken, Benjamin, ta$. 
Vandcburg, Phebe, 213. 
Vangorder, Samuel. 125. 
Van Horn, A. H., 19. 



n 



262 



INDEX. 



238. 



Van Louvencr, George W., 216. 

Van Sickle, Solomon, 219. 

Van Winkle, EHas, 22S. 

Von Bunschoten, Rev. EHas, 189. 

von Krug, Rev. F., 8. 

Voorhis, B., 19. 

Vosburg, Eliza. 213. 

Vosburg, Israel, 219. 

Von Storch, Ludwig, 217. 

Wadhams, Calvin, 238. 
Wadhams, Cornelia F., 239. 
Wadhams, Diana, 223. 
Wadhams, Ellen, 238. 
Wadhams, Ellen H., 239. 
Wadhams, Elijah C, 238. 
Wadhams, Mrs. Esther T., 
Wadhams, John, 238. 
Wadhams, Lydia, 234, 238. 
Wadhams, Lydia F., 239. 
Wadhams, Moses W., 239. 
Wadhams, Moses, 238. 
Wadhams, Rev. Noah, 167, 168, 223, 

238. 
Wadhams, Ralph H., 239. 
Wadhams, Sam iel F., 239. 
Wadhams, Stella C, 239. 
Wade, Sylvanus, 226. 
Wagner, Daniel. 216. 
Wallace, A. R., 54. 
Wallace, Hugh, 153. 
Wallace, William, 215. 
Walter, Felix, 214. 
Ward, B. F., 216. 
Ward, Christopher F., 218. 
Ward, Henry, 217. 
Ward, Ichabod. 227. 
Ward, Mary E., 217. 
Ward, Mindwell, 215. 
Warefield, Ephraim, 228. 
Warner, Albert. 213. 
Warner, Jared C, 216. 
Warner, 234. 

Washburn, Catharine, 215. 
Waters, Mary P., 219. 
Watkins, H. C, 219. 
Watres. Col. L. A., 8. 
Whaling, A. I., 214, 215. 
Weaver, Anthony, 228. 
Weaver, Tohn, 214. 
Weaver, Dr. W. G., 19. 
Weaver, William A., 220. 
Webster, Rev. R. B.. 114. 
Webster, Rev. Richard. 114. 
Wedgwood, Miss E., 48. 
Wedgwood, H.. 46. 
Weed, Augusta, 217. 
Weisser, Conrad, 137. 
Welles, Edward, 30. 
Welles, Rev. H. II.. 221. 
Wells, Annie E., 220. 
Weitzel, Minna H., 220. 
Wells, Kate, 219. 
Welles, Rosewell, 171. 
Wells. Sarah. 214. 
Westbrook, Gideon. 225. 
Wetherby, Huldah, 220. 
Wetherby. Caroline. 214. 
Wheeler, Benjamin. 230. 
Wheelock, Rev. Dr. Eleazar, 

115, 118, 120, 151, 159, 192. 



Wheelock, Ralph, 152, 157. 

Wheeler, Norman, 215. 

Wheeler, Samuel, 213. 

Wheeler, William, 216. 

Wren, Christopher, 18, 20, 23, 27, 

70, 100. 
Williams, Arminda, 219. 
Williams, Brundage C, 217. 
Williams, Elizabeth, 219. 
Williams, Joseph, 226. 
Williams, Hannah, 220. 
Williams, Mrs. Sarah, 198, 199. 

Williams, , 215. 

Wilbur, Miss, 213. 

Wilson, Elizabeth D., 235. 

Wilson, Rosa, 220. 

Wilscy, I. A., 216. 

Wilsey, Sabina, 214. 

Willets, George W., 214. 

Winton, M. L., 214. 

Winthrop, Gov. John, 106. 

Wingard, Mrs., 214- 

Winters, Charles E., 220. 

Winter, George, 24. 

Wirts, Sarah Frances, 218. 

White, Annis, 213. 

White, Emma C, 220. 

White, Eugene, 220. 

White, Leslie H., 220. 

White. Lois L., 220. 

Whiteley, John. 226. 

Whittak'er, Albert S., 219. 

Whitaker, Dr., 116. 

Whitehead, Samuel, 224. 

Whitefield, Rev. George. 106, no. 

Whiting, Enos, 228. 

Whitbeck, Jacob, 216. 

Wright, Ellen H.. 232. 

Wright, Elmira L.. 217. 

Wright, Dr. Harrison. 30, 96, 99. 

Wright, Mrs. Harrison. ?-. 

Wright, Hon. Hendrick B., 23. 232. 

Wright, J. Ridgway, 17. 

Wright, Joseph, 23. 

Wright, Mary, 215. 

Woding, Lucretia, 215. 

Wolfe, Clark, 213. 

Wolcott. Silvius. 215. 

Wood, Mary, 213. 

Wood, Ziba. 217. 

Woodruff, Julia A., 215. 

Woodruff. Samuel, 227. 

Wolfinger, Mary, 216. 

Woodhull. Mr.. 108. 

Wollen, Jane, 106. 

Woolman, Samuel. 224. 

Woodrnansee. Gideon. 220. 

Woodward. Hon. G. W.. *35, 



Woodward. Hon. S. 



?4, 30. 



107, 



Woodward, Judge Warren J., 23. 
Wylie, Simon. 226. 



Yarrington. Mr.. 172. 
Yeomans. Samuel. 22S. 
Young, Tane, 217. 
Young, Katherine. 233. 
Young, Mary. 21S. 



Zinzendorf, Count. 84, 120. 



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